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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00370
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5606
  • HMDBP03738
Name Glycogen phosphorylase, liver form
Synonyms Not Available
Gene Name PYGL
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in phosphorylase activity
Specific Function Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties.
Pathways
  • Glycogen synthetase deficiency
  • Glycogenosis, Type III. Cori disease, Debrancher glycogenosis
  • Glycogenosis, Type IV. Amylopectinosis, Anderson disease
  • Glycogenosis, Type VI. Hers disease
  • Insulin signaling pathway
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis VI. Sly syndrome
  • Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Starch and Sucrose Metabolism
  • Sucrase-isomaltase deficiency
Reactions
(1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)(n) + Phosphoric acid → (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)(n-1) + Glucose 1-phosphate details
Starch + Phosphoric acid → Amylose + Glucose 1-phosphate details
GO Classification
Biological Process
small molecule metabolic process
5-phosphoribose 1-diphosphate biosynthetic process
glucose metabolic process
glucose homeostasis
glycogen catabolic process
carbohydrate metabolic process
Cellular Component
cytosol
cytoplasm
plasma membrane
Function
binding
catalytic activity
transferase activity
cofactor binding
pyridoxal phosphate binding
transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
phosphorylase activity
transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Molecular Function
glucose binding
ATP binding
pyridoxal phosphate binding
bile acid binding
AMP binding
protein homodimerization activity
purine nucleobase binding
drug binding
glycogen phosphorylase activity
vitamin binding
Process
metabolic process
primary metabolic process
carbohydrate metabolic process
Cellular Location Not Available
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 14
Locus 14q21-q22
SNPs PYGL
Gene Sequence
>2544 bp
ATGGGCGAACCGCTGACAGACCAGGAGAAGCGGCGGCAGATCAGCATCCGCGGCATCGTG
GGCGTGGAGAACGTGGCAGAGCTGAAGAAGAGTTTCAACCGGCACCTGCACTTCACGCTG
GTCAAGGACCGCAACGTGGCCACCACCCGCGACTACTACTTCGCGCTGGCGCACACGGTG
CGGGACCACCTGGTGGGGCGCTGGATCCGCACGCAGCAGCACTACTACGACAAGTGCCCC
AAGAGGGAATATTACCTCTCTCTGGAATTTTACATGGGCCGAACATTACAGAACACCATG
ATCAACCTCGGTCTGCAAAATGCCTGTGATGAGGCCATTTACCAGCTTGGATTGGATATA
GAAGAGTTAGAAGAAATTGAAGAAGATGCTGGACTTGGCAATGGTGGTCTTGGGAGACTT
GCTGCCTGCTTCTTGGATTCCATGGCAACCCTGGGACTTGCAGCCTATGGATACGGCATT
CGGTATGAATATGGGATTTTCAATCAGAAGATCCGAGATGGATGGCAGGTAGAAGAAGCA
GATGATTGGCTCAGATATGGAAACCCTTGGGAGAAGTCCCGCCCAGAATTCATGCTGCCT
GTGCACTTCTATGGAAAAGTAGAACACACCAACACCGGGACCAAGTGGATTGACACTCAA
GTGGTCCTGGCTCTGCCATATGACACCCCCGAGCCCGGCTACATGAATAACACTGTCAAC
ACCATGCGCCTCTGGTCTGCTCGGGCACCAAATGACTTTAACCTCAGAGACTTTAATGTT
GGAGACTACATTCAGGCTGTGCTGGACCGAAACCTGGCCGAGAACATCTCCCGGGTCCTC
TATCCCAATGACAATTTTTTTGAAGGGAAGGAGCTAAGATTGAAGCAGGAATACTTTGTG
GTGGCTGCAACCTTGCAAGATATCATCCGCCGTTTCAAAGCCTCCAAGTTTGGCTCCACC
CGTGGTCAAGGAACTGTGTTTGATGCCTTCCCGGATCAGGTGGCCATCCAGCTGAATGAT
ACTCACCCTCGCATCGCGATCCCTGAGCTGATGAGGATTTTTGTGGATATTGAAAAACTG
CCCTGGTCCAAGGCATGGGAGCTCAACCAGAAGACCTTCGCCTACACCAACCACACAGTG
CTCCCGGAAGCCCTGGAGCGCTGGCCCGTGGACCTGGTGGAGAAGCTGCTCCCTCGACAT
TTGGAAATCATTTATGAGATAAATCAGAAGCATTTAGATAGAATTGTGGCCTTGTTTCCT
AAAGATGTGGACCCTCTGAGAAGGATGTCTCTGATAGAAGAGGAAGGAAGCAAAAGGATC
AACATGGCCCATCTCTGCATTGTCGGTTCCCATGCTGTGAATGGCGTGGCTAAAATCCAC
TCAGACATCGTGAAGACTAAAGTATTCAAGGACTTCAGTGAGCTAGAACCTGACAAGTTT
CAGAATAAAACCAATGGGATCACTCCAAGGCGCTGGCTCCTACTCTGCAACCCAGGACTT
GCAGAGCTCATAGCAGAGAAAATTGGAGAAGACTATGTGAAAGACCTGAGCCAGCTGACG
AAGCTCCACAGCTTCCTGGGTGATGATGTCTTCCTCCGGGAACTCGCCAAGGTGAAGCAG
GAGAATAAGCTGAAGTTTTCTCAGTTCCTGGAGACGGAGTACAAAGTGAAGATCAACCCA
TCCTCCATGTTTGATGTCCAGGTGAAGAGGATACATGAGTACAAGCGACAGCTCTTGAAC
TGTCTGCATGTGATCACGATGTACAACCGCATTAAGAAAGACCCTAAGAAGTTATTCGTG
CCAAGGACAGTTATCATTGGTGGTAAAGCTGCCCCAGGATATCACATGGCCAAAATGATC
ATAAAGCTGATCACTTCAGTGGCAGATGTGGTGAACAATGACCCTATGGTTGGAAGCAAG
TTGAAAGTCATCTTCTTGGAGAACTACAGAGTATCTCTTGCTGAAAAAGTCATTCCAGCC
ACAGATCTGTCAGAGCAGATTTCCACTGCAGGCACCGAAGCCTCGGGGACAGGCAATATG
AAGTTCATGCTAAATGGGGCCCTAACTATCGGGACCATGGATGGGGCCAATGTGGAAATG
GCAGAAGAAGCTGGGGAAGAGAACCTGTTCATCTTTGGCATGAGCATAGATGATGTGGCT
GCTTTGGACAAGAAAGGGTACGAGGCAAAAGAATACTATGAGGCACTTCCAGAGCTGAAG
CTGGTCATTGATCAAATTGACAATGGCTTTTTTTCTCCCAAGCAGCCTGACCTCTTCAAA
GATATCATCAACATGCTATTTTATCATGACAGGTTTAAAGTCTTTGCAGACTACGAAGCC
TATGTCAAGTGTCAAGATAAAGTGAGTCAGCTGTACATGAATCCAAAGGCCTGGAACACA
ATGGTACTCAAAAACATAGCTGCCTCGGGGAAATTCTCCAGTGACCGAACAATTAAAGAA
TATGCCCAAAACATCTGGAACGTGGAACCTTCAGATCTAAAGATTTCTCTATCCAATGAA
TCTAACAAAGTCAATGGAAATTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 847
Molecular Weight 93133.25
Theoretical pI 7.303
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Glycogen phosphorylase, liver form
MAKPLTDQEKRRQISIRGIVGVENVAELKKSFNRHLHFTLVKDRNVATTRDYYFALAHTV
RDHLVGRWIRTQQHYYDKCPKRVYYLSLEFYMGRTLQNTMINLGLQNACDEAIYQLGLDI
EELEEIEEDAGLGNGGLGRLAACFLDSMATLGLAAYGYGIRYEYGIFNQKIRDGWQVEEA
DDWLRYGNPWEKSRPEFMLPVHFYGKVEHTNTGTKWIDTQVVLALPYDTPVPGYMNNTVN
TMRLWSARAPNDFNLRDFNVGDYIQAVLDRNLAENISRVLYPNDNFFEGKELRLKQEYFV
VAATLQDIIRRFKASKFGSTRGAGTVFDAFPDQVAIQLNDTHPALAIPELMRIFVDIEKL
PWSKAWELTQKTFAYTNHTVLPEALERWPVDLVEKLLPRHLEIIYEINQKHLDRIVALFP
KDVDRLRRMSLIEEEGSKRINMAHLCIVGSHAVNGVAKIHSDIVKTKVFKDFSELEPDKF
QNKTNGITPRRWLLLCNPGLAELIAEKIGEDYVKDLSQLTKLHSFLGDDVFLRELAKVKQ
ENKLKFSQFLETEYKVKINPSSMFDVQVKRIHEYKRQLLNCLHVITMYNRIKKDPKKLFV
PRTVIIGGKAAPGYHMAKMIIKLITSVADVVNNDPMVGSKLKVIFLENYRVSLAEKVIPA
TDLSEQISTAGTEASGTGNMKFMLNGALTIGTMDGANVEMAEEAGEENLFIFGMRIDDVA
ALDKKGYEAKEYYEALPELKLVIDQIDNGFFSPKQPDLFKDIINMLFYHDRFKVFADYEA
YVKCQDKVSQLYMNPKAWNTMVLKNIAASGKFSSDRTIKEYAQNIWNVEPSDLKISLSNE
SNKVNGN
GenBank ID Protein 183353
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P06737
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name PYGL_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID M14636
GeneCard ID PYGL
GenAtlas ID PYGL
HGNC ID HGNC:9725
References
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M: Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks. Cell. 2006 Nov 3;127(3):635-48. [PubMed:17081983 ]
  3. Gauci S, Helbig AO, Slijper M, Krijgsveld J, Heck AJ, Mohammed S: Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach. Anal Chem. 2009 Jun 1;81(11):4493-501. doi: 10.1021/ac9004309. [PubMed:19413330 ]
  4. Rikova K, Guo A, Zeng Q, Possemato A, Yu J, Haack H, Nardone J, Lee K, Reeves C, Li Y, Hu Y, Tan Z, Stokes M, Sullivan L, Mitchell J, Wetzel R, Macneill J, Ren JM, Yuan J, Bakalarski CE, Villen J, Kornhauser JM, Smith B, Li D, Zhou X, Gygi SP, Gu TL, Polakiewicz RD, Rush J, Comb MJ: Global survey of phosphotyrosine signaling identifies oncogenic kinases in lung cancer. Cell. 2007 Dec 14;131(6):1190-203. [PubMed:18083107 ]
  5. Heilig R, Eckenberg R, Petit JL, Fonknechten N, Da Silva C, Cattolico L, Levy M, Barbe V, de Berardinis V, Ureta-Vidal A, Pelletier E, Vico V, Anthouard V, Rowen L, Madan A, Qin S, Sun H, Du H, Pepin K, Artiguenave F, Robert C, Cruaud C, Bruls T, Jaillon O, Friedlander L, Samson G, Brottier P, Cure S, Segurens B, Aniere F, Samain S, Crespeau H, Abbasi N, Aiach N, Boscus D, Dickhoff R, Dors M, Dubois I, Friedman C, Gouyvenoux M, James R, Madan A, Mairey-Estrada B, Mangenot S, Martins N, Menard M, Oztas S, Ratcliffe A, Shaffer T, Trask B, Vacherie B, Bellemere C, Belser C, Besnard-Gonnet M, Bartol-Mavel D, Boutard M, Briez-Silla S, Combette S, Dufosse-Laurent V, Ferron C, Lechaplais C, Louesse C, Muselet D, Magdelenat G, Pateau E, Petit E, Sirvain-Trukniewicz P, Trybou A, Vega-Czarny N, Bataille E, Bluet E, Bordelais I, Dubois M, Dumont C, Guerin T, Haffray S, Hammadi R, Muanga J, Pellouin V, Robert D, Wunderle E, Gauguet G, Roy A, Sainte-Marthe L, Verdier J, Verdier-Discala C, Hillier L, Fulton L, McPherson J, Matsuda F, Wilson R, Scarpelli C, Gyapay G, Wincker P, Saurin W, Quetier F, Waterston R, Hood L, Weissenbach J: The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 14. Nature. 2003 Feb 6;421(6923):601-7. Epub 2003 Jan 1. [PubMed:12508121 ]
  6. Newgard CB, Nakano K, Hwang PK, Fletterick RJ: Sequence analysis of the cDNA encoding human liver glycogen phosphorylase reveals tissue-specific codon usage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Nov;83(21):8132-6. [PubMed:2877458 ]
  7. Chang S, Rosenberg MJ, Morton H, Francomano CA, Biesecker LG: Identification of a mutation in liver glycogen phosphorylase in glycogen storage disease type VI. Hum Mol Genet. 1998 May;7(5):865-70. [PubMed:9536091 ]
  8. Burwinkel B, Bakker HD, Herschkovitz E, Moses SW, Shin YS, Kilimann MW: Mutations in the liver glycogen phosphorylase gene (PYGL) underlying glycogenosis type VI. Am J Hum Genet. 1998 Apr;62(4):785-91. [PubMed:9529348 ]
  9. Gorin FA, Mullinax RL, Ignacio PC, Neve RL, Kurnit DM: McArdle's & Hers' diseases: glycogen phosphorylase transcriptional expression in human tissues. J Neurogenet. 1987 Dec;4(6):293-308. [PubMed:3509980 ]
  10. Rath VL, Ammirati M, Danley DE, Ekstrom JL, Gibbs EM, Hynes TR, Mathiowetz AM, McPherson RK, Olson TV, Treadway JL, Hoover DJ: Human liver glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors bind at a new allosteric site. Chem Biol. 2000 Sep;7(9):677-82. [PubMed:10980448 ]
  11. Rath VL, Ammirati M, LeMotte PK, Fennell KF, Mansour MN, Danley DE, Hynes TR, Schulte GK, Wasilko DJ, Pandit J: Activation of human liver glycogen phosphorylase by alteration of the secondary structure and packing of the catalytic core. Mol Cell. 2000 Jul;6(1):139-48. [PubMed:10949035 ]
  12. Ekstrom JL, Pauly TA, Carty MD, Soeller WC, Culp J, Danley DE, Hoover DJ, Treadway JL, Gibbs EM, Fletterick RJ, Day YS, Myszka DG, Rath VL: Structure-activity analysis of the purine binding site of human liver glycogen phosphorylase. Chem Biol. 2002 Aug;9(8):915-24. [PubMed:12204691 ]