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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP01719
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 7061
Name Ganglioside GM2 activator
Synonyms
  1. Cerebroside sulfate activator protein
  2. GM2-AP
  3. Ganglioside GM2 activator isoform short
  4. SAP-3
  5. Shingolipid activator protein 3
Gene Name GM2A
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in sphingolipid activator protein activity
Specific Function Binds gangliosides and stimulates ganglioside GM2 degradation. It stimulates only the breakdown of ganglioside GM2 and glycolipid GA2 by beta-hexosaminidase A. It extracts single GM2 molecules from membranes and presents them in soluble form to beta-hexosaminidase A for cleavage of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and conversion to GM3
Pathways Not Available
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification Not Available
Cellular Location
  1. Lysosome
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:5
Locus 5q33.1
SNPs GM2A
Gene Sequence
>582 bp
ATGCAGTCCCTGATGCAGGCTCCCCTCCTGATCGCCCTGGGCTTGCTTCTCGCGACCCCT
GCGCAAGCCCACCTGAAAAAGCCATCCCAGCTCAGTAGCTTTTCCTGGGATAACTGTGAT
GAAGGGAAGGACCCTGCGGTGATCAGAAGCCTGACTCTGGAGCCTGACCCCATCGTCGTT
CCTGGAAATGTGACCCTCAGTGTCGTGGGCAGCACCAGTGTCCCCCTGAGTTCTCCTCTG
AAGGTGGATTTAGTTTTGGAGAAGGAGGTGGCTGGCCTCTGGATCAAGATCCCATGCACA
GACTACATTGGCAGCTGTACCTTTGAACACTTCTGTGATGTGCTTGACATGTTAATTCCT
ACTGGGGAGCCCTGCCCAGAGCCCCTGCGTACCTATGGGCTTCCTTGCCACTGTCCCTTC
AAAGAAGGAACCTACTCACTGCCCAAGAGCGAATTCGTTGTGCCTGACCTGGAGCTGCCC
AGTTGGCTCACCACCGGGAACTACCGCATAGAGAGCGTCCTGAGCAGCAGTGGGAAGCGT
CTGGGCTGCATCAAGATCGCTGCCTCTCTAAAGGGCATATAG
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 193
Molecular Weight 20838.1
Theoretical pI 4.96
Pfam Domain Function Not Available
Signals
  • 1-23
Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Protein Sequence
>Ganglioside GM2 activator
MQSLMQAPLLIALGLLLAAPAQAHLKKPSQLSSFSWDNCDEGKDPAVIRSLTLEPDPIIV
PGNVTLSVMGSTSVPLSSPLKVDLVLEKEVAGLWIKIPCTDYIGSCTFEHFCDVLDMLIP
TGEPCPEPLRTYGLPCHCPFKEGTYSLPKSEFVVPDLELPSWLTTGNYRIESVLSSSGKR
LGCIKIAASLKGI
GenBank ID Protein 4587479
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P17900
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name SAP3_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID AF124719
GeneCard ID GM2A
GenAtlas ID GM2A
HGNC ID HGNC:4367
References
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Furst W, Schubert J, Machleidt W, Meyer HE, Sandhoff K: The complete amino-acid sequences of human ganglioside GM2 activator protein and cerebroside sulfate activator protein. Eur J Biochem. 1990 Sep 24;192(3):709-14. [PubMed:2209618 ]
  3. Xie B, McInnes B, Neote K, Lamhonwah AM, Mahuran D: Isolation and expression of a full-length cDNA encoding the human GM2 activator protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991 Jun 28;177(3):1217-23. [PubMed:2059210 ]
  4. Klima H, Tanaka A, Schnabel D, Nakano T, Schroder M, Suzuki K, Sandhoff K: Characterization of full-length cDNAs and the gene coding for the human GM2 activator protein. FEBS Lett. 1991 Sep 9;289(2):260-4. [PubMed:1915857 ]
  5. Nagarajan S, Chen HC, Li SC, Li YT, Lockyer JM: Evidence for two cDNA clones encoding human GM2-activator protein. Biochem J. 1992 Mar 15;282 ( Pt 3):807-13. [PubMed:1554364 ]
  6. Xie B, Kennedy JL, McInnes B, Auger D, Mahuran D: Identification of a processed pseudogene related to the functional gene encoding the GM2 activator protein: localization of the pseudogene to human chromosome 3 and the functional gene to human chromosome 5. Genomics. 1992 Nov;14(3):796-8. [PubMed:1427911 ]
  7. Chen B, Rigat B, Curry C, Mahuran DJ: Structure of the GM2A gene: identification of an exon 2 nonsense mutation and a naturally occurring transcript with an in-frame deletion of exon 2. Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Jul;65(1):77-87. [PubMed:10364519 ]
  8. Schroder M, Klima H, Nakano T, Kwon H, Quintern LE, Gartner S, Suzuki K, Sandhoff K: Isolation of a cDNA encoding the human GM2 activator protein. FEBS Lett. 1989 Jul 17;251(1-2):197-200. [PubMed:2753159 ]
  9. Wright CS, Li SC, Rastinejad F: Crystal structure of human GM2-activator protein with a novel beta-cup topology. J Mol Biol. 2000 Dec 1;304(3):411-22. [PubMed:11090283 ]
  10. Schroder M, Schnabel D, Suzuki K, Sandhoff K: A mutation in the gene of a glycolipid-binding protein (GM2 activator) that causes GM2-gangliosidosis variant AB. FEBS Lett. 1991 Sep 23;290(1-2):1-3. [PubMed:1915858 ]
  11. Schroder M, Schnabel D, Hurwitz R, Young E, Suzuki K, Sandhoff K: Molecular genetics of GM2-gangliosidosis AB variant: a novel mutation and expression in BHK cells. Hum Genet. 1993 Nov;92(5):437-40. [PubMed:8244332 ]
  12. Schepers U, Glombitza G, Lemm T, Hoffmann A, Chabas A, Ozand P, Sandhoff K: Molecular analysis of a GM2-activator deficiency in two patients with GM2-gangliosidosis AB variant. Am J Hum Genet. 1996 Nov;59(5):1048-56. [PubMed:8900233 ]