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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP01831
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 7194
Name Transthyretin
Synonyms
  1. ATTR
  2. Prealbumin
  3. TBPA
Gene Name TTR
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in hormone activity
Specific Function Thyroid hormone-binding protein. Probably transports thyroxine from the bloodstream to the brain
Pathways Not Available
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification Not Available
Cellular Location
  1. Cytoplasm
  2. Secreted
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Locus 18q12.1
SNPs TTR
Gene Sequence
>444 bp
ATGGCTTCTCATCGTCTGCTCCTCCTCTGCCTTGCTGGACTGGTATTTGTGTCTGAGGCT
GGCCCTACGGGCACCGGTGAATCCAAGTGTCCTCTGATGGTCAAAGTTCTAGATGCTGTC
CGAGGCAGTCCTGCCATCAATGTGGCCGTGCATGTGTTCAGAAAGGCTGCTGATGACACC
TGGGAGCCATTTGCCTCTGGGAAAACCAGTGAGTCTGGAGAGCTGCATGGGCTCACAACT
GAGGAGGAATTTGTAGAAGGGATATACAAAGTGGAAATAGACACCAAATCTTACTGGAAG
GCACTTGGCATCTCCCCATTCCATGAGCATGCAGAGGTGGTATTCACAGCCAACGACTCC
GGCCCCCGCCGCTACACCATTGCCGCCCTGCTGAGCCCCTACTCCTATTCCACCACGGCT
GTCGTCACCAATCCCAAGGAATGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 147
Molecular Weight 15886.9
Theoretical pI 5.58
Pfam Domain Function
Signals
  • 1-20
Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Protein Sequence
>Transthyretin
MASHRLLLLCLAGLVFVSEAGPTGTGESKCPLMVKVLDAVRGSPAINVAVHVFRKAADDT
WEPFASGKTSESGELHGLTTEEEFVEGIYKVEIDTKSYWKALGISPFHEHAEVVFTANDS
GPRRYTIAALLSPYSYSTTAVVTNPKE
GenBank ID Protein 189582
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P02766
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name TTHY_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID K02091
GeneCard ID TTR
GenAtlas ID TTR
HGNC ID HGNC:12405
References
General References
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  3. Gevaert K, Goethals M, Martens L, Van Damme J, Staes A, Thomas GR, Vandekerckhove J: Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides. Nat Biotechnol. 2003 May;21(5):566-9. Epub 2003 Mar 31. [PubMed:12665801 ]
  4. Liu T, Qian WJ, Gritsenko MA, Camp DG 2nd, Monroe ME, Moore RJ, Smith RD: Human plasma N-glycoproteome analysis by immunoaffinity subtraction, hydrazide chemistry, and mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2005 Nov-Dec;4(6):2070-80. [PubMed:16335952 ]
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  8. Sasaki H, Yoshioka N, Takagi Y, Sakaki Y: Structure of the chromosomal gene for human serum prealbumin. Gene. 1985;37(1-3):191-7. [PubMed:4054629 ]
  9. Tsuzuki T, Mita S, Maeda S, Araki S, Shimada K: Structure of the human prealbumin gene. J Biol Chem. 1985 Oct 5;260(22):12224-7. [PubMed:2995367 ]
  10. Mita S, Maeda S, Shimada K, Araki S: Analyses of prealbumin mRNAs in individuals with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. J Biochem. 1986 Nov;100(5):1215-22. [PubMed:3818577 ]
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  12. Christmanson L, Betsholtz C, Gustavsson A, Johansson B, Sletten K, Westermark P: The transthyretin cDNA sequence is normal in transthyretin-derived senile systemic amyloidosis. FEBS Lett. 1991 Apr 9;281(1-2):177-80. [PubMed:2015890 ]
  13. Gu JR, Jiang HQ, He LP, Li DZ, Zhou XM, Dai WL, Qian LF, Chen YQ, Schweinfest C, Papas T: Transthyretin (prealbumin) gene in human primary hepatic cancer. Sci China B. 1991 Nov;34(11):1312-8. [PubMed:1666289 ]
  14. Getz RK, Kennedy BG, Mangini NJ: Transthyretin localization in cultured and native human retinal pigment epithelium. Exp Eye Res. 1999 May;68(5):629-36. [PubMed:10328977 ]
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  17. Tawara S, Nakazato M, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Araki S: Identification of amyloid prealbumin variant in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (Japanese type). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1983 Nov 15;116(3):880-8. [PubMed:6651852 ]
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  19. Cornwell GG 3rd, Sletten K, Johansson B, Westermark P: Evidence that the amyloid fibril protein in senile systemic amyloidosis is derived from normal prealbumin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Jul 29;154(2):648-53. [PubMed:3135807 ]
  20. Kametani F, Ikeda S, Yanagisawa N, Ishi T, Hanyu N: Characterization of a transthyretin-related amyloid fibril protein from cerebral amyloid angiopathy in type I familial amyloid polyneuropathy. J Neurol Sci. 1992 Apr;108(2):178-83. [PubMed:1517749 ]
  21. Harding J, Skare J, Skinner M: A second transthyretin mutation at position 33 (Leu/Phe) associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991 Oct 21;1097(3):183-6. [PubMed:1932142 ]
  22. Skare J, Jones LA, Myles N, Kane K, Milunsky A, Cohen A, Skinner M: Two transthyretin mutations (glu42gly, his90asn) in an Italian family with amyloidosis. Clin Genet. 1994 Jun;45(6):281-4. [PubMed:7923855 ]
  23. Soprano DR, Herbert J, Soprano KJ, Schon EA, Goodman DS: Demonstration of transthyretin mRNA in the brain and other extrahepatic tissues in the rat. J Biol Chem. 1985 Sep 25;260(21):11793-8. [PubMed:4044580 ]
  24. Moses AC, Rosen HN, Moller DE, Tsuzaki S, Haddow JE, Lawlor J, Liepnieks JJ, Nichols WC, Benson MD: A point mutation in transthyretin increases affinity for thyroxine and produces euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia. J Clin Invest. 1990 Dec;86(6):2025-33. [PubMed:1979335 ]
  25. Gustavsson A, Jahr H, Tobiassen R, Jacobson DR, Sletten K, Westermark P: Amyloid fibril composition and transthyretin gene structure in senile systemic amyloidosis. Lab Invest. 1995 Nov;73(5):703-8. [PubMed:7474944 ]
  26. Blake CC, Oatley SJ: Protein-DNA and protein-hormone interactions in prealbumin: a model of the thyroid hormone nuclear receptor? Nature. 1977 Jul 14;268(5616):115-20. [PubMed:201845 ]
  27. Herbert J, Wilcox JN, Pham KT, Fremeau RT Jr, Zeviani M, Dwork A, Soprano DR, Makover A, Goodman DS, Zimmerman EA, et al.: Transthyretin: a choroid plexus-specific transport protein in human brain. The 1986 S. Weir Mitchell award. Neurology. 1986 Jul;36(7):900-11. [PubMed:3714052 ]
  28. Ruggeberg S, Horn P, Li X, Vajkoczy P, Franz T: Detection of a gamma-carboxy-glutamate as novel post-translational modification of human transthyretin. Protein Pept Lett. 2008;15(1):43-6. [PubMed:18221012 ]
  29. Blake CC, Geisow MJ, Swan ID, Rerat C, Rerat B: Strjcture of human plasma prealbumin at 2-5 A resolution. A preliminary report on the polypeptide chain conformation, quaternary structure and thyroxine binding. J Mol Biol. 1974 Sep 5;88(1):1-12. [PubMed:4216640 ]
  30. Blake CC, Geisow MJ, Oatley SJ, Rerat B, Rerat C: Structure of prealbumin: secondary, tertiary and quaternary interactions determined by Fourier refinement at 1.8 A. J Mol Biol. 1978 May 25;121(3):339-56. [PubMed:671542 ]
  31. Terry CJ, Damas AM, Oliveira P, Saraiva MJ, Alves IL, Costa PP, Matias PM, Sakaki Y, Blake CC: Structure of Met30 variant of transthyretin and its amyloidogenic implications. EMBO J. 1993 Feb;12(2):735-41. [PubMed:8382610 ]
  32. Hamilton JA, Steinrauf LK, Braden BC, Liepnieks J, Benson MD, Holmgren G, Sandgren O, Steen L: The x-ray crystal structure refinements of normal human transthyretin and the amyloidogenic Val-30-->Met variant to 1.7-A resolution. J Biol Chem. 1993 Feb 5;268(4):2416-24. [PubMed:8428915 ]
  33. Monaco HL, Rizzi M, Coda A: Structure of a complex of two plasma proteins: transthyretin and retinol-binding protein. Science. 1995 May 19;268(5213):1039-41. [PubMed:7754382 ]
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  36. Peterson SA, Klabunde T, Lashuel HA, Purkey H, Sacchettini JC, Kelly JW: Inhibiting transthyretin conformational changes that lead to amyloid fibril formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Oct 27;95(22):12956-60. [PubMed:9789022 ]
  37. Naylor HM, Newcomer ME: The structure of human retinol-binding protein (RBP) with its carrier protein transthyretin reveals an interaction with the carboxy terminus of RBP. Biochemistry. 1999 Mar 2;38(9):2647-53. [PubMed:10052934 ]
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  42. Eneqvist T, Olofsson A, Ando Y, Miyakawa T, Katsuragi S, Jass J, Lundgren E, Sauer-Eriksson AE: Disulfide-bond formation in the transthyretin mutant Y114C prevents amyloid fibril formation in vivo and in vitro. Biochemistry. 2002 Nov 5;41(44):13143-51. [PubMed:12403615 ]
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