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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 05:43:51 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000033
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00033
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCarnosine
DescriptionCarnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is found exclusively in animal tissues. It is a dipeptide of the amino acids beta-alanine and histidine. Carnosine has the potential to suppress many of the biochemical changes that accompany ageing (e.g. protein oxidation, glycation, AGE formation, and cross-linking) and associated pathologies (PMID: 16804013 ). It is highly concentrated in muscle and brain tissues. Some autistic patients take it as a dietary supplement and attribute an improvement in their condition to it. Supplemental carnosine may increase corticosterone levels. This may explain the "hyperactivity" seen in autistic subjects at higher doses. Carnosine also exhibits some antioxidant effects. The antioxidant mechanism of carnosine is attributed to its chelating effect against metal ions, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, and ROS and free radicals scavenging ability (PMID: 16406688 ). Carnosine is a biomarker for the consumption of meat. Carnosine is found to be associated with carnosinuria, which is an inborn error of metabolism.
Structure
Data?1563860631
Synonyms
ValueSource
Nalpha-(beta-alanyl)-L-histidineChEBI
Nalpha-(b-alanyl)-L-histidineGenerator
Nalpha-(β-alanyl)-L-histidineGenerator
b-Alanyl-L-histidineHMDB
b-AlanylhistidineHMDB
beta-Alanyl-L-histidineHMDB
beta-AlanylhistidineHMDB
IgnotineHMDB
KarnozinHMDB
KarnozznHMDB
L-CarnosineHMDB
N-(3-Aminopropanoyl)histidineHMDB
N-(b-Alanyl)-L-histidineHMDB
N-b-Alanyl-L-histidineHMDB
N-beta-Alanyl-L-histidineHMDB
SevitinHMDB
Carnosine, (D-his)-isomerHMDB
Hydrochloride, carnosineHMDB
L CarnosineHMDB
Carnosine hydrochlorideHMDB
beta AlanylhistidineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC9H14N4O3
Average Molecular Weight226.2325
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight226.106590334
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-(3-aminopropanamido)-3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)propanoic acid
Traditional Nameβ-alanyl-L-histidine
CAS Registry Number305-84-0
SMILES
NCCC(=O)N[C@@H](CC1=CN=CN1)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H14N4O3/c10-2-1-8(14)13-7(9(15)16)3-6-4-11-5-12-6/h4-5,7H,1-3,10H2,(H,11,12)(H,13,14)(H,15,16)/t7-/m0/s1
InChI KeyCQOVPNPJLQNMDC-ZETCQYMHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hybrid peptides. Hybrid peptides are compounds containing at least two different types of amino acids (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) linked to each other through a peptide bond.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassPeptidomimetics
Sub ClassHybrid peptides
Direct ParentHybrid peptides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hybrid peptide
  • Histidine or derivatives
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • N-acyl-l-alpha-amino acid
  • Beta amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Imidazolyl carboxylic acid derivative
  • Azole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Imidazole
  • Amino acid
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Primary amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point253 - 256 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility384 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility11.1 g/LALOGPS
logP-3ALOGPS
logP-4.5ChemAxon
logS-1.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.37ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.13ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area121.1 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity55.56 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability22.37 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001i-9200000000-e1b627f2d6087f1a4f3eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00e9-9110000000-a23fcd512ed705116d19JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a6r-0590000000-3facdeb7a9f1b833cadfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-1900000000-a39c1a1f1db8549d69feJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03e9-9500000000-0a9e5951251391cb0caaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03fr-0930000000-037f91ca363dacbc0112JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-d75632020730d38db12aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-eae5a77f232972048ea2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-08fr-0390000000-61159b9b20f5afda0d0cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03fs-0930000000-2164b41d8882cd740337JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4j-0900000000-d36823b00135c9d452c9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-2d556024df911bfcf1f0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-0390000000-7a7d8e991b46e87abc36JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0490200000-e7a68540cb7eb6b88020JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-0ea0b380dcef3109e0dcJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-d329921f45fac5494381JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-bf47d3f6eac10e087754JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0392411100-6efd739ab2e55ac98d81JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-22bfeae9981523b0cbc3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-35810c1e1756541bd16aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0190000000-a4df7b97ef1090978371JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-8eb3d9ac409912a61228JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0w4i-0930000000-4568b16b1f6ed9a27f0aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-03di-1900000000-7771effc7ceb4499f395JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-03di-6900000000-2a23069b75992b4bfcacJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-01q9-9200000000-702c77c424d21cbeb2c0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-0190000000-441d34f3fa359acb868eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Brain
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Neuron
  • Skeletal Muscle
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00-0.10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified6.54 +/- 1.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified3.1 +/- 7.5 uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.115 +/- 0.290 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.469 +/- 0.434 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified18.3608 +/- 20.3166 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.84 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.5 (1.4-12.6) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified19.97 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.0133 +/- 2.607 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.2 +/- 4.36 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.5 +/- 2.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.0 +/- 2.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.380 +/- 2.113 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.240 +/- 4.413 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.547 +/- 2.760 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.193 +/- 3.233 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.580 +/- 3.867 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified34.427 +/- 47.016 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.2 (0.2-4.1) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.1+/-0.5 umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified3.28 +/- 0.91 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)BothCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)BothUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUnclassified IBD details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.2122 +/- 5.342 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.7276 +/- 9.2518 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.0 (0.0-2.2) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCarnosinuria
    • MetaGene: Metabol...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified84.8 (56.5-113.0) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothCarnosinuria
    • MetaGene: Metabol...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified18.8 +/- 10.31 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.117 +/- 13.178 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified56.56-113.1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedCarnosinuria details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Fonteh AN, Harrington RJ, Tsai A, Liao P, Harrington MG: Free amino acid and dipeptide changes in the body fluids from Alzheimer's disease subjects. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):213-24. Epub 2006 Oct 10. [PubMed:17031479 ]
Crohn's disease
  1. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Carnosinuria
  1. Furst P: Amino acid metabolism in uremia. J Am Coll Nutr. 1989 Aug;8(4):310-23. [PubMed:2674258 ]
  2. G.Frauendienst-Egger, Friedrich K. Trefz (2017). MetaGene: Metabolic & Genetic Information Center (MIC: http://www.metagene.de). METAGENE consortium.
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB11695
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB005612
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID388363
KEGG Compound IDC00386
BioCyc IDCARNOSINE
BiGG ID1800369
Wikipedia LinkCarnosine
METLIN ID38
PubChem Compound439224
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15727
References
Synthesis Reference Vezenkov, L.; Yanachkov, O. Synthesis of carnosine by trimethylsilyl protection. Dokladi na Bulgarskata Akademiya na Naukite (1991), 44(8), 53-6
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Park YJ, Volpe SL, Decker EA: Quantitation of carnosine in humans plasma after dietary consumption of beef. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jun 15;53(12):4736-9. [PubMed:15941308 ]
  2. Guiotto A, Calderan A, Ruzza P, Borin G: Carnosine and carnosine-related antioxidants: a review. Curr Med Chem. 2005;12(20):2293-315. [PubMed:16181134 ]
  3. Hipkiss AR, Preston JE, Himsworth DT, Worthington VC, Keown M, Michaelis J, Lawrence J, Mateen A, Allende L, Eagles PA, Abbott NJ: Pluripotent protective effects of carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998 Nov 20;854:37-53. [PubMed:9928418 ]
  4. Guiotto A, Calderan A, Ruzza P, Osler A, Rubini C, Jo DG, Mattson MP, Borin G: Synthesis and evaluation of neuroprotective alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde scavenger histidyl-containing analogues of carnosine. J Med Chem. 2005 Sep 22;48(19):6156-61. [PubMed:16162015 ]
  5. Hipkiss AR, Brownson C: Carnosine reacts with protein carbonyl groups: another possible role for the anti-ageing peptide? Biogerontology. 2000;1(3):217-23. [PubMed:11707898 ]
  6. Furst P: Amino acid metabolism in uremia. J Am Coll Nutr. 1989 Aug;8(4):310-23. [PubMed:2674258 ]
  7. Lee YT, Hsu CC, Lin MH, Liu KS, Yin MC: Histidine and carnosine delay diabetic deterioration in mice and protect human low density lipoprotein against oxidation and glycation. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005 Apr 18;513(1-2):145-50. Epub 2005 Apr 2. [PubMed:15878720 ]
  8. Hipkiss AR, Brownson C, Bertani MF, Ruiz E, Ferro A: Reaction of carnosine with aged proteins: another protective process? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Apr;959:285-94. [PubMed:11976203 ]
  9. Mannion AF, Jakeman PM, Dunnett M, Harris RC, Willan PL: Carnosine and anserine concentrations in the quadriceps femoris muscle of healthy humans. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1992;64(1):47-50. [PubMed:1735411 ]
  10. Hipkiss AR, Brownson C, Carrier MJ: Carnosine, the anti-ageing, anti-oxidant dipeptide, may react with protein carbonyl groups. Mech Ageing Dev. 2001 Sep 15;122(13):1431-45. [PubMed:11470131 ]
  11. Suzuki Y, Ito O, Mukai N, Takahashi H, Takamatsu K: High level of skeletal muscle carnosine contributes to the latter half of exercise performance during 30-s maximal cycle ergometer sprinting. Jpn J Physiol. 2002 Apr;52(2):199-205. [PubMed:12139778 ]
  12. Kang JH, Kim KS, Choi SY, Kwon HY, Won MH, Kang TC: Protection by carnosine-related dipeptides against hydrogen peroxide-mediated ceruloplasmin modification. Mol Cells. 2002 Feb 28;13(1):107-12. [PubMed:11911459 ]
  13. Willi SM, Zhang Y, Hill JB, Phelan MC, Michaelis RC, Holden KR: A deletion in the long arm of chromosome 18 in a child with serum carnosinase deficiency. Pediatr Res. 1997 Feb;41(2):210-3. [PubMed:9029640 ]
  14. Tallon MJ, Harris RC, Boobis LH, Fallowfield JL, Wise JA: The carnosine content of vastus lateralis is elevated in resistance-trained bodybuilders. J Strength Cond Res. 2005 Nov;19(4):725-9. [PubMed:16287364 ]
  15. Mozdzan M, Szemraj J, Rysz J, Nowak D: Antioxidant properties of carnosine re-evaluated with oxidizing systems involving iron and copper ions. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005 May;96(5):352-60. [PubMed:15853927 ]
  16. Jackson MC, Lenney JF: The distribution of carnosine and related dipeptides in rat and human tissues. Inflamm Res. 1996 Mar;45(3):132-5. [PubMed:8689392 ]
  17. Hipkiss AR: Would carnosine or a carnivorous diet help suppress aging and associated pathologies? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 May;1067:369-74. [PubMed:16804013 ]
  18. Guney Y, Turkcu UO, Hicsonmez A, Andrieu MN, Guney HZ, Bilgihan A, Kurtman C: Carnosine may reduce lung injury caused by radiation therapy. Med Hypotheses. 2006;66(5):957-9. Epub 2006 Jan 10. [PubMed:16406688 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Part of the host defense system of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It is responsible for microbicidal activity against a wide range of organisms. In the stimulated PMN, MPO catalyzes the production of hypohalous acids, primarily hypochlorous acid in physiologic situations, and other toxic intermediates that greatly enhance PMN microbicidal activity.
Gene Name:
MPO
Uniprot ID:
P05164
Molecular weight:
83867.71
References
  1. Boldyrev A, Abe H, Stvolinsky S, Tyulina O: Effects of carnosine and related compounds on generation of free oxygen species: a comparative study. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1995 Nov;112(3):481-5. [PubMed:8529024 ]
General function:
Involved in metallopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Preferential hydrolysis of the beta-Ala-|-His dipeptide (carnosine), and also anserine, Xaa-|-His dipeptides and other dipeptides including homocarnosine
Gene Name:
CNDP1
Uniprot ID:
Q96KN2
Molecular weight:
56691.6
General function:
Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of histamine from histidine.
Gene Name:
HDC
Uniprot ID:
P19113
Molecular weight:
74139.825
References
  1. Nagai K, Suda T, Kawasaki K, Mathuura S: Action of carnosine and beta-alanine on wound healing. Surgery. 1986 Nov;100(5):815-21. [PubMed:3095942 ]
General function:
Involved in structural molecule activity
Specific function:
Vimentins are class-III intermediate filaments found in various non-epithelial cells, especially mesenchymal cells
Gene Name:
VIM
Uniprot ID:
P08670
Molecular weight:
53651.2
References
  1. Hipkiss AR: Could carnosine or related structures suppress Alzheimer's disease? J Alzheimers Dis. 2007 May;11(2):229-40. [PubMed:17522447 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
In cooperation with other chaperones, Hsp70s stabilize preexistent proteins against aggregation and mediate the folding of newly translated polypeptides in the cytosol as well as within organelles. These chaperones participate in all these processes through their ability to recognize nonnative conformations of other proteins. They bind extended peptide segments with a net hydrophobic character exposed by polypeptides during translation and membrane translocation, or following stress-induced damage. In case of rotavirus A infection, serves as a post-attachment receptor for the virus to facilitate entry into the cell
Gene Name:
HSPA1A
Uniprot ID:
P08107
Molecular weight:
70051.6
References
  1. Wada I, Otaka M, Jin M, Odashima M, Komatsu K, Konishi N, Matsuhashi T, Horikawa Y, Ohba R, Itoh H, Watanabe S: Expression of HSP72 in the gastric mucosa is regulated by gastric acid in rats-correlation of HSP72 expression with mucosal protection. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Oct 20;349(2):611-8. Epub 2006 Aug 23. [PubMed:16945336 ]
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the synthesis of carnosine and homocarnosine. Carnosine is synthesized more efficiently than homocarnosine.
Gene Name:
CARNS1
Uniprot ID:
A5YM72
Molecular weight:
101318.725
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Histidine + beta-Alanine → ADP + Phosphate + Carnosinedetails
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Histidine + beta-Alanine → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Carnosinedetails

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides
Gene Name:
SLC15A2
Uniprot ID:
Q16348
Molecular weight:
81782.8
References
  1. Teuscher NS, Keep RF, Smith DE: PEPT2-mediated uptake of neuropeptides in rat choroid plexus. Pharm Res. 2001 Jun;18(6):807-13. [PubMed:11474785 ]