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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-04-01 19:18:09 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000034
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00034
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAdenine
DescriptionAdenine is a purine base. Adenine is found in both DNA and RNA. Adenine is a fundamental component of adenine nucleotides. Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and deoxyadenosine when attached to deoxyribose; it forms adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a nucleotide, when three phosphate groups are added to adenosine. Adenosine triphosphate is used in cellular metabolism as one of the basic methods of transferring chemical energy between chemical reactions. Purine inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are serious hereditary disorders, which should be suspected in any case of neonatal fitting, failure to thrive, recurrent infections, neurological deficit, renal disease, self-mutilation and other manifestations. Investigation usually starts with uric acid (UA) determination in urine and plasma. (OMIM 300322 , 229600 , 603027 , 232400 , 232600 , 232800 , 201450 , 220150 , 232200 , 162000 , 164050 , 278300 ). (PMID: 17052198 , 17520339 ).
Structure
Data?1547234038
Synonyms
ValueSource
6-AminopurineChEBI
AChEBI
AdeChEBI
AdeninChEBI
LeuconKegg
1,6-Dihydro-6-iminopurineHMDB
1H-Purin-6-amineHMDB
1H-Purine-6-amineHMDB
3,6-Dihydro-6-iminopurineHMDB
6-Amino-1H-purineHMDB
6-Amino-3H-purineHMDB
6-Amino-7H-purineHMDB
6-Amino-9H-purineHMDB
6-Amino-purineHMDB
9H-Purin-6-amineHMDB
9H-Purin-6-yl-aminHMDB
9H-Purin-6-ylamineHMDB
9H-Purine-6-amineHMDB
AdeninimineHMDB
Vitamin b4HMDB
Vitamin b 4HMDB
4, Vitamin bHMDB
b 4, VitaminHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H5N5
Average Molecular Weight135.1267
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight135.054495185
IUPAC Name7H-purin-6-amine
Traditional Namevitamin B4
CAS Registry Number73-24-5
SMILES
NC1=C2NC=NC2=NC=N1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H5N5/c6-4-3-5(9-1-7-3)10-2-8-4/h1-2H,(H3,6,7,8,9,10)
InChI KeyGFFGJBXGBJISGV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 6-aminopurines. These are purines that carry an amino group at position 6. Purine is a bicyclic aromatic compound made up of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassImidazopyrimidines
Sub ClassPurines and purine derivatives
Direct Parent6-aminopurines
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point360 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.03 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-0.09HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility11.5 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.38ALOGPS
logP-0.57ChemAxon
logS-1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.29ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)3.64ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area80.48 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity38.22 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability12.29 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-03di-3490000000-7efe9518c90307a43707JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-03di-2690000000-6dc072eb8483a2c38e18JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-00di-9350000000-220125189c286547e86cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-03di-4690000000-2d327a6944df53411886JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-0006-3920000000-f488e8aa64272a07b3d9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-000i-0329000000-0b012fa483ce8764d2afJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-03di-3490000000-7efe9518c90307a43707JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-03di-2690000000-6dc072eb8483a2c38e18JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9350000000-220125189c286547e86cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-03di-4690000000-2d327a6944df53411886JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-3920000000-f488e8aa64272a07b3d9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-0329000000-0b012fa483ce8764d2afJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-03di-2690000000-534edabc8ab24e32f3f5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a5i-9700000000-e85c2b0bb19cf3401e5aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-0900000000-95d4894082ada0b24773JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-5900000000-66b1c086d7a666b2d02bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-9200000000-4202a1aec437f3fd1275JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-c1766360e5f779d277abJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-68585e8dac03a15d5210JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-3db475b164c0f884b93dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-2900000000-7e2deed118def434e8dbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-b24b09629456779d96e6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-b2cc6b5ce2fe2affe47dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-f45a65a00be3c0c36350JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-80808f34c7497219d349JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Negativesplash10-0a5c-6900000000-f6c0abd6d3fca61bd7f7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-b24b09629456779d96e6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-80808f34c7497219d349JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0a5c-6900000000-f6c0abd6d3fca61bd7f7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-cbe0a995dab473351f43JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-bfc42d662f222a7c16c7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-3db475b164c0f884b93dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014i-2900000000-7e2deed118def434e8dbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-f2335984e7dd7e129a8cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-ee084d257bf2325fb370JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-067i-9700000000-5a42850e3f5331952458JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-05fa9674ab4d9e5e174eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-dc404aa4196bbf0ae9cdJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-05o0-8900000000-b56d110371cd80ac76e0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-000i-6900000000-39944576233751576a91JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Nucleus
  • Lysosome
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • All Tissues
  • Prostate
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.3 +/- 0.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.64 +/- 0.15 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0 - 0.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.19 +/- 1.25 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.448 +/- 0.309 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.15 +/- 0.93 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.65 (0.52-0.85) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.9 (1.4-5.1) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0-6 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.17 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.087 +/- 1.149 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.5 +/- 0.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSolid tumors details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.5 (0 - 18.0) uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Meningitis
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.35 (0 - 23.4) uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedTuberculous meningitis details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.96 (0 - 12.0) uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Meningitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUnclassified IBD details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.03 +/- 0.73 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.87 +/- 0.78 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.37 +/- 0.21 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Bladder cancer
details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.163 +/- 7.025 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Thymidine treatment
  1. Leyva A, Schornagel JH, Kraal I, Wadman SK, Pinedo HM: Clinical and biochemical studies of high-dose thymidine treatment in patients with solid tumors. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1984;107(3):211-6. [PubMed:6736109 ]
Meningitis
  1. Rodriguez-Nunez A, Cid E, Rodriguez-Garcia J, Camina F, Rodriguez-Segade S, Castro-Gago M: Neuron-specific enolase, nucleotides, nucleosides, purine bases, oxypurines and uric acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis. Brain Dev. 2003 Mar;25(2):102-6. [PubMed:12581805 ]
Tuberculous meningitis
  1. Rodriguez-Nunez A, Cid E, Rodriguez-Garcia J, Camina F, Rodriguez-Segade S, Castro-Gago M: Neuron-specific enolase, nucleotides, nucleosides, purine bases, oxypurines and uric acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis. Brain Dev. 2003 Mar;25(2):102-6. [PubMed:12581805 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  2. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Crohn's disease
  1. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Frontotemporal dementia
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Lewy body disease
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB00173
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012266
KNApSAcK IDC00001490
Chemspider ID185
KEGG Compound IDC00147
BioCyc IDADENINE
BiGG ID34039
Wikipedia LinkAdenine
METLIN ID85
PubChem Compound190
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16708
References
Synthesis ReferenceBaddiley, J.; Lythgoe, B.; Todd, A. R. Synthesis of purine nucleosides. II. A new and convenient synthesis of adenine. Journal of the Chemical Society (1943), 386-7.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Di Pietro V, Perruzza I, Amorini AM, Balducci A, Ceccarelli L, Lazzarino G, Barsotti P, Giardina B, Tavazzi B: Clinical, biochemical and molecular diagnosis of a compound homozygote for the 254 bp deletion-8 bp insertion of the APRT gene suffering from severe renal failure. Clin Biochem. 2007 Jan;40(1-2):73-80. Epub 2006 Oct 19. [PubMed:17126311 ]
  2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  3. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. [PubMed:6656991 ]
  4. Moriyama H, Iizuka T, Nagai M, Hoshi K: Adenine, an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, from the leaves of Cassia alata. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Sep;26(9):1361-4. [PubMed:12951489 ]
  5. Liu Y, Xu G, Xu C, Garcia L, Lin CC, Yeh LT: Ultra sensitive method for the determination of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine in human serum by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2004 Apr 25;803(2):293-8. [PubMed:15063338 ]
  6. Terry KL, De Vivo I, Titus-Ernstoff L, Shih MC, Cramer DW: Androgen receptor cytosine, adenine, guanine repeats, and haplotypes in relation to ovarian cancer risk. Cancer Res. 2005 Jul 1;65(13):5974-81. [PubMed:15994977 ]
  7. Steiner MC, Evans R, Deacon SJ, Singh SJ, Patel P, Fox J, Greenhaff PL, Morgan MD: Adenine nucleotide loss in the skeletal muscles during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 2005 Nov;60(11):932-6. Epub 2005 Jul 29. [PubMed:16055624 ]
  8. Whitehead JW, Lee GP, Gharagozloo P, Hofer P, Gehrig A, Wintergerst P, Smyth D, McCoull W, Hachicha M, Patel A, Kyle DJ: 8-Substituted analogues of 3-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxy-benzyl)-8-isopropyl-adenine: highly potent and selective PDE4 inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2005 Feb 24;48(4):1237-43. [PubMed:15715490 ]
  9. Reimers HJ, Packham MA, Mustard JF: Labeling of the releasable adenine nucleotides of washed human platelets. Blood. 1977 Jan;49(1):89-99. [PubMed:401462 ]
  10. Hartmann S, Okun JG, Schmidt C, Langhans CD, Garbade SF, Burgard P, Haas D, Sass JO, Nyhan WL, Hoffmann GF: Comprehensive detection of disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism by HPLC with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Chem. 2006 Jun;52(6):1127-37. Epub 2006 Apr 13. [PubMed:16613999 ]
  11. Ohdoi C, Nyhan WL, Kuhara T: Chemical diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jul 15;792(1):123-30. [PubMed:12829005 ]
  12. Ruiz-Stewart I, Kazerounian S, Pitari GM, Schulz S, Waldman SA: Soluble guanylate cyclase is allosterically inhibited by direct interaction with 2-substituted adenine nucleotides. Eur J Biochem. 2002 Apr;269(8):2186-93. [PubMed:11985597 ]
  13. Rolfes RJ: Regulation of purine nucleotide biosynthesis: in yeast and beyond. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Nov;34(Pt 5):786-90. [PubMed:17052198 ]
  14. Simoni RE, Gomes LN, Scalco FB, Oliveira CP, Aquino Neto FR, de Oliveira ML: Uric acid changes in urine and plasma: an effective tool in screening for purine inborn errors of metabolism and other pathological conditions. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2007 Jun;30(3):295-309. Epub 2007 May 19. [PubMed:17520339 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular weight:
146422.99
References
  1. Bouzidi H, Lacour B, Daudon M: [2,8-dihydroxyadenine nephrolithiasis: from diagnosis to therapy]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2007 Nov-Dec;65(6):585-92. [PubMed:18039602 ]
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring pentosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible phosphorylation of S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine (MTA) to adenine and 5-methylthioribose-1-phosphate. Involved in the breakdown of MTA, a major by-product of polyamine biosynthesis. Responsible for the first step in the methionine salvage pathway after MTA has been generated from S-adenosylmethionine. Has broad substrate specificity with 6-aminopurine nucleosides as preferred substrates.
Gene Name:
MTAP
Uniprot ID:
Q13126
Molecular weight:
31235.76
Reactions
5'-Methylthioadenosine + Phosphate → Adenine + 5-Methylthioribose 1-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes a salvage reaction resulting in the formation of AMP, that is energically less costly than de novo synthesis.
Gene Name:
APRT
Uniprot ID:
P07741
Molecular weight:
19607.535
Reactions
Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate → Adenine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Converts guanine to guanosine monophosphate, and hypoxanthine to inosine monophosphate. Transfers the 5-phosphoribosyl group from 5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate onto the purine. Plays a central role in the generation of purine nucleotides through the purine salvage pathway.
Gene Name:
HPRT1
Uniprot ID:
P00492
Molecular weight:
24579.155
Reactions
Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate → Adenine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in regulation of apoptosis
Specific function:
Participates in chain elongation of fatty acids. Has no 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase activity.
Gene Name:
PECR
Uniprot ID:
Q9BY49
Molecular weight:
32544.11
General function:
Involved in nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates equilibrative transport of purine, pyrimidine nucleosides and the purine base hypoxanthine. Less sensitive than SLC29A1 to inhibition by nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), dipyridamole, dilazep and draflazine
Gene Name:
SLC29A2
Uniprot ID:
Q14542
Molecular weight:
50112.3
General function:
Involved in nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates both influx and efflux of nucleosides across the membrane (equilibrative transporter). Mediates transport of adenine, adenosine and uridine, as well as several nucleoside analog drugs, such as anticancer and antiviral agents, including cladribine, cordycepin, tubercidin and AZT. Does not transport hypoxanthine
Gene Name:
SLC29A3
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZD2
Molecular weight:
51799.9
General function:
Involved in purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity
Specific function:
The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and pentose-1-phosphate.
Gene Name:
PNP
Uniprot ID:
P00491
Molecular weight:
32117.69
Reactions
Adenosine + Phosphate → Adenine + Ribose 1-phosphatedetails
Deoxyadenosine + Phosphate → Adenine + Deoxyribose 1-phosphatedetails