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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 20:40:57 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000042
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00042
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAcetic acid
DescriptionAcetic acid is one of the simplest carboxylic acids. It is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical that is used in the production of plastic soft drink bottles, photographic film; and polyvinyl acetate for wood glue, as well as many synthetic fibres and fabrics. In households diluted acetic acid is often used as a cleaning agent. In the food industry acetic acid is used as an acidity regulator. The acetyl group, derived from acetic acid, is fundamental to the biochemistry of virtually all forms of life. When bound to coenzyme A it is central to the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. However, the concentration of free acetic acid in cells is kept at a low level to avoid disrupting the control of the pH of the cell contents. Acetic acid is produced and excreted by certain bacteria, notably the Acetobacter genus and Clostridium acetobutylicum. These bacteria are found universally in foodstuffs, water, and soil, and acetic acid is produced naturally as fruits and some other foods spoil. Acetic acid is also a component of the vaginal lubrication of humans and other primates, where it appears to serve as a mild antibacterial agent. Acetic acid is found to be associated with phenylketonuria, which is an inborn error of metabolism.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Acide acetiqueChEBI
AcOHChEBI
CH3-COOHChEBI
CH3CO2HChEBI
e 260ChEBI
e-260ChEBI
e260ChEBI
EssigsaeureChEBI
Ethanoic acidChEBI
Ethoic acidChEBI
Ethylic acidChEBI
HOAcChEBI
INS no. 260ChEBI
MeCO2hChEBI
MeCOOHChEBI
Methanecarboxylic acidChEBI
AcetateGenerator
EthanoateGenerator
EthoateGenerator
EthylateGenerator
MethanecarboxylateGenerator
Glacial acetateHMDB
Glacial acetic acidHMDB
Kyselina octovaHMDB
VinegarHMDB
Vinegar acidHMDB
Acid, aceticMeSH
Acetic acid glacialMeSH
Acid glacial, aceticMeSH
Acid, glacial aceticMeSH
Acetic acid, glacialMeSH
Glacial, acetic acidMeSH
Chemical FormulaC2H4O2
Average Molecular Weight60.052
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight60.021129372
IUPAC Nameacetic acid
Traditional Nameacetic acid
CAS Registry Number64-19-7
SMILES
CC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C2H4O2/c1-2(3)4/h1H3,(H,3,4)
InChI KeyQTBSBXVTEAMEQO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as carboxylic acids. These are compounds containing a carboxylic acid group with the formula -C(=O)OH.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassCarboxylic acids
Direct ParentCarboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Organoleptic effect:

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Environmental role:

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point16.6 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-0.17HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility323 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.12ALOGPS
logP-0.22ChemAxon
logS0.73ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity12.64 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability5.34 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0007-9000000000-a9a21f72ec25efbc1650View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0007-9000000000-a9a21f72ec25efbc1650View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-03dl-9000000000-b96ad978047d68715939View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00du-9100000000-8154631f77f485ee31b9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-9000000000-044b361cb9f5775c43feView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-01ox-9000000000-6437eb5f6a38c054dc37View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-0505dfa8ee07a18a3ef3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-0007-9000000000-a0d65dd4e056c1482aaaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-a845ea0157abb3d7783bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-42ec023f024176a1c692View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-2bbab52cd9d076b89b2cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-fb6d2f6298dd5bc37c2eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-bc47c47ade16451259c7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-a845ea0157abb3d7783bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-42ec023f024176a1c692View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-2bbab52cd9d076b89b2cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-fb6d2f6298dd5bc37c2eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-bc47c47ade16451259c7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-528a9b0672006e635695View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-a784dfc5bd03549bc072View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-01ox-9000000000-b71ac391a2b191d6ef01View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-034375837c4c93ddf819View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-f031d1f9ac695f944bbdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-64f8448a12a6d78d84e4View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-01oy-9000000000-181ada67a3e5798d4419View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Golgi apparatus
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Most Tissues
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified30.4 (22.0-40.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified69.14(30.49) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified26.8-64.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified41.9 +/- 15.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified27.5 +/- 28.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified116.0 +/- 55.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified58.0 +/- 27.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified100.0 +/- 30.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified284.0 +/- 126.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified35860 +/- 16800 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Newborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0-3037256.600 nmol/g wet fecesChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified10200 +/- 10200 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified14640 +/- 13790 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified12650 +/- 12830 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified11350 +/- 12920 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified11220 +/- 10900 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified12350 +/- 14040 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified10340 +/- 10640 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified6814.91 +/- 4310.71 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified433 (19-2749) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified112 (5-726) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified228 (19-1495) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified323 (17-4048) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified443 (80-2667) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified185 (28-993) uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified13.0 (2.5-106.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.31 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified16.064 +/- 11.375 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified45.33 +/- 53.33 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified42.2 +/- 17.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart Transplant details
BloodDetected and Quantified28.26 +/- 12.83 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Pregnancy with fetuses with trisomy 18
details
BloodDetected and Quantified22.9 +/- 31.703 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified17.9 (6.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleEarly preeclampsia details
BloodDetected and Quantified48.4 (50.4) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
BloodDetected and Quantified25.69 (7.99) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy with fetus having congenital heart defect details
BloodDetected and Quantified29.85 (8.26) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified80.6 (101.5) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleLate-onset preeclampsia details
BloodDetected and Quantified48.55(36.76) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart failure with reduced ejection fraction details
BloodDetected and Quantified49.1 (52.5) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified27.5 (17.6) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleDown syndrome pregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified30.1 (22.6) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified35.3 - 211.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedMultiple sclerosis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)Bothautism details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothPervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Newborn (0-30 days old)Both
Sepsis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Intestinal infections
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedGenetically At-Risk of celiac disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - <8 years old)Femalejuvenile idiopathic arthritis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Campylobacter jejuni infection
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Clostridium difficile infection
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative Colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedasymptomatic diverticulosis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedsymptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Crohn’s Disease
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative Colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected and Quantified0-4321921.00180 nmol/g wet fecesChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Treated celiac disease
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothCrohn's disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothAutism details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothImmunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) non progressor details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothImmunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) progressor details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)MaleGout details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothBreast cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified53.0 +/- 71.0 umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedBothLung cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified25.477 +/- 36.046 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified23.7 +/- 4.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both3-Hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HL) deficency details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.9 +/- 0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both3-Hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HL) deficency details
UrineDetected and Quantified54.1 +/- 23.8 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothArgininosuccinic aciduria (ASL) details
UrineDetected and Quantified20.2 +/- 3.9 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothPropionic acidemia details
UrineDetected and Quantified20.8 +/- 3 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothPropionic acidemia details
UrineDetected and Quantified99.4 +/- 8.6 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothTyrosinemia I details
UrineDetected and Quantified16.3 +/- 7.1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothPhenylketonuria details
UrineDetected and Quantified375.3 +/- 6.3 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothPhenylketonuria details
UrineDetected and Quantified13.2 +/- 5.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothMaple syrup urine disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified21.8 +/- 0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothAminoaciduria details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Pregnancy
  1. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomics and first-trimester prediction of early-onset preeclampsia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012 Oct;25(10):1840-7. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2012.680254. Epub 2012 Apr 28. [PubMed:22494326 ]
  2. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: First-trimester metabolomic detection of late-onset preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jan;208(1):58.e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.11.003. Epub 2012 Nov 13. [PubMed:23159745 ]
  3. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomic analysis for first-trimester Down syndrome prediction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 May;208(5):371.e1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.12.035. Epub 2013 Jan 8. [PubMed:23313728 ]
  4. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Chelliah A, Mandal R, Dong E, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomic analysis for first-trimester trisomy 18 detection. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jul;209(1):65.e1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2013.03.028. Epub 2013 Mar 25. [PubMed:23535240 ]
  5. Bahado-Singh RO, Ertl R, Mandal R, Bjorndahl TC, Syngelaki A, Han B, Dong E, Liu PB, Alpay-Savasan Z, Wishart DS, Nicolaides KH: Metabolomic prediction of fetal congenital heart defect in the first trimester. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Sep;211(3):240.e1-240.e14. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.03.056. Epub 2014 Apr 1. [PubMed:24704061 ]
Argininosuccinic aciduria
  1. Gronwald W, Klein MS, Kaspar H, Fagerer SR, Nurnberger N, Dettmer K, Bertsch T, Oefner PJ: Urinary metabolite quantification employing 2D NMR spectroscopy. Anal Chem. 2008 Dec 1;80(23):9288-97. doi: 10.1021/ac801627c. [PubMed:19551947 ]
Autism
  1. De Angelis M, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Giacomo A, Serrazzanetti DI, Cristofori F, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 9;8(10):e76993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076993. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24130822 ]
Perillyl alcohol administration for cancer treatment
  1. Silva CL, Passos M, Camara JS: Solid phase microextraction, mass spectrometry and metabolomic approaches for detection of potential urinary cancer biomarkers--a powerful strategy for breast cancer diagnosis. Talanta. 2012 Jan 30;89:360-8. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2011.12.041. Epub 2011 Dec 22. [PubMed:22284503 ]
Celiac disease
  1. Di Cagno R, De Angelis M, De Pasquale I, Ndagijimana M, Vernocchi P, Ricciuti P, Gagliardi F, Laghi L, Crecchio C, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Duodenal and faecal microbiota of celiac children: molecular, phenotype and metabolome characterization. BMC Microbiol. 2011 Oct 4;11:219. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-219. [PubMed:21970810 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Monleon D, Morales JM, Barrasa A, Lopez JA, Vazquez C, Celda B: Metabolite profiling of fecal water extracts from human colorectal cancer. NMR Biomed. 2009 Apr;22(3):342-8. doi: 10.1002/nbm.1345. [PubMed:19006102 ]
  2. Weir TL, Manter DK, Sheflin AM, Barnett BA, Heuberger AL, Ryan EP: Stool microbiome and metabolome differences between colorectal cancer patients and healthy adults. PLoS One. 2013 Aug 6;8(8):e70803. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070803. Print 2013. [PubMed:23940645 ]
  3. Ni Y, Xie G, Jia W: Metabonomics of human colorectal cancer: new approaches for early diagnosis and biomarker discovery. J Proteome Res. 2014 Sep 5;13(9):3857-70. doi: 10.1021/pr500443c. Epub 2014 Aug 14. [PubMed:25105552 ]
  4. Lin Y, Ma C, Liu C, Wang Z, Yang J, Liu X, Shen Z, Wu R: NMR-based fecal metabolomics fingerprinting as predictors of earlier diagnosis in patients with colorectal cancer. Oncotarget. 2016 May 17;7(20):29454-64. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8762. [PubMed:27107423 ]
  5. Wang X, Wang J, Rao B, Deng L: Gut flora profiling and fecal metabolite composition of colorectal cancer patients and healthy individuals. Exp Ther Med. 2017 Jun;13(6):2848-2854. doi: 10.3892/etm.2017.4367. Epub 2017 Apr 20. [PubMed:28587349 ]
  6. Silke Matysik, Caroline Ivanne Le Roy, Gerhard Liebisch, Sandrine Paule Claus. Metabolomics of fecal samples: A practical consideration. Trends in Food Science & Technology. Vol. 57, Part B, Nov. 2016, p.244-255 [Link]
Crohn's disease
  1. Marchesi JR, Holmes E, Khan F, Kochhar S, Scanlan P, Shanahan F, Wilson ID, Wang Y: Rapid and noninvasive metabonomic characterization of inflammatory bowel disease. J Proteome Res. 2007 Feb;6(2):546-51. [PubMed:17269711 ]
  2. Ahmed I, Greenwood R, Costello B, Ratcliffe N, Probert CS: Investigation of faecal volatile organic metabolites as novel diagnostic biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Mar;43(5):596-611. doi: 10.1111/apt.13522. Epub 2016 Jan 25. [PubMed:26806034 ]
Irritable bowel syndrome
  1. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
  2. Hong YS, Hong KS, Park MH, Ahn YT, Lee JH, Huh CS, Lee J, Kim IK, Hwang GS, Kim JS: Metabonomic understanding of probiotic effects in humans with irritable bowel syndrome. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2011 May-Jun;45(5):415-25. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e318207f76c. [PubMed:21494186 ]
Lung Cancer
  1. Stretch C, Eastman T, Mandal R, Eisner R, Wishart DS, Mourtzakis M, Prado CM, Damaraju S, Ball RO, Greiner R, Baracos VE: Prediction of skeletal muscle and fat mass in patients with advanced cancer using a metabolomic approach. J Nutr. 2012 Jan;142(1):14-21. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.147751. Epub 2011 Dec 7. [PubMed:22157537 ]
Maple syrup urine disease
  1. Gronwald W, Klein MS, Kaspar H, Fagerer SR, Nurnberger N, Dettmer K, Bertsch T, Oefner PJ: Urinary metabolite quantification employing 2D NMR spectroscopy. Anal Chem. 2008 Dec 1;80(23):9288-97. doi: 10.1021/ac801627c. [PubMed:19551947 ]
Multiple sclerosis
  1. Lutz NW, Viola A, Malikova I, Confort-Gouny S, Audoin B, Ranjeva JP, Pelletier J, Cozzone PJ: Inflammatory multiple-sclerosis plaques generate characteristic metabolic profiles in cerebrospinal fluid. PLoS One. 2007 Jul 4;2(7):e595. [PubMed:17611627 ]
Phenylketonuria
  1. Gronwald W, Klein MS, Kaspar H, Fagerer SR, Nurnberger N, Dettmer K, Bertsch T, Oefner PJ: Urinary metabolite quantification employing 2D NMR spectroscopy. Anal Chem. 2008 Dec 1;80(23):9288-97. doi: 10.1021/ac801627c. [PubMed:19551947 ]
Propionic acidemia
  1. Gronwald W, Klein MS, Kaspar H, Fagerer SR, Nurnberger N, Dettmer K, Bertsch T, Oefner PJ: Urinary metabolite quantification employing 2D NMR spectroscopy. Anal Chem. 2008 Dec 1;80(23):9288-97. doi: 10.1021/ac801627c. [PubMed:19551947 ]
Sepsis
  1. Stewart CJ, Embleton ND, Marrs ECL, Smith DP, Fofanova T, Nelson A, Skeath T, Perry JD, Petrosino JF, Berrington JE, Cummings SP: Longitudinal development of the gut microbiome and metabolome in preterm neonates with late onset sepsis and healthy controls. Microbiome. 2017 Jul 12;5(1):75. doi: 10.1186/s40168-017-0295-1. [PubMed:28701177 ]
Tyrosinemia I
  1. Gronwald W, Klein MS, Kaspar H, Fagerer SR, Nurnberger N, Dettmer K, Bertsch T, Oefner PJ: Urinary metabolite quantification employing 2D NMR spectroscopy. Anal Chem. 2008 Dec 1;80(23):9288-97. doi: 10.1021/ac801627c. [PubMed:19551947 ]
Gout
  1. Shao T, Shao L, Li H, Xie Z, He Z, Wen C: Combined Signature of the Fecal Microbiome and Metabolome in Patients with Gout. Front Microbiol. 2017 Feb 21;8:268. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00268. eCollection 2017. [PubMed:28270806 ]
Diverticular disease
  1. Tursi A, Mastromarino P, Capobianco D, Elisei W, Miccheli A, Capuani G, Tomassini A, Campagna G, Picchio M, Giorgetti G, Fabiocchi F, Brandimarte G: Assessment of Fecal Microbiota and Fecal Metabolome in Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease of the Colon. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2016 Oct;50 Suppl 1:S9-S12. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000626. [PubMed:27622378 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Marchesi JR, Holmes E, Khan F, Kochhar S, Scanlan P, Shanahan F, Wilson ID, Wang Y: Rapid and noninvasive metabonomic characterization of inflammatory bowel disease. J Proteome Res. 2007 Feb;6(2):546-51. [PubMed:17269711 ]
  2. Garner CE, Smith S, de Lacy Costello B, White P, Spencer R, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM: Volatile organic compounds from feces and their potential for diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. FASEB J. 2007 Jun;21(8):1675-88. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17314143 ]
  3. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
  4. Ahmed I, Greenwood R, Costello B, Ratcliffe N, Probert CS: Investigation of faecal volatile organic metabolites as novel diagnostic biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Mar;43(5):596-611. doi: 10.1111/apt.13522. Epub 2016 Jan 25. [PubMed:26806034 ]
Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified
  1. De Angelis M, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Giacomo A, Serrazzanetti DI, Cristofori F, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 9;8(10):e76993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076993. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24130822 ]
Early preeclampsia
  1. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomics and first-trimester prediction of early-onset preeclampsia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012 Oct;25(10):1840-7. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2012.680254. Epub 2012 Apr 28. [PubMed:22494326 ]
Late-onset preeclampsia
  1. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: First-trimester metabolomic detection of late-onset preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jan;208(1):58.e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.11.003. Epub 2012 Nov 13. [PubMed:23159745 ]
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  1. Raman M, Ahmed I, Gillevet PM, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM, Smith S, Greenwood R, Sikaroodi M, Lam V, Crotty P, Bailey J, Myers RP, Rioux KP: Fecal microbiome and volatile organic compound metabolome in obese humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Jul;11(7):868-75.e1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.02.015. Epub 2013 Feb 27. [PubMed:23454028 ]
Enteritis
  1. Probert CS, Jones PR, Ratcliffe NM: A novel method for rapidly diagnosing the causes of diarrhoea. Gut. 2004 Jan;53(1):58-61. [PubMed:14684577 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB008299
KNApSAcK IDC00001176
Chemspider ID171
KEGG Compound IDC00033
BioCyc IDACET
BiGG ID33590
Wikipedia LinkAcetic_acid
METLIN ID3206
PubChem Compound176
PDB IDACY
ChEBI ID15366
References
Synthesis ReferenceLaw, David John. Process for the preparation of carboxylic acids and/or derivatives thereof. PCT Int. Appl. (2007), 14pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Nicholson JK, Foxall PJ, Spraul M, Farrant RD, Lindon JC: 750 MHz 1H and 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy of human blood plasma. Anal Chem. 1995 Mar 1;67(5):793-811. [PubMed:7762816 ]
  2. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [PubMed:12097436 ]
  3. Muniz-Junqueira MI, Braga Lopes C, Magalhaes CA, Schleicher CC, Veiga JP: Acute and chronic influence of hemodialysis according to the membrane used on phagocytic function of neutrophils and monocytes and pro-inflammatory cytokines production in chronic renal failure patients. Life Sci. 2005 Nov 4;77(25):3141-55. Epub 2005 Jul 11. [PubMed:16005905 ]
  4. Sugawara G, Nagino M, Nishio H, Ebata T, Takagi K, Asahara T, Nomoto K, Nimura Y: Perioperative synbiotic treatment to prevent postoperative infectious complications in biliary cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg. 2006 Nov;244(5):706-14. [PubMed:17060763 ]
  5. Camoutsis C, Trafalis D, Pairas G, Papageorgiou A: On the formation of 4-[N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl acetic acid esters of hecogenin and aza-homo-hecogenin and their antileukemic activity. Farmaco. 2005 Oct;60(10):826-9. Epub 2005 Aug 31. [PubMed:16139280 ]
  6. Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, Gupta A, Kumar R, Nigam A, Kumar R, Mandal SK, Roy R: Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. NMR Biomed. 2005 Jun;18(4):213-25. [PubMed:15627241 ]
  7. Li M, Pan XL, Wang LL, Feng Y, Huang N, Wu Q, Li X, Wang BY: [Study of antmicrobial mechanisms of human cervical mucus: isolation and characterization of antibacterial polypeptides]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2005 Apr 27;85(16):1109-12. [PubMed:16029568 ]
  8. Vaca G, Hernandez A, Ibarra B, Velazquez A, Olivares N, Sanchez-Corona J, Medina C, Cantu JM: Detection of inborn errors of metabolism in 1,117 patients studied because of suspected inherited disease. Arch Invest Med (Mex). 1981;12(3):341-8. [PubMed:7294941 ]
  9. Commodari F, Arnold DL, Sanctuary BC, Shoubridge EA: 1H NMR characterization of normal human cerebrospinal fluid and the detection of methylmalonic acid in a vitamin B12 deficient patient. NMR Biomed. 1991 Aug;4(4):192-200. [PubMed:1931558 ]
  10. Yagi K, Nakamura A, Sekine A: [Magnification endoscopy diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus with methylene blue and acetic acid]. Nihon Rinsho. 2005 Aug;63(8):1411-5. [PubMed:16101231 ]
  11. Fan DD, Luo Y, Mi Y, Ma XX, Shang L: Characteristics of fed-batch cultures of recombinant Escherichia coli containing human-like collagen cDNA at different specific growth rates. Biotechnol Lett. 2005 Jun;27(12):865-70. [PubMed:16086249 ]
  12. Syrjanen K, Naud P, Derchain S, Roteli-Martins C, Longatto-Filho A, Tatti S, Branca M, Erzen M, Hammes LS, Matos J, Gontijo R, Sarian L, Braganca J, Arlindo FC, Maeda MY, Lorincz A, Dores GB, Costa S, Syrjanen S: Comparing PAP smear cytology, aided visual inspection, screening colposcopy, cervicography and HPV testing as optional screening tools in Latin America. Study design and baseline data of the LAMS study. Anticancer Res. 2005 Sep-Oct;25(5):3469-80. [PubMed:16101165 ]
  13. Yri OE, Bjoro T, Fossa SD: Failure to achieve castration levels in patients using leuprolide acetate in locally advanced prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2006 Jan;49(1):54-8; discussion 58. Epub 2005 Nov 15. [PubMed:16314038 ]
  14. eMedicine [Link]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 41 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in ketogenesis (ketone body formation). Terminal step in leucine catabolism.
Gene Name:
HMGCL
Uniprot ID:
P35914
Molecular weight:
34359.84
Reactions
3-Hydroxy-3-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)glutaryl-CoA → 7-Methyl-3-oxo-6-octenoyl-CoA + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes acetyl-CoA to acetate and CoA.
Gene Name:
ACOT12
Uniprot ID:
Q8WYK0
Molecular weight:
62033.46
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Water → Coenzyme A + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity
Specific function:
Activates acetate so that it can be used for lipid synthesis or for energy generation.
Gene Name:
ACSS2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NR19
Molecular weight:
78579.11
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoAdetails
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid → Pyrophosphate + Acetyl adenylatedetails
General function:
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity
Specific function:
Important for maintaining normal body temperature during fasting and for energy homeostasis. Essential for energy expenditure under ketogenic conditions (By similarity). Converts acetate to acetyl-CoA so that it can be used for oxidation through the tricarboxylic cycle to produce ATP and CO(2).
Gene Name:
ACSS1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NUB1
Molecular weight:
74625.88
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoAdetails
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid → Pyrophosphate + Acetyl adenylatedetails
General function:
Involved in arylesterase activity
Specific function:
Has low activity towards the organophosphate paraxon and aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Rapidly hydrolyzes lactones such as statin prodrugs (e.g. lovastatin). Hydrolyzes aromatic lactones and 5- or 6-member ring lactones with aliphatic substituents but not simple lactones or those with polar substituents.
Gene Name:
PON3
Uniprot ID:
Q15166
Molecular weight:
39607.185
Reactions
A phenyl acetate + Water → a phenol + Acetic aciddetails
4-Hydroxyphenyl acetate + Water → Hydroquinone + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in arylesterase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. Capable of hydrolyzing a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and lactones, and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Mediates an enzymatic protection of low density lipoproteins against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to atheroma formation.
Gene Name:
PON1
Uniprot ID:
P27169
Molecular weight:
39730.99
Reactions
A phenyl acetate + Water → a phenol + Acetic aciddetails
4-Hydroxyphenyl acetate + Water → Hydroquinone + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in arylesterase activity
Specific function:
Capable of hydrolyzing lactones and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Has antioxidant activity. Is not associated with high density lipoprotein. Prevents LDL lipid peroxidation, reverses the oxidation of mildly oxidized LDL, and inhibits the ability of MM-LDL to induce monocyte chemotaxis.
Gene Name:
PON2
Uniprot ID:
Q15165
Molecular weight:
39380.535
Reactions
A phenyl acetate + Water → a phenol + Acetic aciddetails
4-Hydroxyphenyl acetate + Water → Hydroquinone + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Converts gamma-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde into gamma-butyrobetaine. Catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of a broad range of aldehydes to the corresponding acids in an NAD-dependent reaction.
Gene Name:
ALDH9A1
Uniprot ID:
P49189
Molecular weight:
56291.485
Reactions
Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
ALDHs play a major role in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde. They are involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation. This protein preferentially oxidizes aromatic aldehyde substrates. It may play a role in the oxidation of toxic aldehydes.
Gene Name:
ALDH3A1
Uniprot ID:
P30838
Molecular weight:
50394.57
Reactions
Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Multifunctional enzyme mediating important protective effects. Metabolizes betaine aldehyde to betaine, an important cellular osmolyte and methyl donor. Protects cells from oxidative stress by metabolizing a number of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes. Involved in lysine catabolism.
Gene Name:
ALDH7A1
Uniprot ID:
P49419
Molecular weight:
58486.74
Reactions
Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate
Gene Name:
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID:
P53985
Molecular weight:
53957.7
References
  1. Tamai I, Sai Y, Ono A, Kido Y, Yabuuchi H, Takanaga H, Satoh E, Ogihara T, Amano O, Izeki S, Tsuji A: Immunohistochemical and functional characterization of pH-dependent intestinal absorption of weak organic acids by the monocarboxylic acid transporter MCT1. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;51(10):1113-21. [PubMed:10579682 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost
Gene Name:
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID:
O94956
Molecular weight:
76697.9
References
  1. Kobayashi D, Nozawa T, Imai K, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Involvement of human organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-B (SLC21A9) in pH-dependent transport across intestinal apical membrane. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Aug;306(2):703-8. Epub 2003 Apr 30. [PubMed:12724351 ]
  2. Nozawa T, Imai K, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Functional characterization of pH-sensitive organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-B in human. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Feb;308(2):438-45. Epub 2003 Nov 10. [PubMed:14610227 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 41 proteins in total.