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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 07:18:18 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000044
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00044
  • HMDB0014273
  • HMDB0029945
  • HMDB14273
  • HMDB29945
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAscorbic acid
DescriptionAscorbic acid is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables and is an essential nutrient in human diets. It is necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. The biologically active form of ascorbic acid is vitamin C. Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin. Primates (including humans) and a few other species in all divisions of the animal kingdom, notably the guinea pig, have lost the ability to synthesize ascorbic acid and must obtain it in their food. Vitamin C functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant (PubChem). Ascorbic acid is an electron donor for enzymes involved in collagen hydroxylation, biosynthesis of carnitine and norepinephrine, tyrosine metabolism, and amidation of peptide hormones. Ascrobic acid (vitamin C) deficiency causes scurvy. The amount of vitamin C necessary to prevent scurvy may not be adequate to maintain optimal health. The ability of vitamin C to donate electrons also makes it a potent water-soluble antioxidant that readily scavenges free radicals such as molecular oxygen, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and hypochlorous acid. In this setting, several mechanisms could account for a link between vitamin C and heart disease. One is the relation between LDL oxidation and vitamins C and E. Vitamin C in vitro can recycle vitamin E, which can donate electrons to prevent LDL oxidation in vitro. As the lipid-phase vitamin E is oxidized, it can be regenerated by aqueous vitamin C. Other possibilities are that vitamin C could decrease cholesterol by mechanisms not well characterized, or could improve vasodilatation and vascular reactivity, perhaps by decreasing the interactions of nitric oxide with oxidants (PMID: 10799361 ). Moreover, ascorbic acid is found to be associated with hyperoxalemia, which is an inborn error of metabolism.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Acide ascorbiqueChEBI
acido AscorbicoChEBI
Acidum ascorbicumChEBI
Acidum ascorbinicumChEBI
AscoltinChEBI
AscorbicapChEBI
AscorbinsaeureChEBI
e 300ChEBI
e-300ChEBI
e300ChEBI
L-(+)-Ascorbic acidChEBI
L-AscorbateChEBI
Vitamin CChEBI
AscorbateGenerator
L-(+)-AscorbateGenerator
L-Ascorbic acidGenerator
(+)-AscorbateHMDB
(+)-Ascorbic acidHMDB
(+)-Sodium L-ascorbateHMDB
3-keto-L-GulofuranolactoneHMDB
3-oxo-L-GulofuranolactoneHMDB
AdenexHMDB
AllercorbHMDB
Antiscorbic vitaminHMDB
Antiscorbutic vitaminHMDB
arco-CeeHMDB
Ascor-b.i.d.HMDB
AscorbHMDB
AscorbajenHMDB
AscorbicabHMDB
AscorbicinHMDB
AscorbinHMDB
AscorbutinaHMDB
AscorinHMDB
AscortealHMDB
AscorvitHMDB
C-LevelHMDB
C-LongHMDB
C-QuinHMDB
C-SpanHMDB
C-ViminHMDB
CantanHMDB
CantaxinHMDB
Catavin CHMDB
Ce lentHMDB
Ce-mi-linHMDB
Ce-vi-solHMDB
CebicureHMDB
CebidHMDB
CebionHMDB
CebioneHMDB
CeconHMDB
Cee-caps TDHMDB
Cee-viteHMDB
CegiolanHMDB
CeglionHMDB
CeklinHMDB
CelaskonHMDB
CelinHMDB
Cell CHMDB
CemagylHMDB
CemillHMDB
CenetoneHMDB
CenolateHMDB
CereonHMDB
CergonaHMDB
CescorbatHMDB
CetamidHMDB
CetaneHMDB
Cetane-caps TCHMDB
Cetane-caps TDHMDB
CetebeHMDB
CetemicanHMDB
CevalinHMDB
CevatineHMDB
CevexHMDB
Cevi-bidHMDB
CeviminHMDB
CevitalHMDB
CevitamateHMDB
Cevitamic acidHMDB
CevitaminHMDB
CevitanHMDB
CevitexHMDB
CewinHMDB
ChewceeHMDB
CiaminHMDB
CipcaHMDB
CitriscorbHMDB
CitrovitHMDB
ColascorHMDB
ConceminHMDB
Davitamon CHMDB
Dora-C-500HMDB
DuoscorbHMDB
Ferrous ascorbateHMDB
gamma-Lactone L-threo-hex-2-enonateHMDB
gamma-Lactone L-threo-hex-2-enonic acidHMDB
HiCeeHMDB
HybrinHMDB
ido-CHMDB
JuvamineHMDB
KangbingfengHMDB
Kyselina askorbovaHMDB
L(+)-AscorbateHMDB
L(+)-Ascorbic acidHMDB
L-3-Ketothreohexuronic acid lactoneHMDB
L-LyxoascorbateHMDB
L-Lyxoascorbic acidHMDB
L-threo-Ascorbic acidHMDB
L-XyloascorbateHMDB
L-Xyloascorbic acidHMDB
LaroscorbineHMDB
LemascorbHMDB
Liqui-ceeHMDB
Meri-cHMDB
NatrascorbHMDB
Natrascorb injectableHMDB
Planavit CHMDB
ProscorbinHMDB
RedoxonHMDB
RibenaHMDB
Ronotec 100HMDB
Rontex 100HMDB
RoscorbicHMDB
Rovimix CHMDB
ScorbacidHMDB
Scorbu CHMDB
Scorbu-CHMDB
SecorbateHMDB
SodascorbateHMDB
Suncoat VC 40HMDB
TestascorbicHMDB
VASCHMDB
VicelatHMDB
VicinHMDB
Vicomin CHMDB
ViforcitHMDB
ViscorinHMDB
Viscorin 100mHMDB
VitaceHMDB
VitaceeHMDB
VitaciminHMDB
VitacinHMDB
VitamisinHMDB
VitascorbolHMDB
XitixHMDB
L Ascorbic acidMeSH
Acid, ascorbicMeSH
Ascorbate, ferrousMeSH
Ascorbate, sodiumMeSH
Magnesium ascorbateMeSH
Magnesium ascorbicumMeSH
Magnesium di-L-ascorbateMeSH
Di-L-ascorbate, magnesiumMeSH
Ascorbic acid, monosodium saltMeSH
Magnesium di L ascorbateMeSH
MagnorbinMeSH
Sodium ascorbateMeSH
Acid, L-ascorbicMeSH
Ascorbate, magnesiumMeSH
Chemical FormulaC6H8O6
Average Molecular Weight176.1241
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight176.032087988
IUPAC Name(5R)-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one
Traditional Namevitamin C
CAS Registry Number50-81-7
SMILES
[H][C@@]1(OC(=O)C(O)=C1O)[C@@H](O)CO
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H8O6/c7-1-2(8)5-3(9)4(10)6(11)12-5/h2,5,7-10H,1H2/t2-,5+/m0/s1
InChI KeyCIWBSHSKHKDKBQ-JLAZNSOCSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as butenolides. These are dihydrofurans with a carbonyl group at the C2 carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDihydrofurans
Sub ClassFuranones
Direct ParentButenolides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 2-furanone
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic ester
  • Enoate ester
  • 1,2-diol
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Enediol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Lactone
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Oxacycle
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxide
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point191 °CPhysProp
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility400 mg/mL at 40 °CMERCK INDEX (1996)
LogP-1.85AVDEEF,A (1997)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility245 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.6ALOGPS
logP-1.9ChemAxon
logS0.14ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.36ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area107.22 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity37.03 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability14.93 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-4900000000-e99089fd55560fb70cfeView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0912000000-baa8cffda0478e1bc197View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9400000000-8ff8f48bfa2dd4fd3cf5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9400000000-c1dc72c6cbc49fbf3454View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9400000000-b207f4024993c5a74769View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0911000000-9af0c08e85e0c51a25c4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-4900000000-e99089fd55560fb70cfeView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0912000000-baa8cffda0478e1bc197View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9400000000-8ff8f48bfa2dd4fd3cf5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9400000000-c1dc72c6cbc49fbf3454View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9400000000-b207f4024993c5a74769View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0911000000-9af0c08e85e0c51a25c4View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0560-9700000000-ab53eee999ee7fee672dView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0kkj-9357500000-5c2c439f726b729dd50dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0kdi-2900000000-f05a720e6e6361c97e5fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0bvl-5900000000-6ca3f37a74403d8495c9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9100000000-5625440c512f60760fdfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0o90-2900000000-b7c897849334927f5bf5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0bvi-4900000000-1f1fa10e7e06a79c028aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-08fu-9300000000-b98375c0cd3a54b61ef7View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biospecimen Locations
  • Amniotic Fluid
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Erythrocyte
  • Eye Lens
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gonads
  • Heart
  • Intestine
  • Liver
  • Lung
  • Lymphocyte
  • Most Tissues
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Spleen
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Amniotic FluidDetected and Quantified20.4 +/- 12.21 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified88.6 (21.0 - 171.0) uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified60.8 +/- 15.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified51.0 (11.0 - 125.0) uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified36.0 +/- 18.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified63.0 (11.0-114.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • The Merck Manual,...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified8.19 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified48.829 +/- 23.847 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified9.06 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified35.4-80.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified22.2 (14.0-40.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified27.0 (11.1-49.7) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified50.9 (35.4-80.1) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified96.6 +/- 52.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified68.0 +/- 43.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified68.0 (17.0-119.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified163.8 +/- 21 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified133 +/- 58.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified164.0 (143.0-185.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified144.0 (36.2-251.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.687 +/- 0.097 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.641 +/- 0.074 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified8.009 +/- 3.959 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified32.5 (4.6-78) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.70-22.72 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified17.0 +/- 2.5 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified63.6 +/-142.9 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified38.971 +/- 42.478 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.512 +/-0.058 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified39.0 +/- 92.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Hyperoxalemia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified6.5 +/- 18.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Hyperoxalemia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified82.57 +/- 36.71 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified53.8 (45.8-61.8) uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Brain injury
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified11.9 (0.0-24) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Meningitis
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.505 +/- 0.102 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Oral cancer
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.443 +/- 0.085 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Oral cancer
details
UrineDetected and Quantified30.234 +/- 47.075 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Traumatic brain injury
  1. Bayir H, Kagan VE, Tyurina YY, Tyurin V, Ruppel RA, Adelson PD, Graham SH, Janesko K, Clark RS, Kochanek PM: Assessment of antioxidant reserves and oxidative stress in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children. Pediatr Res. 2002 May;51(5):571-8. [PubMed:11978879 ]
Canavan disease
  1. Tavazzi B, Lazzarino G, Leone P, Amorini AM, Bellia F, Janson CG, Di Pietro V, Ceccarelli L, Donzelli S, Francis JS, Giardina B: Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic separation of purines, pyrimidines, N-acetylated amino acids, and dicarboxylic acids for the chemical diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. Clin Biochem. 2005 Nov;38(11):997-1008. Epub 2005 Sep 1. [PubMed:16139832 ]
Hyperoxalemia
  1. Ogawa Y, Machida N, Jahana M, Gakiya M, Chinen Y, Oda M, Morozumi M, Sugaya K: Major factors modulating the serum oxalic acid level in hemodialysis patients. Front Biosci. 2004 Sep 1;9:2901-8. [PubMed:15353324 ]
Meningitis
  1. Kastenbauer S, Koedel U, Becker BF, Pfister HW: Oxidative stress in bacterial meningitis in humans. Neurology. 2002 Jan 22;58(2):186-91. [PubMed:11805243 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB00126
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB001224
KNApSAcK IDC00001179
Chemspider ID10189562
KEGG Compound IDC01041
BioCyc IDASCORBATE
BiGG ID33747
Wikipedia LinkAscorbic_Acid
METLIN ID3753
PubChem Compound54670067
PDB ID1E71
ChEBI ID29073
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Shoemaker JD, Elliott WH: Automated screening of urine samples for carbohydrates, organic and amino acids after treatment with urease. J Chromatogr. 1991 Jan 2;562(1-2):125-38. [PubMed:2026685 ]
  3. Jacobsson L, Lindgarde F, Manthorpe R, Akesson B: Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and serum micronutrients in relation to common rheumatic complaints in Swedish adults 50-70 years old. Scand J Rheumatol. 1992;21(4):171-7. [PubMed:1529283 ]
  4. Bayir H, Kagan VE, Tyurina YY, Tyurin V, Ruppel RA, Adelson PD, Graham SH, Janesko K, Clark RS, Kochanek PM: Assessment of antioxidant reserves and oxidative stress in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children. Pediatr Res. 2002 May;51(5):571-8. [PubMed:11978879 ]
  5. Luck MR, Jeyaseelan I, Scholes RA: Ascorbic acid and fertility. Biol Reprod. 1995 Feb;52(2):262-6. [PubMed:7711198 ]
  6. Sotiriou S, Gispert S, Cheng J, Wang Y, Chen A, Hoogstraten-Miller S, Miller GF, Kwon O, Levine M, Guttentag SH, Nussbaum RL: Ascorbic-acid transporter Slc23a1 is essential for vitamin C transport into the brain and for perinatal survival. Nat Med. 2002 May;8(5):514-7. [PubMed:11984597 ]
  7. Wolters M, Hickstein M, Flintermann A, Tewes U, Hahn A: Cognitive performance in relation to vitamin status in healthy elderly German women-the effect of 6-month multivitamin supplementation. Prev Med. 2005 Jul;41(1):253-9. Epub 2005 Jan 6. [PubMed:15917019 ]
  8. Chiplonkar SA, Agte VV, Tarwadi KV, Paknikar KM, Diwate UP: Micronutrient deficiencies as predisposing factors for hypertension in lacto-vegetarian Indian adults. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Jun;23(3):239-47. [PubMed:15190049 ]
  9. Dudek H, Farbiszewski R, Rydzewska M, Michno T, Kozlowski A: [Concentration of glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and substances reacting with thiobarbituric acid (TBA-rs) in single human brain metastases]. Wiad Lek. 2005;58(7-8):379-81. [PubMed:16425787 ]
  10. Berndt SI, Carter HB, Landis PK, Hallfrisch J, Rohrmann S, Metter EJ, Platz EA: Prediagnostic plasma vitamin C levels and the subsequent risk of prostate cancer. Nutrition. 2005 Jun;21(6):686-90. [PubMed:15925292 ]
  11. Atanasova BD, Li AC, Bjarnason I, Tzatchev KN, Simpson RJ: Duodenal ascorbate and ferric reductase in human iron deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jan;81(1):130-3. [PubMed:15640471 ]
  12. Huang J, May JM: Ascorbic acid protects SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from apoptosis and death induced by beta-amyloid. Brain Res. 2006 Jun 30;1097(1):52-8. Epub 2006 May 24. [PubMed:16725131 ]
  13. Kastenbauer S, Koedel U, Becker BF, Pfister HW: Oxidative stress in bacterial meningitis in humans. Neurology. 2002 Jan 22;58(2):186-91. [PubMed:11805243 ]
  14. Hino K, Murakami Y, Nagai A, Kitase A, Hara Y, Furutani T, Ren F, Yamaguchi Y, Yutoku K, Yamashita S, Okuda M, Okita M, Okita K: Alpha-tocopherol [corrected] and ascorbic acid attenuates the ribavirin [corrected] induced decrease of eicosapentaenoic acid in erythrocyte membrane in chronic hepatitis C patients. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Aug;21(8):1269-75. [PubMed:16872308 ]
  15. Kodama M, Inoue F, Kodama T, Kodama M: Intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid delays the turnover of 3H-labelled cortisol in the plasma of an ODS rat, but not in the Wistar rat. Evidence in support of the cardinal role of vitamin C in the progression of glucocorticoid synthesis. In Vivo. 1996 Jan-Feb;10(1):97-102. [PubMed:8726814 ]
  16. Trommer H, Bottcher R, Poppl A, Hoentsch J, Wartewig S, Neubert RH: Role of ascorbic acid in stratum corneum lipid models exposed to UV irradiation. Pharm Res. 2002 Jul;19(7):982-90. [PubMed:12180551 ]
  17. Grunewald RA: Ascorbic acid in the brain. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1993 Jan-Apr;18(1):123-33. [PubMed:8467348 ]
  18. Close GL, Ashton T, Cable T, Doran D, Holloway C, McArdle F, MacLaren DP: Ascorbic acid supplementation does not attenuate post-exercise muscle soreness following muscle-damaging exercise but may delay the recovery process. Br J Nutr. 2006 May;95(5):976-81. [PubMed:16611389 ]
  19. Li C, Chen Y, Wang Q: [Whole bladder wall laser irradiation to prevent bladder cancer recurrence with intravesical HpD and ascorbic acid]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 1997 Nov;19(6):463-5. [PubMed:10920885 ]
  20. Wannamethee SG, Lowe GD, Rumley A, Bruckdorfer KR, Whincup PH: Associations of vitamin C status, fruit and vegetable intakes, and markers of inflammation and hemostasis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Mar;83(3):567-74; quiz 726-7. [PubMed:16522902 ]
  21. Padayatty SJ, Levine M: Vitamin C and myocardial infarction: the heart of the matter. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 May;71(5):1027-8. [PubMed:10799361 ]
  22. Englard S, Seifter S: The biochemical functions of ascorbic acid. Annu Rev Nutr. 1986;6:365-406. [PubMed:3015170 ]
  23. Proctor P: Similar functions of uric acid and ascorbate in man? Nature. 1970 Nov 28;228(5274):868. [PubMed:5477017 ]
  24. Meister A: Glutathione-ascorbic acid antioxidant system in animals. J Biol Chem. 1994 Apr 1;269(13):9397-400. [PubMed:8144521 ]
  25. Banhegyi G, Mandl J: The hepatic glycogenoreticular system. Pathol Oncol Res. 2001;7(2):107-10. [PubMed:11458272 ]
  26. Padayatty SJ, Katz A, Wang Y, Eck P, Kwon O, Lee JH, Chen S, Corpe C, Dutta A, Dutta SK, Levine M: Vitamin C as an antioxidant: evaluation of its role in disease prevention. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003 Feb;22(1):18-35. [PubMed:12569111 ]
  27. Korcok J, Dixon SJ, Lo TC, Wilson JX: Differential effects of glucose on dehydroascorbic acid transport and intracellular ascorbate accumulation in astrocytes and skeletal myocytes. Brain Res. 2003 Dec 12;993(1-2):201-7. [PubMed:14642847 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 29 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes 2 sequential steps in C-terminal alpha-amidation of peptides. The monooxygenase part produces an unstable peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) intermediate that is dismutated to glyoxylate and the corresponding desglycine peptide amide by the lyase part. C-terminal amidation of peptides such as neuropeptides is essential for full biological activity.
Gene Name:
PAM
Uniprot ID:
P19021
Molecular weight:
108402.425
Reactions
Peptidylglycine + Ascorbic acid + Oxygen → peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) + Dehydroascorbic acid + Waterdetails
References
  1. Romero I, Teresa Sanchez-Ballesta M, Maldonado R, Isabel Escribano M, Merodio C: Anthocyanin, antioxidant activity and stress-induced gene expression in high CO2-treated table grapes stored at low temperature. J Plant Physiol. 2008;165(5):522-30. Epub 2007 Jun 13. [PubMed:17570561 ]
  2. Floryszak-Wieczorek J, Milczarek G, Arasimowicz M, Ciszewski A: Do nitric oxide donors mimic endogenous NO-related response in plants? Planta. 2006 Nov;224(6):1363-72. Epub 2006 Jun 14. [PubMed:16773376 ]
  3. Crespo A, Marti MA, Roitberg AE, Amzel LM, Estrin DA: The catalytic mechanism of peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase investigated by computer simulation. J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Oct 4;128(39):12817-28. [PubMed:17002377 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline.
Gene Name:
DBH
Uniprot ID:
P09172
Molecular weight:
69064.45
Reactions
Dopamine + Ascorbic acid + Oxygen → xi-Norepinephrine + Dehydroascorbic acid + Waterdetails
Dopamine + Ascorbic acid + Oxygen → Norepinephrine + Dehydroascorbic acid + Waterdetails
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Suzuki E, Kurata T, Shibata M, Mori M, Arakawa N: Activities of D- and L-xyloascorbic acid and D- and L-araboascorbic acid as a cofactor for dopamine beta-hydroxylase reaction. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1997 Oct;43(5):491-6. [PubMed:9505234 ]
  4. Pettingill TM, Strange RW, Blackburn NJ: Carbonmonoxy dopamine beta-hydroxylase. Structural characterization by Fourier transform infrared, fluorescence, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. J Biol Chem. 1991 Sep 15;266(26):16996-7003. [PubMed:1894598 ]
  5. Feng J, Shi J, Sirimanne SR, Mounier-Lee CE, May SW: Kinetic and stereochemical studies on novel inactivators of C-terminal amidation. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 1;350 Pt 2:521-30. [PubMed:10947967 ]
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Converts phytanoyl-CoA to 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
PHYH
Uniprot ID:
O14832
Molecular weight:
38538.065
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name:
P4HA2
Uniprot ID:
O15460
Molecular weight:
60632.19
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name:
P4HA1
Uniprot ID:
P13674
Molecular weight:
60966.645
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
LPH splits lactose in the small intestine.
Gene Name:
LCT
Uniprot ID:
P09848
Molecular weight:
218584.77
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of L-carnitine from gamma-butyrobetaine.
Gene Name:
BBOX1
Uniprot ID:
O75936
Molecular weight:
44714.6
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Dunn WA, Rettura G, Seifter E, Englard S: Carnitine biosynthesis from gamma-butyrobetaine and from exogenous protein-bound 6-N-trimethyl-L-lysine by the perfused guinea pig liver. Effect of ascorbate deficiency on the in situ activity of gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase. J Biol Chem. 1984 Sep 10;259(17):10764-70. [PubMed:6432788 ]
  4. Vaz FM, van Gool S, Ofman R, IJlst L, Wanders RJ: Carnitine biosynthesis. Purification of gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase from rat liver. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;466:117-24. [PubMed:10709635 ]
  5. Rebouche CJ: Ascorbic acid and carnitine biosynthesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Dec;54(6 Suppl):1147S-1152S. [PubMed:1962562 ]
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecular collagen cross-links.
Gene Name:
PLOD1
Uniprot ID:
Q02809
Molecular weight:
83549.55
References
  1. Myllyla R, Majamaa K, Gunzler V, Hanauske-Abel HM, Kivirikko KI: Ascorbate is consumed stoichiometrically in the uncoupled reactions catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylase and lysyl hydroxylase. J Biol Chem. 1984 May 10;259(9):5403-5. [PubMed:6325436 ]
  2. Salavoura K, Valari M, Kolialexi A, Mavrou A, Kitsiou S: A case of Ehlers Danlos syndrome type VI. Genet Couns. 2006;17(3):291-4. [PubMed:17100196 ]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecular collagen cross-links.
Gene Name:
PLOD2
Uniprot ID:
O00469
Molecular weight:
84685.07
References
  1. Myllyla R, Majamaa K, Gunzler V, Hanauske-Abel HM, Kivirikko KI: Ascorbate is consumed stoichiometrically in the uncoupled reactions catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylase and lysyl hydroxylase. J Biol Chem. 1984 May 10;259(9):5403-5. [PubMed:6325436 ]
  2. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecular collagen cross-links.
Gene Name:
PLOD3
Uniprot ID:
O60568
Molecular weight:
84784.505
References
  1. Myllyla R, Majamaa K, Gunzler V, Hanauske-Abel HM, Kivirikko KI: Ascorbate is consumed stoichiometrically in the uncoupled reactions catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylase and lysyl hydroxylase. J Biol Chem. 1984 May 10;259(9):5403-5. [PubMed:6325436 ]
  2. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 29 proteins in total.