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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 05:44:33 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000870
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0060263
  • HMDB00870
  • HMDB60263
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHistamine
DescriptionHistamine is an amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of histidine. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter. Histamine can be found in Photobacterium phosphoreum and Lactobacillus (PMID: 17066936 )
Structure
Data?1563860673
Synonyms
ValueSource
1H-Imidazole-4-ethanamineChEBI
2-(4-Imidazolyl)ethylamineChEBI
HistaminumKegg
2-(1H-Imidazol-4-yl)ethanamineHMDB
2-(1H-Imidazol-4-yl)ethylamineHMDB
2-(1H-Imidazol-5-yl)ethanamineHMDB
2-(1H-Imidazol-5-yl)ethylamineHMDB
2-(4-Imidazolyl)ethanamineHMDB
2-Imidazol-4-yl-ethylamineHMDB
2-Imidazol-4-ylethylamineHMDB
4-(2-Aminoethyl)-1H-imidazoleHMDB
4-(2-Aminoethyl)imidazoleHMDB
4-ImidazoleethylamineHMDB
5-ImidazoleethylamineHMDB
b-Imidazolyl-4-ethylamineHMDB
beta-AminoethylglyoxalineHMDB
beta-AminoethylimidazoleHMDB
beta-AminothethylglyoxalineHMDB
beta-Imidazolyl-4-ethylamineHMDB
EraminHMDB
ErgamineHMDB
ErgotidineHMDB
Free histamineHMDB
HSMHMDB
L-Histamin baseHMDB
L-HistamineHMDB
TheramineHMDB
CepleneHMDB
Histamine dihydrochlorideHMDB
Histamine hydrochlorideHMDB
PereminHMDB
Hydrochloride, histamineHMDB
Dihydrochloride, histamineHMDB
HistamiumHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H9N3
Average Molecular Weight111.1451
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight111.079647303
IUPAC Name2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethan-1-amine
Traditional Namehistamine
CAS Registry Number51-45-6
SMILES
NCCC1=CNC=N1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H9N3/c6-2-1-5-3-7-4-8-5/h3-4H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)
InChI KeyNTYJJOPFIAHURM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 2-arylethylamines. These are primary amines that have the general formula RCCNH2, where R is an organic group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic nitrogen compounds
ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
Sub ClassAmines
Direct Parent2-arylethylamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 2-arylethylamine
  • Aralkylamine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Industrial process:

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Environmental role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point86 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP-0.70SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility169 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.69ALOGPS
logP-0.7ChemAxon
logS0.18ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.46ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.58ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area54.7 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity31.66 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability12.08 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0f79-5910000000-9946e1707fcaf5562f88JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-2910000000-8c243055df15d6ce8116JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-9710000000-bf79b524c104e1cc94baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0udi-2900000000-a40a3d0aed04ccfe9365JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-00dr-3910000000-44d8fb649d4e75eba66cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f79-5910000000-9946e1707fcaf5562f88JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-2910000000-8c243055df15d6ce8116JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9710000000-bf79b524c104e1cc94baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-2900000000-a40a3d0aed04ccfe9365JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dr-3910000000-44d8fb649d4e75eba66cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-2900000000-a40a3d0aed04ccfe9365JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dr-3910000000-44d8fb649d4e75eba66cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001i-9100000000-3de6a14d8a45af6c9d66JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-01ot-9600000000-06c58d75770dfd76aeabJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00kf-9000000000-0135b8f0628e592abc22JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000x-9000000000-6fccc177582b320a48aeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-1900000000-6cda8885da689473fb42JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-9100000000-37450d9969c24ad44ad7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-e9e368926d3146437e13JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-015a-9000000000-f51ad8a8259595600938JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-00lu-9000000000-3e02d5b58a7c9f77ec53JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-046407320168835599f0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-03di-3900000000-29ccabc0b6f5396168f2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-03di-1900000000-6cda8885da689473fb42JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0002-9100000000-37450d9969c24ad44ad7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-e9e368926d3146437e13JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-015a-9000000000-f51ad8a8259595600938JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-00lu-9000000000-77394d92ed9170d75b98JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-046407320168835599f0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-01ot-9400000000-a19fc5e555afd53dafe7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03dj-9700000000-b06ddb1eb7ed3ddf4f69JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-9200000000-a93565f24c40eddb6cf4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0uxr-9000000000-71d70766bb4f9d3b13a0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-2900000000-2705dc2d177edbc4faa4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-6900000000-9e9ebaae6f68b4c2d89dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00kf-9000000000-9d4fe74f18b21423615dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9000000000-9d57c893be8c75ce8178JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Mast Cell
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skin
  • Spleen
  • Testes
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00067 (0.00031-0.00220) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0-0.30 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.38 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000402 +/- 0.000072 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.087 (0.018-0.270) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified20 +/- 30 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.114 +/- 0.160 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.179 +/- 0.368 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.216 +/- 0.492 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.253 +/- 0.176 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.255 +/- 0.360 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.374 +/- 0.527 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3.44 +/- 4.15 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.026 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.007 (0.0036-0.011) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.03 (0.01-0.10) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified31.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.906 +/- 7.647 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0016 (0.00090-0.0038) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNephrotic syndrome details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0022 (0.0015-0.0280) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHemodialysis details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0024 (0.0015-0.0032) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Kidney disease
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0028 (0.0016-0.0120) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000392 +/- 0.000064 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedsporadic narcolepsy-cataplexy details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified18.114 +/- 13.033 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Nephrotic syndrome
  1. Gill DS, Fonseca VA, Barradas MA, Balliod R, Moorhead JF, Dandona P: Plasma histamine in patients with chronic renal failure and nephrotic syndrome. J Clin Pathol. 1991 Mar;44(3):243-5. [PubMed:2013627 ]
Hemodialysis
  1. Gill DS, Fonseca VA, Barradas MA, Balliod R, Moorhead JF, Dandona P: Plasma histamine in patients with chronic renal failure and nephrotic syndrome. J Clin Pathol. 1991 Mar;44(3):243-5. [PubMed:2013627 ]
Kidney disease
  1. Gill DS, Fonseca VA, Barradas MA, Balliod R, Moorhead JF, Dandona P: Plasma histamine in patients with chronic renal failure and nephrotic syndrome. J Clin Pathol. 1991 Mar;44(3):243-5. [PubMed:2013627 ]
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
  1. Gill DS, Fonseca VA, Barradas MA, Balliod R, Moorhead JF, Dandona P: Plasma histamine in patients with chronic renal failure and nephrotic syndrome. J Clin Pathol. 1991 Mar;44(3):243-5. [PubMed:2013627 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  2. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB05381
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012596
KNApSAcK IDC00001414
Chemspider ID753
KEGG Compound IDC00388
BioCyc IDHISTAMINE
BiGG ID1810403
Wikipedia LinkHistamine
METLIN ID68
PubChem Compound774
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID18295
References
Synthesis ReferencePyman, Frank L. 2-Thiol-4(5)-b-aminoethylglyoxaline (2-thiolhistamine). Journal of the Chemical Society (1930), 98-100.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Dvorak AM: New aspects of mast cell biology. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1997 Sep;114(1):1-9. [PubMed:9303324 ]
  2. Ito C: The role of the central histaminergic system on schizophrenia. Drug News Perspect. 2004 Jul-Aug;17(6):383-7. [PubMed:15334189 ]
  3. Bordignon V, Burastero SE: Age, gender and reactivity to allergens independently influence skin reactivity to histamine. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2006;16(2):129-35. [PubMed:16689187 ]
  4. Yosipovitch G, Fast K, Bernhard JD: Noxious heat and scratching decrease histamine-induced itch and skin blood flow. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Dec;125(6):1268-72. [PubMed:16354198 ]
  5. Koizumi H, Ohkawara A: H2 histamine receptor-mediated increase in intracellular Ca2+ in cultured human keratinocytes. J Dermatol Sci. 1999 Sep;21(2):127-32. [PubMed:10511481 ]
  6. Brew OB, Sullivan MH: Localisation of mRNAs for diamine oxidase and histamine receptors H1 and H2, at the feto-maternal interface of human pregnancy. Inflamm Res. 2001 Sep;50(9):449-52. [PubMed:11603849 ]
  7. Narasimha SK, Srinivas CR, Mathew AC: Effect of topical corticosteroid application frequency on histamine-induced wheals. Int J Dermatol. 2005 May;44(5):425-7. [PubMed:15869544 ]
  8. Musio S, Gallo B, Scabeni S, Lapilla M, Poliani PL, Matarese G, Ohtsu H, Galli SJ, Mantegazza R, Steinman L, Pedotti R: A key regulatory role for histamine in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: disease exacerbation in histidine decarboxylase-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2006 Jan 1;176(1):17-26. [PubMed:16365391 ]
  9. Kidon MI, See Y, Bun CY, Goh A, Chay OM, Balakrishnan A: Bimodal skin reactivity to histamine in atopic children in Singapore: influence of specific sensitizations. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2004 Dec;15(6):545-50. [PubMed:15610369 ]
  10. Masaki T, Yoshimatsu H, Chiba S, Watanabe T, Sakata T: Central infusion of histamine reduces fat accumulation and upregulates UCP family in leptin-resistant obese mice. Diabetes. 2001 Feb;50(2):376-84. [PubMed:11272150 ]
  11. Khandelwal JK, Hough LB, Morrishow AM, Green JP: Measurement of tele-methylhistamine and histamine in human cerebrospinal fluid, urine, and plasma. Agents Actions. 1982 Dec;12(5-6):583-90. [PubMed:7164933 ]
  12. Morgan TK, Montgomery K, Mason V, West RB, Wang L, van de Rijn M, Higgins JP: Upregulation of histidine decarboxylase expression in superficial cortical nephrons during pregnancy in mice and women. Kidney Int. 2006 Jul;70(2):306-14. Epub 2006 Jun 7. [PubMed:16760908 ]
  13. Xie H, He SH, Cheng MH, Fu YL: [Effect of tryptase inhibitors on histamine release from human colon mast cells]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2004 Nov;20(6):678-81. [PubMed:15555433 ]
  14. Gill DS, Fonseca VA, Barradas MA, Balliod R, Moorhead JF, Dandona P: Plasma histamine in patients with chronic renal failure and nephrotic syndrome. J Clin Pathol. 1991 Mar;44(3):243-5. [PubMed:2013627 ]
  15. Tedeschi A, Lorini M, Asero R: No evidence of increased serum substance P levels in chronic urticaria patients with and without demonstrable circulating vasoactive factors. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2005 Mar;30(2):171-5. [PubMed:15725248 ]
  16. Bruysters M, Jongejan A, Gillard M, van de Manakker F, Bakker RA, Chatelain P, Leurs R: Pharmacological differences between human and guinea pig histamine H1 receptors: Asn84 (2.61) as key residue within an additional binding pocket in the H1 receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Apr;67(4):1045-52. Epub 2004 Dec 30. [PubMed:15626750 ]
  17. Ronchetti R, Villa MP, Rennerova Z, Haluszka J, Dawi EB, Di Felice G, Al-Bousafy A, Zakrzewski J, Barletta B, Barreto M: Allergen skin weal/radioallergosorbent test relationship in childhood populations that differ in histamine skin reactivity: a multi-national survey. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005 Jan;35(1):70-4. [PubMed:15649269 ]
  18. Yamamoto T, Katayama I, Nishioka K: Possible contribution of stem cell factor in psoriasis vulgaris. J Dermatol Sci. 2000 Dec;24(3):171-6. [PubMed:11084298 ]
  19. Fahmy NR, Sunder N, Soter NA: Role of histamine in the hemodynamic and plasma catecholamine responses to morphine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1983 May;33(5):615-20. [PubMed:6839633 ]
  20. Kyllonen H, Malmberg P, Remitz A, Rytila P, Metso T, Helenius I, Haahtela T, Reitamo S: Respiratory symptoms, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, and eosinophilic airway inflammation in patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2006 Feb;36(2):192-7. [PubMed:16433856 ]
  21. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  22. Thiele I, Swainston N, Fleming RM, Hoppe A, Sahoo S, Aurich MK, Haraldsdottir H, Mo ML, Rolfsson O, Stobbe MD, Thorleifsson SG, Agren R, Bolling C, Bordel S, Chavali AK, Dobson P, Dunn WB, Endler L, Hala D, Hucka M, Hull D, Jameson D, Jamshidi N, Jonsson JJ, Juty N, Keating S, Nookaew I, Le Novere N, Malys N, Mazein A, Papin JA, Price ND, Selkov E Sr, Sigurdsson MI, Simeonidis E, Sonnenschein N, Smallbone K, Sorokin A, van Beek JH, Weichart D, Goryanin I, Nielsen J, Westerhoff HV, Kell DB, Mendes P, Palsson BO: A community-driven global reconstruction of human metabolism. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 May;31(5):419-25. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2488. Epub 2013 Mar 3. [PubMed:23455439 ]
  23. de las Rivas B, Marcobal A, Carrascosa AV, Munoz R: PCR detection of foodborne bacteria producing the biogenic amines histamine, tyramine, putrescine, and cadaverine. J Food Prot. 2006 Oct;69(10):2509-14. [PubMed:17066936 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 11 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
Gene Name:
DDC
Uniprot ID:
P20711
Molecular weight:
53893.755
Reactions
L-Histidine → Histamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the degradation of compounds such as putrescine, histamine, spermine, and spermidine, substances involved in allergic and immune responses, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation, tumor formation, and possibly apoptosis. Placental DAO is thought to play a role in the regulation of the female reproductive function.
Gene Name:
ABP1
Uniprot ID:
P19801
Molecular weight:
85377.1
Reactions
Histamine + Water + Oxygen → Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Has a monoamine oxidase activity with substrate specificity for 2-phenylethylamine and tryptamine. May play a role in adipogenesis. May be a critical modulator of signal transmission in retina.
Gene Name:
AOC2
Uniprot ID:
O75106
Molecular weight:
80515.11
General function:
Involved in histamine N-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Inactivates histamine by N-methylation. Plays an important role in degrading histamine and in regulating the airway response to histamine.
Gene Name:
HNMT
Uniprot ID:
P50135
Molecular weight:
6045.9
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + Histamine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + 1-Methylhistaminedetails
General function:
Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of histamine from histidine.
Gene Name:
HDC
Uniprot ID:
P19113
Molecular weight:
74139.825
Reactions
L-Histidine → Histamine + CO(2)details
L-Histidine → Histamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The H2 subclass of histamine receptors mediates gastric acid secretion. Also appears to regulate gastrointestinal motility and intestinal secretion. Possible role in regulating cell growth and differentiation. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase and, through a separate G protein-dependent mechanism, the phosphoinositide/protein kinase (PKC) signaling pathway
Gene Name:
HRH2
Uniprot ID:
P25021
Molecular weight:
40097.7
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Involved in the ATP-dependent vesicular transport of biogenic amine neurotransmitters. Pumps cytosolic monoamines including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and histamine into synaptic vesicles. Requisite for vesicular amine storage prior to secretion via exocytosis
Gene Name:
SLC18A2
Uniprot ID:
Q05940
Molecular weight:
55712.1
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The H3 subclass of histamine receptors could mediate the histamine signals in CNS and peripheral nervous system. Signals through the inhibition of adenylate cyclase and displays high constitutive activity (spontaneous activity in the absence of agonist). Agonist stimulation of isoform 3 niether modified adenylate cyclase activity nor induced intracellular calcium mobilization
Gene Name:
HRH3
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5N1
Molecular weight:
48670.8
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamine release from adrenal medulla, as well as mediating neurotransmission in the central nervous system
Gene Name:
HRH1
Uniprot ID:
P35367
Molecular weight:
55783.6
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The H4 subclass of histamine receptors could mediate the histamine signals in peripheral tissues. Displays a significant level of constitutive activity (spontaneous activity in the absence of agonist)
Gene Name:
HRH4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H3N8
Molecular weight:
44495.4

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 11 proteins in total.