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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-12-20 20:29:23 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001113
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01113
Metabolite Identification
Common NameIsovaleryl-CoA
DescriptionIsovaleryl-CoA is an intermediate metabolite in the catabolic pathway of leucine. The accumulation of derivatives of isovaleryl-CoA occurs in patients affected with isovaleric acidemia (IVA, OMIM 243500 ) an autosomal recessive inborn error of leucine metabolism caused by a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD, EC 1.3.99.10, a flavoenzyme that catalyzes the conversion of isovaleryl-CoA to 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA). IVA was the first organic acidemia recognized in humans and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment with a protein restricted diet and supplementation with carnitine and glycine are effective in promoting normal development in severely affected individuals. Both intra- and interfamilial variability have been recognized. Initially, two phenotypes with either an acute neonatal or a chronic intermittent presentation were described. More recently, a third group of individuals with mild biochemical abnormalities who can be asymptomatic have been identified through newborn screening of blood spots by tandem mass spectrometry. The majority of patients with IVA today are diagnosed pre-symptomatically through newborn screening by use of MS/MS which reveals elevations of the marker metabolite C5 acylcarnitine in dried blood spots. C5 acylcarnitine represents a mixture of isomers (isovalerylcarnitine, 2-methylbutyrylcarnitine, and pivaloylcarnitine). (PMID: 16602101 , Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2006 May 15;142(2):95-103.).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
3-Methylbutanoyl-CoAHMDB
3-Methylbutanoyl-coenzyme AHMDB
3-Methylbutyryl-CoAHMDB
3-Methylbutyryl-coenzyme AHMDB
Isovaleryl CoAHMDB
Isovaleryl coenzyme AHMDB
Isovaleryl-coenzyme AHMDB
S-(3-MethylbutanoateHMDB
S-(3-Methylbutanoate) coenzyme AHMDB
S-(3-Methylbutanoic acidHMDB
S-Isovalerate CoAHMDB
S-Isovalerate coenzyme AHMDB
Chemical FormulaC26H44N7O17P3S
Average Molecular Weight851.651
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight851.172723243
IUPAC Name{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-2-({[hydroxy({[hydroxy(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-3-{[2-({2-[(3-methylbutanoyl)sulfanyl]ethyl}carbamoyl)ethyl]carbamoyl}propoxy)phosphoryl]oxy})phosphoryl]oxy}methyl)oxolan-3-yl]oxy}phosphonic acid
Traditional Name[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-2-[({hydroxy[hydroxy(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-3-{[2-({2-[(3-methylbutanoyl)sulfanyl]ethyl}carbamoyl)ethyl]carbamoyl}propoxy)phosphoryl]oxyphosphoryl}oxy)methyl]oxolan-3-yl]oxyphosphonic acid
CAS Registry Number6244-91-3
SMILES
CC(C)CC(=O)SCCNC(=O)CCNC(=O)C(O)C(C)(C)COP(O)(=O)OP(O)(=O)OC[C@H]1O[C@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H]1OP(O)(O)=O)N1C=NC2=C1N=CN=C2N
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C26H44N7O17P3S/c1-14(2)9-17(35)54-8-7-28-16(34)5-6-29-24(38)21(37)26(3,4)11-47-53(44,45)50-52(42,43)46-10-15-20(49-51(39,40)41)19(36)25(48-15)33-13-32-18-22(27)30-12-31-23(18)33/h12-15,19-21,25,36-37H,5-11H2,1-4H3,(H,28,34)(H,29,38)(H,42,43)(H,44,45)(H2,27,30,31)(H2,39,40,41)/t15-,19-,20-,21?,25-/m1/s1
InChI KeyUYVZIWWBJMYRCD-TVCSPYKZSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acyl coas. These are organic compounds containing a coenzyme A substructure linked to an acyl chain.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acyl thioesters
Direct ParentAcyl CoAs
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Coenzyme a or derivatives
  • Purine ribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphate
  • Purine ribonucleoside bisphosphate
  • Purine ribonucleoside diphosphate
  • Ribonucleoside 3'-phosphate
  • Pentose phosphate
  • Pentose-5-phosphate
  • Beta amino acid or derivatives
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • Organic pyrophosphate
  • Pentose monosaccharide
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Purine
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • N-acyl-amine
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Monosaccharide
  • Pyrimidine
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Fatty amide
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Carbothioic s-ester
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Thiocarboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxamide group
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Sulfenyl compound
  • Thiocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Oxacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.7 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.27ALOGPS
logP-5.5ChemAxon
logS-2.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.83ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count17ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count9ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area363.63 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count22ChemAxon
Refractivity185.98 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability76.98 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0019-1931000110-b2afc6d2ba835d30ec49View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-01p9-1921000000-4c18b5732559828d4704View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-2910000000-974dafa370412f89fd89View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-8920041450-3ff7ad1794898ff16567View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-4910110000-77f2bce58e0f539fbc13View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-057i-7900100000-6838e5a598f72e52d653View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022430
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID388897
KEGG Compound IDC02939
BioCyc IDISOVALERYL-COA
BiGG ID40861
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN ID451
PubChem Compound439855
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15487
References
Synthesis ReferenceValentin, Henry E.; Steinbuechel, Alexander. Application of enzymically synthesized short-chain-length hydroxy fatty acid coenzyme A thioesters for assay of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid synthases. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (1994), 40(5), 699-709.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Vockley J, Ensenauer R: Isovaleric acidemia: new aspects of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2006 May 15;142C(2):95-103. [PubMed:16602101 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 112 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Abolishes BNIP3-mediated apoptosis and mitochondrial damage.
Gene Name:
ACAA2
Uniprot ID:
P42765
Molecular weight:
41923.82
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACAA1
Uniprot ID:
P09110
Molecular weight:
34664.46
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HADHB
Uniprot ID:
P55084
Molecular weight:
51293.955
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Plays a role in valine and pyrimidine metabolism. Binds fatty acyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
ALDH6A1
Uniprot ID:
Q02252
Molecular weight:
57839.31
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACADL
Uniprot ID:
P28330
Molecular weight:
47655.275
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACADS
Uniprot ID:
P16219
Molecular weight:
44296.705
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme is specific for acyl chain lengths of 4 to 16.
Gene Name:
ACADM
Uniprot ID:
P11310
Molecular weight:
46587.98
Reactions
Isovaleryl-CoA + FAD → 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA + FADHdetails
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the desaturation of acyl-CoAs to 2-trans-enoyl-CoAs. Isoform 1 shows highest activity against medium-chain fatty acyl-CoAs and activity decreases with increasing chain length. Isoform 2 is active against a much broader range of substrates and shows activity towards very long-chain acyl-CoAs. Isoform 2 is twice as active as isoform 1 against 16-hydroxy-palmitoyl-CoA and is 25% more active against 1,16-hexadecanodioyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
ACOX1
Uniprot ID:
Q15067
Molecular weight:
70135.205
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Oxidizes the CoA esters of the bile acid intermediates di- and tri-hydroxycholestanoic acids.
Gene Name:
ACOX2
Uniprot ID:
Q99424
Molecular weight:
76826.14
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IVD
Uniprot ID:
P26440
Molecular weight:
43055.325
Reactions
Isovaleryl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein → 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA + reduced electron-transfer flavoproteindetails
Isovaleryl-CoA + FAD → 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA + FADHdetails

Transporters

General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Involved in translocation of long-chain fatty acids (LFCA) across the plasma membrane. The LFCA import appears to be hormone-regulated in a tissue-specific manner. In adipocytes, but not myocytes, insulin induces a rapid translocation of FATP1 from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane, paralleled by increased LFCA uptake. May act directly as a bona fide transporter, or alternatively, in a cytoplasmic or membrane- associated multimeric protein complex to trap and draw fatty acids towards accumulation. Plays a pivotal role in regulating available LFCA substrates from exogenous sources in tissues undergoing high levels of beta-oxidation or triglyceride synthesis. May be involved in regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Has acyl-CoA ligase activity for long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acids
Gene Name:
SLC27A1
Uniprot ID:
Q6PCB7
Molecular weight:
71107.5

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 112 proteins in total.