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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-05-10 16:44:50 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001388
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01388
Metabolite Identification
Common Namealpha-Linolenic acid
Descriptionalpha-Linolenic acid (ALA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). It is a member of the group of essential fatty acids called omega-3 fatty acids. alpha-Linolenic acid, in particular, is not synthesized by mammals and therefore is an essential dietary requirement for all mammals. Certain nuts (English walnuts) and vegetable oils (canola, soybean, flaxseed/linseed, olive) are particularly rich in alpha-linolenic acid. Omega-3 fatty acids get their name based on the location of one of their first double bond. In all omega-3 fatty acids, the first double bond is located between the third and fourth carbon atom counting from the methyl end of the fatty acid (n-3). Although humans and other mammals can synthesize saturated and some monounsaturated fatty acids from carbon groups in carbohydrates and proteins, they lack the enzymes necessary to insert a cis double bond at the n-6 or the n-3 position of a fatty acid. Omega-3 fatty acids like alpha-linolenic acid are important structural components of cell membranes. When incorporated into phospholipids, they affect cell membrane properties such as fluidity, flexibility, permeability, and the activity of membrane-bound enzymes. Omega-3 fatty acids can modulate the expression of a number of genes, including those involved with fatty acid metabolism and inflammation. alpha-Linolenic acid and other omega-3 fatty acids may regulate gene expression by interacting with specific transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and liver X receptors (LXRs). alpha-Linolenic acid is found to be associated with isovaleric acidemia, which is an inborn error of metabolism.
Structure
Data?1557506690
Synonyms
ValueSource
(9,12,15)-Linolenic acidChEBI
(9Z,12Z,15Z)-Octadecatrienoic acidChEBI
(Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acidChEBI
9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acidChEBI
9-cis,12-cis,15-cis-Octadecatrienoic acidChEBI
ALAChEBI
all-cis-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acidChEBI
cis,cis,cis-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acidChEBI
cis-Delta(9,12,15)-Octadecatrienoic acidChEBI
Linolenic acidChEBI
LinolenateKegg
alpha-LinolenateKegg
(9,12,15)-LinolenateGenerator
(9Z,12Z,15Z)-OctadecatrienoateGenerator
(Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-OctadecatrienoateGenerator
9,12,15-OctadecatrienoateGenerator
9-cis,12-cis,15-cis-OctadecatrienoateGenerator
all-cis-9,12,15-OctadecatrienoateGenerator
cis,cis,cis-9,12,15-OctadecatrienoateGenerator
cis-delta(9,12,15)-OctadecatrienoateGenerator
cis-Δ(9,12,15)-octadecatrienoateGenerator
cis-Δ(9,12,15)-octadecatrienoic acidGenerator
a-LinolenateGenerator
a-Linolenic acidGenerator
Α-linolenateGenerator
Α-linolenic acidGenerator
alpha Linolenic acidHMDB
alpha Linolenic acid, ammonium saltHMDB
alpha Linolenic acid, potassium saltHMDB
alpha Linolenic acid, zinc saltHMDB
alpha-Linolenic acid, (e,e,e)-isomerHMDB
alpha-Linolenic acid, ammonium saltHMDB
alpha-Linolenic acid, calcium saltHMDB
alpha-Linolenic acid, potassium saltHMDB
alpha Linolenic acid, magnesium saltHMDB
alpha-Linolenic acid, (e,Z,e)-isomerHMDB
alpha-Linolenic acid, (e,Z,Z)-isomerHMDB
alpha-Linolenic acid, sodium saltHMDB
alpha-Linolenic acid, tin(2+) saltHMDB
alpha-Linolenic acid, (e,e,Z)-isomerHMDB
alpha-Linolenic acid, (Z,e,e)-isomerHMDB
alpha-Linolenic acid, (Z,e,Z)-isomerHMDB
alpha-Linolenic acid, magnesium saltHMDB
alpha Linolenic acid, calcium saltHMDB
alpha Linolenic acid, lithium saltHMDB
alpha Linolenic acid, sodium saltHMDB
alpha-Linolenic acid, (Z,Z,e)-isomerHMDB
alpha-Linolenic acid, lithium saltHMDB
alpha-Linolenic acid, zinc saltHMDB
cis-9,12,15-OctadecatrienoateHMDB
cis-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acidHMDB
Industrene 120HMDB
FA(18:3(9Z,12Z,15Z))HMDB
FA(18:3n3)HMDB
Chemical FormulaC18H30O2
Average Molecular Weight278.4296
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight278.224580204
IUPAC Name(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic acid
Traditional Nameα linolenic acid
CAS Registry Number463-40-1
SMILES
CC\C=C/C\C=C/C\C=C/CCCCCCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C18H30O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18(19)20/h3-4,6-7,9-10H,2,5,8,11-17H2,1H3,(H,19,20)/b4-3-,7-6-,10-9-
InChI KeyDTOSIQBPPRVQHS-PDBXOOCHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as lineolic acids and derivatives. These are derivatives of lineolic acid. Lineolic acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 18 carbon long fatty acid, with two CC double bonds at the 9- and 12-positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassLineolic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentLineolic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Octadecanoid
  • Long-chain fatty acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-16.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP6.46SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00027 g/LALOGPS
logP6.62ALOGPS
logP6.06ChemAxon
logS-6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.99ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count13ChemAxon
Refractivity89.64 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability34.98 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-052f-7900000000-8765cf82603feb1b448fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-004i-9300000000-302519a616eaed5fcc59JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-005c-9800000000-2d44b3c70e2992b9a812JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-052f-7900000000-8765cf82603feb1b448fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-9300000000-302519a616eaed5fcc59JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-005c-9800000000-2d44b3c70e2992b9a812JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-052f-5900000000-28710ea35f196c595e03JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-052e-6950000000-27037263e74c8119ead0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00ds-6931000000-657fa0cc66a206a36409JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-004i-0190000000-aee97e9ea2c7f0783adfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-05nb-9500000000-fb92aefc701027239359JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0aru-9100000000-a5dddfe6f629d1371facJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-2b7bea03a685454dd135JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-53ddfaed6ce13c37d957JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-e5350a66361bc63d1071JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 30V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-5731aa5e301022c06813JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0091010000-6922411e48d747e592b5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , negativesplash10-001i-0090000000-a18b573ad888d048efa6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-TOF , negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-2b7bea03a685454dd135JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-TOF , negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-e5350a66361bc63d1071JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-TOF , negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-5731aa5e301022c06813JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01t9-0090000000-ae1f482177d0e208165eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00o0-5690000000-20804c8382f14ff0ccf4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014l-8930000000-9d5e342b1351adc71c20JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-4d3e8d1180800a7b4ed5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0059-1090000000-67ab14c068a142dd3c30JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9230000000-403c610d63380e63109aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Muscle
  • Nervous Tissues
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified7.183 +/- 3.592 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified7.183 +/- 35.916 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified10.775 +/- 3.592 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified10.775 +/- 3.592 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified5.962 +/- 3.0528 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified72.191 +/- 31.606 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified79.0146 +/- 33.0425 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified8.548 +/- 3.771 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified80 +/- 30 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified100 +/- 40 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified5.11 +/- 3.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified17.5 +/- 7.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified16.8 +/- 7.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified18.5 +/- 7.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.1 +/- 0.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.975 +/- 1.223 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified73.0 +/- 45.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.115 +/- 0.004 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not AvailableNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.73 +/- 0.54 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified66.803 +/- 30.169 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDepression details
BloodDetected and Quantified21.2 +/- 7.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHypertension details
BloodDetected and Quantified20.5 +/- 7.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleEssential hypertension details
BloodDetected and Quantified22.7 +/- 6.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleEssential hypertension details
BloodDetected and Quantified24.8 +/- 13.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Isovaleric acidemia
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.49 +/- 0.46 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleCancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Hypertension
  1. Wang S, Ma A, Song S, Quan Q, Zhao X, Zheng X: Fasting serum free fatty acid composition, waist/hip ratio and insulin activity in essential hypertensive patients. Hypertens Res. 2008 Apr;31(4):623-32. doi: 10.1291/hypres.31.623. [PubMed:18633173 ]
Essential hypertension
  1. Wang S, Ma A, Song S, Quan Q, Zhao X, Zheng X: Fasting serum free fatty acid composition, waist/hip ratio and insulin activity in essential hypertensive patients. Hypertens Res. 2008 Apr;31(4):623-32. doi: 10.1291/hypres.31.623. [PubMed:18633173 ]
Major depressive disorder
  1. Sublette ME, Segal-Isaacson CJ, Cooper TB, Fekri S, Vanegas N, Galfalvy HC, Oquendo MA, Mann JJ: Validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in subjects with and without major depressive disorder. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Jan;111(1):117-123.e1-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2010.10.007. [PubMed:21185973 ]
Isovaleric acidemia
  1. Dercksen M, Kulik W, Mienie LJ, Reinecke CJ, Wanders RJ, Duran M: Polyunsaturated fatty acid status in treated isovaleric acidemia patients. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Oct;70(10):1123-1126. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.100. Epub 2016 Jun 22. [PubMed:27329611 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  2. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Thyroid cancer
  1. Kim KM, Jung BH, Lho DS, Chung WY, Paeng KJ, Chung BC: Alteration of urinary profiles of endogenous steroids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in thyroid cancer. Cancer Lett. 2003 Dec 30;202(2):173-9. [PubMed:14643447 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB00132
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012462
KNApSAcK IDC00007247
Chemspider ID4444437
KEGG Compound IDC06427
BioCyc IDLINOLENIC_ACID
BiGG ID48237
Wikipedia LinkAlpha-Linolenic_acid
METLIN ID6208
PubChem Compound5280934
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID27432
References
Synthesis ReferenceLi, Guihua; Qian, Xiangming; Jiang, Yanchao; Ma, Shushi. Preparation of a-linolenic acid from linseed oil. Zhengzhou Gongcheng Xueyuan Xuebao (2004), 25(3), 13-15.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Richieri GV, Ogata RT, Kleinfeld AM: Equilibrium constants for the binding of fatty acids with fatty acid-binding proteins from adipocyte, intestine, heart, and liver measured with the fluorescent probe ADIFAB. J Biol Chem. 1994 Sep 30;269(39):23918-30. [PubMed:7929039 ]
  2. Bajaj M, Suraamornkul S, Romanelli A, Cline GW, Mandarino LJ, Shulman GI, DeFronzo RA: Effect of a sustained reduction in plasma free fatty acid concentration on intramuscular long-chain fatty Acyl-CoAs and insulin action in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes. 2005 Nov;54(11):3148-53. [PubMed:16249438 ]
  3. Christensen JH, Fabrin K, Borup K, Barber N, Poulsen J: Prostate tissue and leukocyte levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in men with benign prostate hyperplasia or prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2006 Feb;97(2):270-3. [PubMed:16430627 ]
  4. Attar-Bashi NM, Frauman AG, Sinclair AJ: Alpha-linolenic acid and the risk of prostate cancer. What is the evidence? J Urol. 2004 Apr;171(4):1402-7. [PubMed:15017185 ]
  5. Rastogi SK, Singh J: Effect of chemical penetration enhancer and iontophoresis on the in vitro percutaneous absorption enhancement of insulin through porcine epidermis. Pharm Dev Technol. 2005;10(1):97-104. [PubMed:15776817 ]
  6. Allman MA, Pena MM, Pang D: Supplementation with flaxseed oil versus sunflowerseed oil in healthy young men consuming a low fat diet: effects on platelet composition and function. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995 Mar;49(3):169-78. [PubMed:7774533 ]
  7. Fokkema MR, Brouwer DA, Hasperhoven MB, Martini IA, Muskiet FA: Short-term supplementation of low-dose gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or GLA plus ALA does not augment LCP omega 3 status of Dutch vegans to an appreciable extent. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000 Nov;63(5):287-92. [PubMed:11090255 ]
  8. Becker CC, Lund P, Holmer G, Jensen H, Sandstrom B: Effects of butter oil blends with increased concentrations of stearic, oleic and linolenic acid on blood lipids in young adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1999 Jul;53(7):535-41. [PubMed:10452408 ]
  9. Jones DB, Scaretto L, Carter R, Mann JI: Glucose, insulin and platelet fatty acids following myocardial infarction: an association with infarct size. Diabete Metab. 1987 Jul-Aug;13(4):463-6. [PubMed:3315767 ]
  10. Crastes de Paulet A, Babin F, Billeaud C, Bougle D, Sarda P, Mendy F: [Biological effects on premature neonates of a milk formula enriched with alpha-linolenic acid: a multicenter study]. Bull Acad Natl Med. 1994 Feb;178(2):267-73; discussion 273-8. [PubMed:7913655 ]
  11. Li D, Sinclair A, Wilson A, Nakkote S, Kelly F, Abedin L, Mann N, Turner A: Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid on thrombotic risk factors in vegetarian men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 May;69(5):872-82. [PubMed:10232625 ]
  12. Bhatia KS, Singh J: Effect of linolenic acid/ethanol or limonene/ethanol and iontophoresis on the in vitro percutaneous absorption of LHRH and ultrastructure of human epidermis. Int J Pharm. 1999 Apr 15;180(2):235-50. [PubMed:10370194 ]
  13. Baylin A, Kabagambe EK, Ascherio A, Spiegelman D, Campos H: Adipose tissue alpha-linolenic acid and nonfatal acute myocardial infarction in Costa Rica. Circulation. 2003 Apr 1;107(12):1586-91. Epub 2003 Mar 10. [PubMed:12668490 ]
  14. Williard DE, Nwankwo JO, Kaduce TL, Harmon SD, Irons M, Moser HW, Raymond GV, Spector AA: Identification of a fatty acid delta6-desaturase deficiency in human skin fibroblasts. J Lipid Res. 2001 Apr;42(4):501-8. [PubMed:11290821 ]
  15. Campbell FM, Gordon MJ, Dutta-Roy AK: Preferential uptake of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids by isolated human placental membranes. Mol Cell Biochem. 1996 Feb 9;155(1):77-83. [PubMed:8717442 ]
  16. Cunnane SC, Hamadeh MJ, Liede AC, Thompson LU, Wolever TM, Jenkins DJ: Nutritional attributes of traditional flaxseed in healthy young adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Jan;61(1):62-8. [PubMed:7825540 ]
  17. Connor WE: Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):171S-5S. [PubMed:10617967 ]
  18. Lauritzen I, Blondeau N, Heurteaux C, Widmann C, Romey G, Lazdunski M: Polyunsaturated fatty acids are potent neuroprotectors. EMBO J. 2000 Apr 17;19(8):1784-93. [PubMed:10775263 ]
  19. Cho E, Hung S, Willett WC, Spiegelman D, Rimm EB, Seddon JM, Colditz GA, Hankinson SE: Prospective study of dietary fat and the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Feb;73(2):209-18. [PubMed:11157315 ]
  20. Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ: Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2002 Nov 19;106(21):2747-57. [PubMed:12438303 ]
  21. Brouwer IA, Katan MB, Zock PL: Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Nutr. 2004 Apr;134(4):919-22. [PubMed:15051847 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 30 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. This isozyme hydrolyzes more efficiently L-alpha-1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine than L-alpha-1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl phosphatidylcholine, L-alpha-1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl phosphatidylethanolamine, or L-alpha-1-stearoyl-2-arachidonyl phosphatidylinositol. May be involved in the production of lung surfactant, the remodeling or regulation of cardiac muscle.
Gene Name:
PLA2G5
Uniprot ID:
P39877
Molecular weight:
15674.065
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + alpha-Linolenic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Hydrolyzes phosphatidylglycerol versus phosphatidylcholine with a 15-fold preference.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2F
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZM2
Molecular weight:
23256.29
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + alpha-Linolenic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Selectively hydrolyzes arachidonyl phospholipids in the sn-2 position releasing arachidonic acid. Together with its lysophospholipid activity, it is implicated in the initiation of the inflammatory response.
Gene Name:
PLA2G4A
Uniprot ID:
P47712
Molecular weight:
85210.19
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + alpha-Linolenic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides.
Gene Name:
PLA2G1B
Uniprot ID:
P04054
Molecular weight:
16359.535
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + alpha-Linolenic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
Not known; does not seem to have catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
PLA2G12B
Uniprot ID:
Q9BX93
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + alpha-Linolenic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Has a powerful potency for releasing arachidonic acid from cell membrane phospholipids. Prefers phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine liposomes to those of phosphatidylserine.
Gene Name:
PLA2G10
Uniprot ID:
O15496
Molecular weight:
18153.04
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + alpha-Linolenic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Has a preference for arachidonic-containing phospholipids.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2E
Uniprot ID:
Q9NZK7
Molecular weight:
15988.525
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + alpha-Linolenic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Does not exhibit detectable activity toward sn-2-arachidonoyl- or linoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine or -phosphatidylethanolamine.
Gene Name:
PLA2G12A
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZM1
Molecular weight:
21066.99
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + alpha-Linolenic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the release of fatty acids from phospholipids. It has been implicated in normal phospholipid remodeling, nitric oxide-induced or vasopressin-induced arachidonic acid release and in leukotriene and prostaglandin production. May participate in fas mediated apoptosis and in regulating transmembrane ion flux in glucose-stimulated B-cells. Has a role in cardiolipin (CL) deacylation. Required for both speed and directionality of monocyte MCP1/CCL2-induced chemotaxis through regulation of F-actin polymerization at the pseudopods. Isoform ankyrin-iPLA2-1 and isoform ankyrin-iPLA2-2, which lack the catalytic domain, are probably involved in the negative regulation of iPLA2 activity.
Gene Name:
PLA2G6
Uniprot ID:
O60733
Molecular weight:
84092.635
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + alpha-Linolenic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
Thought to participate in the regulation of the phospholipid metabolism in biomembranes including eicosanoid biosynthesis. Catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2A
Uniprot ID:
P14555
Molecular weight:
16082.525
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + alpha-Linolenic aciddetails

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 30 proteins in total.