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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 15:12:41 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 05:45:42 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0003213
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB03213
Metabolite Identification
Common NameRaffinose
DescriptionRaffinose is a complex carbohydrate. It is a trisaccharide composed of galactose, fructose, and glucose. It can be found in beans, cabbage, brussels sprouts, broccoli, asparagus, other vegetables, and whole grains. Raffinose is hydrolyzed to D-galactose and sucrose by D-galactosidase (D-GAL). D-GAL also hydrolyzes other D-galactosides such as stachyose, verbascose, and galactinol [1-O-(D-galactosyl)-myoinositol], if present. The enzyme does not cleave linked galactose, as in lactose. Raffinose is also known as melitose and may be thought of as galactose and sucrose connected via an alpha(1->6) glycosidic linkage. Thus, raffinose can be broken down into galactose and sucrose via the enzyme alpha-galactosidase. Human intestines do not contain this enzyme (Wikipedia). Raffinose is a trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal (PubChem).
Structure
Data?1563860742
Synonyms
ValueSource
6g-alpha-D-GalactosylsucroseChEBI
alpha-D-Galactopyranosyl-(1->6)-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl beta-D-fructofuranosideChEBI
alpha-D-Galp-(1->6)-alpha-D-GLCP-(12)-beta-D-frufChEBI
GossyposeChEBI
MelitoseChEBI
MelitrioseChEBI
RafinoseChEBI
RaflinoseChEBI
6g-a-D-GalactosylsucroseGenerator
6g-Α-D-galactosylsucroseGenerator
a-D-Galactopyranosyl-(1->6)-a-D-glucopyranosyl b-D-fructofuranosideGenerator
Α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1->6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl β-D-fructofuranosideGenerator
a-D-Galp-(1->6)-a-D-GLCP-(12)-b-D-frufGenerator
Α-D-galp-(1->6)-α-D-GLCP-(12)-β-D-frufGenerator
D-(+)-RaffinoseHMDB
D-RaffinoseHMDB
beta-D-Fructofuranosyl O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)-alpha-D-glucopyranosideHMDB
Β-D-fructofuranosyl O-α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)-α-D-glucopyranosideHMDB
RaffinoseHMDB
Chemical FormulaC18H32O16
Average Molecular Weight504.4371
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight504.169034976
IUPAC Name(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-{[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}-6-({[(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol
Traditional Nameraffinose
CAS Registry Number512-69-6
SMILES
OC[C@H]1O[C@@](CO)(O[C@H]2O[C@H](CO[C@H]3O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]3O)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]2O)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C18H32O16/c19-1-5-8(22)11(25)13(27)16(31-5)30-3-7-9(23)12(26)14(28)17(32-7)34-18(4-21)15(29)10(24)6(2-20)33-18/h5-17,19-29H,1-4H2/t5-,6-,7-,8+,9-,10-,11+,12+,13-,14-,15+,16+,17-,18+/m1/s1
InChI KeyMUPFEKGTMRGPLJ-ZQSKZDJDSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as oligosaccharides. These are carbohydrates made up of 3 to 10 monosaccharide units linked to each other through glycosidic bonds.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentOligosaccharides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Oligosaccharide
  • C-glycosyl compound
  • Glycosyl compound
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Ketal
  • Oxane
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Acetal
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Alcohol
  • Primary alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point80 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility203 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility669 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.4ALOGPS
logP-6.3ChemAxon
logS0.12ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count16ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count11ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area268.68 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity101.19 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability46.17 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
BioavailabilityNoChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0i00-0984100000-9982c277f436fd7788a5Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01q9-0901000000-0da93ae66a255c539613Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03gi-0905000000-b14ef3fbf37ecca83a6bSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03dl-9800000000-07dcde9d0cb5481f432bSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-2901000000-f86191b929c7806ddd56Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03fr-0900000000-e4a2b4341d424cbea7d0Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-002e-6910000000-5d77ce1936f86d2012feSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
Tissue Locations
  • Platelet
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified4.8 +/- 5.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not Quantified Newborn (0-30 days old)Both
Sepsis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
Sepsis
  1. Stewart CJ, Embleton ND, Marrs ECL, Smith DP, Fofanova T, Nelson A, Skeath T, Perry JD, Petrosino JF, Berrington JE, Cummings SP: Longitudinal development of the gut microbiome and metabolome in preterm neonates with late onset sepsis and healthy controls. Microbiome. 2017 Jul 12;5(1):75. doi: 10.1186/s40168-017-0295-1. [PubMed:28701177 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDC00001145
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC00492
BioCyc IDCPD-1099
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkRaffinose
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound439242
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16634
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDRAFFIN
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Toussaint M, Latger-Cannard V, Caron A, Lecompte T, Vigneron C, Menu P: Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers do not alter platelet functions: study of three chemically modified hemoglobin solutions. Intensive Care Med. 2003 Jan;29(1):62-8. Epub 2002 Nov 30. [PubMed:12528024 ]
  2. Gross KC, Houghton MP, Senterfit LB: Presumptive speciation of Streptococcus bovis and other group D streptococci from human sources by using arginine and pyruvate tests. J Clin Microbiol. 1975 Jan;1(1):54-60. [PubMed:1176592 ]
  3. Xue S, Paterson W, Valdez D, Miller D, Christoff B, Wong LT, Diamant NE: Effect of an o-raffinose cross-linked haemoglobin product on oesophageal and lower oesophageal sphincter motor function. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 1999 Dec;11(6):421-30. [PubMed:10583849 ]
  4. Persson AE, Schnermann J, Agerup B, Eriksson NE: The hydraulic conductivity of the rat proximal tubular wall determined with colloidal solutions. Pflugers Arch. 1975 Oct 16;360(1):25-44. [PubMed:1237863 ]
  5. Lobley RW, Burrows PC, Warwick R, Dawson DJ, Holmes R: Simultaneous assessment of intestinal permeability and lactose tolerance with orally administered raffinose, lactose and L-arabinose. Clin Sci (Lond). 1990 Aug;79(2):175-83. [PubMed:2167807 ]
  6. Rodrigues Silva C, Dutra de Oliveira JE, de Souza RA, Silva HC: Effect of a rice bran fiber diet on serum glucose levels of diabetic patients in Brazil. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2005 Mar;55(1):23-7. [PubMed:16187674 ]
  7. Hessels J, Snoeyink EJ, Platenkamp AJ, Voortman G, Steggink J, Eidhof HH: Assessment of intestinal permeability: enzymatic determination of urinary mannitol, raffinose, sucrose and lactose on Hitachi analyzer. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003 Jan;41(1):33-8. [PubMed:12636047 ]
  8. Horodniceanu T, Delbos F: [Group D streptococci in human infections: identification and sensitivity to antibiotics (author's transl)]. Ann Microbiol (Paris). 1980 Sep-Oct;131B(2):131-44. [PubMed:7458116 ]
  9. Lieberthal W, Fuhro R, Alam H, Rhee P, Szebeni J, Hechtman HB, Favuzza J, Veech RL, Valeri CR: Comparison of the effects of a 50% exchange-transfusion with albumin, hetastarch, and modified hemoglobin solutions. Shock. 2002 Jan;17(1):61-9. [PubMed:11795671 ]
  10. Gundermann KJ, Lie TS: Problems of competition in charcoal hemoperfusion for the treatment of intoxications. Artif Organs. 1979 Nov;3(4):346-9. [PubMed:533425 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GLA
Uniprot ID:
P06280
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Raffinose + Water → Beta-D-Galactose + Sucrosedetails
Stachyose + Water → Raffinose + Beta-D-Galactosedetails