Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Acetic acid (HMDB00042)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2005-11-16 08:48:42 -0700
Update Date 2013-05-15 12:56:53 -0600
HMDB ID HMDB00042
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Acetic acid
Description Acetic acid is one of the simplest carboxylic acids. It is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical that is used in the production of plastic soft drink bottles, photographic film; and polyvinyl acetate for wood glue, as well as many synthetic fibres and fabrics. In households diluted acetic acid is often used as a cleaning agent. In the food industry acetic acid is used as an acidity regulator. The acetyl group, derived from acetic acid, is fundamental to the biochemistry of virtually all forms of life. When bound to coenzyme A it is central to the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. However, the concentration of free acetic acid in cells is kept at a low level to avoid disrupting the control of the pH of the cell contents. Acetic acid is produced and excreted by certain bacteria, notably the Acetobacter genus and Clostridium acetobutylicum. These bacteria are found universally in foodstuffs, water, and soil, and acetic acid is produced naturally as fruits and some other foods spoil. Acetic acid is also a component of the vaginal lubrication of humans and other primates, where it appears to serve as a mild antibacterial agent.
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. Acetate
  2. Ethanoate
  3. Ethanoic acid
  4. Ethylate
  5. Ethylic acid
  6. Glacial acetate
  7. Glacial acetic acid
  8. Kyselina octova
  9. Methanecarboxylate
  10. Methanecarboxylic acid
  11. Vinegar
  12. Vinegar acid
Chemical Formula C2H4O2
Average Molecular Weight 60.052
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 60.021129372
IUPAC Name acetic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name acetic acid
CAS Registry Number 64-19-7
SMILES CC(O)=O
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/C2H4O2/c1-2(3)4/h1H3,(H,3,4)
InChI Key QTBSBXVTEAMEQO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Organic Acids and Derivatives
Class Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Saturated fatty acids(KEGG)
  • Straight chain fatty acids(KEGG)
  • Straight chain fatty acids(Lipidmaps)
  • monocarboxylic acid(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct Parent Carboxylic Acids
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
  • Microbial
Biofunction
  • Component of Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Component of Propanoate metabolism
  • Component of Pyruvate metabolism
  • Waste products
Application Not Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Golgi apparatus
Physical Properties
State Liquid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point 16.6 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility 1000.0 mg/mL Not Available
LogP -0.17 HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
Water Solubility 323 g/L ALOGPS
LogP -0.12 ALOGPS
LogP -0.22 ChemAxon
LogS 0.73 ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic) 4.54 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 2 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 1 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 37.3 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 0 ChemAxon
Refractivity 12.64 ChemAxon
Polarizability 5.34 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 0 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge -1 ChemAxon
Spectra
Gas-MS Spectrum
1H NMR Spectrum
13C NMR Spectrum
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 10
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 25
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 40
MS/MS Spectrum EI-B (HITACHI M-80B)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Golgi apparatus
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Most Tissues
  • Kidney
  • Liver
Pathways
Name SMPDB Link KEGG Link
Pyruvate Metabolism SMP00060 map00620 Link_out
Ethanol Degradation SMP00449 Not Available
Fatty Acid Biosynthesis SMP00456 Not Available
Amino Sugar Metabolism SMP00045 map00520 Link_out
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
30.4 (22.0-40.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
41.9 +/- 15.1 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
116.0 +/- 55.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
58.0 +/- 27.0 uM Not Specified Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
100.0 +/- 30.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
284.0 +/- 126.0 uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Normal
Saliva Detected and Quantified
433 (19-2749) uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Comment normal
Saliva Detected and Quantified
112 (5-726) uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Comment normal
Urine Detected but not Quantified
Not Applicable Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
Urine Detected but not Quantified
Not Applicable Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
13.0 (2.5-106.0) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
3.31 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
  • Shaykhutdino...
Urine Detected and Quantified
45.33 +/- 53.33 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Urine Detected but not Quantified
Not Applicable Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 42.2 +/- 17.3 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Heart Transplant
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 35.3 - 211.7 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Multiple sclerosis
Urine Detected but not Quantified Not Applicable Adult (>18 years old) Both Breast cancer
Urine Detected and Quantified 53.0 +/- 71.0 umol/mmol creatinine Not Specified Both Lung cancer
Urine Detected and Quantified 23.7 +/- 4.5 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both 3-Hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HL) deficency
Urine Detected and Quantified 12.9 +/- 0 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both 3-Hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HL) deficency
Urine Detected and Quantified 54.1 +/- 23.8 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Arginosuccinic aciduria
Urine Detected and Quantified 20.2 +/- 3.9 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Propionic acidemia
Urine Detected and Quantified 20.8 +/- 3 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Propionic acidemia
Urine Detected and Quantified 99.4 +/- 8.6 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Tyrosinemia I
Urine Detected and Quantified 16.3 +/- 7.1 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Phenylketonuria
Urine Detected and Quantified 375.3 +/- 6.3 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Phenylketonuria
Urine Detected and Quantified 13.2 +/- 5.5 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Maple syrup urine disease
Urine Detected and Quantified 21.8 +/- 0 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Aminoaciduria
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Multiple sclerosis
  • Lutz NW, Viola A, Malikova I, Confort-Gouny S, Audoin B, Ranjeva JP, Pelletier J, Cozzone PJ: Inflammatory multiple-sclerosis plaques generate characteristic metabolic profiles in cerebrospinal fluid. PLoS ONE. 2007 Jul 4;2(7):e595. Pubmed: 17611627 Link_out
      Lung Cancer
      • Stretch C, Eastman T, Mandal R, Eisner R, Wishart DS, Mourtzakis M, Prado CM, Damaraju S, Ball RO, Greiner R, Baracos VE: Prediction of skeletal muscle and fat mass in patients with advanced cancer using a metabolomic approach. J Nutr. 2012 Jan;142(1):14-21. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.147751. Epub 2011 Dec 7. Pubmed: 22157537 Link_out
          Associated OMIM IDs
          DrugBank ID DB03166 Link_out
          DrugBank Metabolite ID DBMET00484 Link_out
          Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
          Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
          FoodDB ID FDB008299
          KNApSAcK ID C00001176 Link_out
          Chemspider ID 171 Link_out
          KEGG Compound ID C00033 Link_out
          BioCyc ID ACET Link_out
          BiGG ID 33590 Link_out
          Wikipedia Link Acetic acid Link_out
          NuGOwiki Link HMDB00042 Link_out
          Metagene Link HMDB00042 Link_out
          METLIN ID 3206 Link_out
          PubChem Compound 176 Link_out
          PDB ID ACY Link_out
          ChEBI ID 15366 Link_out
          References
          Synthesis Reference Law, David John. Process for the preparation of carboxylic acids and/or derivatives thereof. PCT Int. Appl. (2007), 14pp.
          Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
          General References
          1. Muniz-Junqueira MI, Braga Lopes C, Magalhaes CA, Schleicher CC, Veiga JP: Acute and chronic influence of hemodialysis according to the membrane used on phagocytic function of neutrophils and monocytes and pro-inflammatory cytokines production in chronic renal failure patients. Life Sci. 2005 Nov 4;77(25):3141-55. Epub 2005 Jul 11. Pubmed: 16005905 Link_out
          2. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436 Link_out
          3. Sugawara G, Nagino M, Nishio H, Ebata T, Takagi K, Asahara T, Nomoto K, Nimura Y: Perioperative synbiotic treatment to prevent postoperative infectious complications in biliary cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg. 2006 Nov;244(5):706-14. Pubmed: 17060763 Link_out
          4. Camoutsis C, Trafalis D, Pairas G, Papageorgiou A: On the formation of 4-[N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl acetic acid esters of hecogenin and aza-homo-hecogenin and their antileukemic activity. Farmaco. 2005 Oct;60(10):826-9. Epub 2005 Aug 31. Pubmed: 16139280 Link_out
          5. Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, Gupta A, Kumar R, Nigam A, Kumar R, Mandal SK, Roy R: Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. NMR Biomed. 2005 Jun;18(4):213-25. Pubmed: 15627241 Link_out
          6. Nicholson JK, Foxall PJ, Spraul M, Farrant RD, Lindon JC: 750 MHz 1H and 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy of human blood plasma. Anal Chem. 1995 Mar 1;67(5):793-811. Pubmed: 7762816 Link_out
          7. Li M, Pan XL, Wang LL, Feng Y, Huang N, Wu Q, Li X, Wang BY: [Study of antmicrobial mechanisms of human cervical mucus: isolation and characterization of antibacterial polypeptides] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2005 Apr 27;85(16):1109-12. Pubmed: 16029568 Link_out
          8. Vaca G, Hernandez A, Ibarra B, Velazquez A, Olivares N, Sanchez-Corona J, Medina C, Cantu JM: Detection of inborn errors of metabolism in 1,117 patients studied because of suspected inherited disease. Arch Invest Med (Mex). 1981;12(3):341-8. Pubmed: 7294941 Link_out
          9. Commodari F, Arnold DL, Sanctuary BC, Shoubridge EA: 1H NMR characterization of normal human cerebrospinal fluid and the detection of methylmalonic acid in a vitamin B12 deficient patient. NMR Biomed. 1991 Aug;4(4):192-200. Pubmed: 1931558 Link_out
          10. Yagi K, Nakamura A, Sekine A: [Magnification endoscopy diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus with methylene blue and acetic acid] Nippon Rinsho. 2005 Aug;63(8):1411-5. Pubmed: 16101231 Link_out
          11. Fan DD, Luo Y, Mi Y, Ma XX, Shang L: Characteristics of fed-batch cultures of recombinant Escherichia coli containing human-like collagen cDNA at different specific growth rates. Biotechnol Lett. 2005 Jun;27(12):865-70. Pubmed: 16086249 Link_out
          12. Syrjanen K, Naud P, Derchain S, Roteli-Martins C, Longatto-Filho A, Tatti S, Branca M, Erzen M, Hammes LS, Matos J, Gontijo R, Sarian L, Braganca J, Arlindo FC, Maeda MY, Lorincz A, Dores GB, Costa S, Syrjanen S: Comparing PAP smear cytology, aided visual inspection, screening colposcopy, cervicography and HPV testing as optional screening tools in Latin America. Study design and baseline data of the LAMS study. Anticancer Res. 2005 Sep-Oct;25(5):3469-80. Pubmed: 16101165 Link_out
          13. Yri OE, Bjoro T, Fossa SD: Failure to achieve castration levels in patients using leuprolide acetate in locally advanced prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2006 Jan;49(1):54-8; discussion 58. Epub 2005 Nov 15. Pubmed: 16314038 Link_out
          14. eMedicine Link_out

          Enzymes
          Name: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA lyase, mitochondrial
          Reactions:
          3-Hydroxy-3-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)glutaryl-CoA unknown 7-Methyl-3-oxo-6-octenoyl-CoA + Acetic acid details
          Gene Name: HMGCL
          Uniprot ID: P35914 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Acyl-coenzyme A thioesterase 12
          Reactions:
          Acetyl-CoA + Water unknown Coenzyme A + Acetic acid details
          Gene Name: ACOT12
          Uniprot ID: Q8WYK0 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic
          Reactions:
          Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + Coenzyme A unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoA details
          Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid unknown Pyrophosphate + Acetyl adenylate details
          Gene Name: ACSS2
          Uniprot ID: Q9NR19 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase 2-like, mitochondrial
          Reactions:
          Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + Coenzyme A unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoA details
          Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid unknown Pyrophosphate + Acetyl adenylate details
          Gene Name: ACSS1
          Uniprot ID: Q9NUB1 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Serum paraoxonase/lactonase 3
          Reactions:
          A phenyl acetate + Water unknown a phenol + Acetic acid details
          4-Hydroxyphenyl acetate + Water unknown Hydroquinone + Acetic acid details
          Gene Name: PON3
          Uniprot ID: Q15166 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1
          Reactions:
          A phenyl acetate + Water unknown a phenol + Acetic acid details
          4-Hydroxyphenyl acetate + Water unknown Hydroquinone + Acetic acid details
          Gene Name: PON1
          Uniprot ID: P27169 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 2
          Reactions:
          A phenyl acetate + Water unknown a phenol + Acetic acid details
          4-Hydroxyphenyl acetate + Water unknown Hydroquinone + Acetic acid details
          Gene Name: PON2
          Uniprot ID: Q15165 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: 4-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase
          Reactions:
          Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water unknown Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
          Gene Name: ALDH9A1
          Uniprot ID: P49189 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Aldehyde dehydrogenase, dimeric NADP-preferring
          Reactions:
          Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water unknown Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
          Gene Name: ALDH3A1
          Uniprot ID: P30838 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase
          Reactions:
          Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water unknown Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
          Gene Name: ALDH7A1
          Uniprot ID: P49419 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3
          Reactions:
          Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water unknown Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
          Gene Name: ALDH1A3
          Uniprot ID: P47895 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Aldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
          Reactions:
          Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water unknown Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
          Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water unknown Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
          Gene Name: ALDH2
          Uniprot ID: P05091 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase
          Reactions:
          Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water unknown Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
          Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water unknown Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
          Gene Name: ALDH3A2
          Uniprot ID: P51648 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Aldehyde dehydrogenase X, mitochondrial
          Reactions:
          Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water unknown Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
          Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water unknown Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
          Gene Name: ALDH1B1
          Uniprot ID: P30837 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Liver carboxylesterase 1
          Reactions:
          4-Methylumbelliferyl acetate + Water unknown 4-Methylumbelliferone + Acetic acid details
          Gene Name: CES1
          Uniprot ID: P23141 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Cocaine esterase
          Reactions:
          4-Methylumbelliferyl acetate + Water unknown 4-Methylumbelliferone + Acetic acid details
          Gene Name: CES2
          Uniprot ID: O00748 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: S-formylglutathione hydrolase
          Reactions:
          4-Methylumbelliferyl acetate + Water unknown 4-Methylumbelliferone + Acetic acid details
          Gene Name: ESD
          Uniprot ID: P10768 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase
          Reactions:
          1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Water unknown 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Acetic acid details
          2-Acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Water unknown 1-Organyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Acetic acid details
          Gene Name: PLA2G7
          Uniprot ID: Q13093 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Acetylcholinesterase
          Reactions:
          Acetylcholine + Water unknown Choline + Acetic acid details
          Gene Name: ACHE
          Uniprot ID: P22303 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase IB subunit gamma
          Reactions:
          1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Water unknown 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Acetic acid details
          2-Acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Water unknown 1-Organyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Acetic acid details
          Gene Name: PAFAH1B3
          Uniprot ID: Q15102 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase IB subunit beta
          Reactions:
          1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Water unknown 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Acetic acid details
          2-Acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Water unknown 1-Organyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Acetic acid details
          Gene Name: PAFAH1B2
          Uniprot ID: P68402 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 2, cytoplasmic
          Reactions:
          1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Water unknown 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Acetic acid details
          2-Acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Water unknown 1-Organyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Acetic acid details
          Gene Name: PAFAH2
          Uniprot ID: Q99487 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Sialate O-acetylesterase
          Reactions:
          N-acetyl-O-acetylneuraminate + Water unknown N-Acetylneuraminic acid + Acetic acid details
          Gene Name: SIAE
          Uniprot ID: Q9HAT2 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 3 member B2
          Reactions:
          Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water unknown Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
          Gene Name: ALDH3B2
          Uniprot ID: P48448 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 3 member B1
          Reactions:
          Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water unknown Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
          Gene Name: ALDH3B1
          Uniprot ID: P43353 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Acylphosphatase-2
          Reactions:
          Acetylphosphate + Water unknown Acetic acid + Phosphoric acid details
          Gene Name: ACYP2
          Uniprot ID: P14621 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Acylphosphatase-1
          Reactions:
          Acetylphosphate + Water unknown Acetic acid + Phosphoric acid details
          Gene Name: ACYP1
          Uniprot ID: P07311 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Aminoacylase-1
          Reactions:
          N-Acetylornithine + Water unknown Acetic acid + Ornithine details
          Gene Name: ACY1
          Uniprot ID: Q03154 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Aspartoacylase
          Reactions:
          N-Acetyl-L-aspartic acid + Water unknown Acetic acid + L-Aspartic acid details
          Gene Name: ASPA
          Uniprot ID: P45381 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase IB subunit alpha
          Reactions: Not Available
          Gene Name: PAFAH1B1
          Uniprot ID: P43034 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol de-N-acetylase
          Reactions:
          6-(N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminyl)-1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol + Water unknown 6-(alpha-D-glucosaminyl)-1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol + Acetic acid details
          + Water unknown + Acetic acid details
          Gene Name: PIGL
          Uniprot ID: Q9Y2B2 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Aspartoacylase-2
          Reactions:
          N-Acetyl-L-aspartic acid + Water unknown Acetic acid + L-Aspartic acid details
          Gene Name: ACY3
          Uniprot ID: Q96HD9 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase
          Reactions:
          17a-Hydroxypregnenolone + Reduced acceptor + Oxygen unknown Dehydroepiandrosterone + Acetic acid + Acceptor + Water details
          17-Hydroxyprogesterone + Reduced acceptor + Oxygen unknown Androstenedione + Acetic acid + Acceptor + Water details
          Gene Name: CYP17A1
          Uniprot ID: P05093 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Putative N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase
          Reactions:
          N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine 6-Phosphate + Water unknown Glucosamine 6-phosphate + Acetic acid details
          Gene Name: AMDHD2
          Uniprot ID: Q9Y303 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Citrate lyase subunit beta-like protein, mitochondrial
          Reactions: Not Available
          Gene Name: CLYBL
          Uniprot ID: Q8N0X4 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: 60 kDa lysophospholipase
          Reactions:
          1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Water unknown 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Acetic acid details
          Gene Name: ASPG
          Uniprot ID: Q86U10 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: ACSS2 protein
          Reactions: Not Available
          Gene Name: ACSS2
          Uniprot ID: Q96FY7 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 3, mitochondrial
          Reactions:
          Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + Coenzyme A unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoA details
          Gene Name: ACSS3
          Uniprot ID: Q9H6R3 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Transporters
          Name: Monocarboxylate transporter 1
          Reactions: Not Available
          Gene Name: SLC16A1
          Uniprot ID: P53985 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA
          Name: Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1
          Reactions: Not Available
          Gene Name: SLCO2B1
          Uniprot ID: O94956 Link_out
          Protein Sequence: FASTA
          Gene Sequence: FASTA