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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-05-15 18:56:53 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00042
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAcetic acid
DescriptionAcetic acid is one of the simplest carboxylic acids. It is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical that is used in the production of plastic soft drink bottles, photographic film; and polyvinyl acetate for wood glue, as well as many synthetic fibres and fabrics. In households diluted acetic acid is often used as a cleaning agent. In the food industry acetic acid is used as an acidity regulator. The acetyl group, derived from acetic acid, is fundamental to the biochemistry of virtually all forms of life. When bound to coenzyme A it is central to the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. However, the concentration of free acetic acid in cells is kept at a low level to avoid disrupting the control of the pH of the cell contents. Acetic acid is produced and excreted by certain bacteria, notably the Acetobacter genus and Clostridium acetobutylicum. These bacteria are found universally in foodstuffs, water, and soil, and acetic acid is produced naturally as fruits and some other foods spoil. Acetic acid is also a component of the vaginal lubrication of humans and other primates, where it appears to serve as a mild antibacterial agent.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Acetate
  2. Ethanoate
  3. Ethanoic acid
  4. Ethylate
  5. Ethylic acid
  6. Glacial acetate
  7. Glacial acetic acid
  8. Kyselina octova
  9. Methanecarboxylate
  10. Methanecarboxylic acid
  11. Vinegar
  12. Vinegar acid
Chemical FormulaC2H4O2
Average Molecular Weight60.052
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight60.021129372
IUPAC Nameacetic acid
Traditional IUPAC Nameacetic acid
CAS Registry Number64-19-7
SMILES
CC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C2H4O2/c1-2(3)4/h1H3,(H,3,4)
InChI KeyQTBSBXVTEAMEQO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids and Derivatives
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassCarboxylic Acid Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Saturated fatty acids(KEGG)
  • Straight chain fatty acids(KEGG)
  • Straight chain fatty acids(Lipidmaps)
  • monocarboxylic acid(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentCarboxylic Acids
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
  • Microbial
Biofunction
  • Component of Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Component of Propanoate metabolism
  • Component of Pyruvate metabolism
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Golgi apparatus
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point16.6 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-0.17HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility323 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.12ALOGPS
logP-0.22ChemAxon
logS0.73ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)4.54ChemAxon
physiological charge-1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count1ChemAxon
polar surface area37.3ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity12.64ChemAxon
polarizability5.34ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Golgi apparatus
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Most Tissues
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Amino Sugar MetabolismSMP00045map00520
Ethanol DegradationSMP00449Not Available
Fatty Acid BiosynthesisSMP00456Not Available
Pyruvate MetabolismSMP00060map00620
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified30.4 (22.0-40.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified41.9 +/- 15.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified116.0 +/- 55.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified58.0 +/- 27.0 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified100.0 +/- 30.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified284.0 +/- 126.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified433 (19-2749) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified112 (5-726) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified13.0 (2.5-106.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.31 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified45.33 +/- 53.33 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified42.2 +/- 17.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedHeart Transplant details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified35.3 - 211.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedMultiple sclerosis details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothBreast cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified53.0 +/- 71.0 umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedBothLung cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified23.7 +/- 4.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both3-Hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HL) deficency details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.9 +/- 0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both3-Hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HL) deficency details
UrineDetected and Quantified54.1 +/- 23.8 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothArgininosuccinic aciduria (ASL) details
UrineDetected and Quantified20.2 +/- 3.9 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothPropionic acidemia details
UrineDetected and Quantified20.8 +/- 3 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothPropionic acidemia details
UrineDetected and Quantified99.4 +/- 8.6 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothTyrosinemia I details
UrineDetected and Quantified16.3 +/- 7.1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothPhenylketonuria details
UrineDetected and Quantified375.3 +/- 6.3 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothPhenylketonuria details
UrineDetected and Quantified13.2 +/- 5.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothMaple syrup urine disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified21.8 +/- 0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothAminoaciduria details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Lung Cancer
  1. Stretch C, Eastman T, Mandal R, Eisner R, Wishart DS, Mourtzakis M, Prado CM, Damaraju S, Ball RO, Greiner R, Baracos VE: Prediction of skeletal muscle and fat mass in patients with advanced cancer using a metabolomic approach. J Nutr. 2012 Jan;142(1):14-21. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.147751. Epub 2011 Dec 7. Pubmed: 22157537
Multiple sclerosis
  1. Lutz NW, Viola A, Malikova I, Confort-Gouny S, Audoin B, Ranjeva JP, Pelletier J, Cozzone PJ: Inflammatory multiple-sclerosis plaques generate characteristic metabolic profiles in cerebrospinal fluid. PLoS ONE. 2007 Jul 4;2(7):e595. Pubmed: 17611627
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB03166
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00484
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB008299
KNApSAcK IDC00001176
Chemspider ID171
KEGG Compound IDC00033
BioCyc IDACET
BiGG ID33590
Wikipedia LinkAcetic acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00042
Metagene LinkHMDB00042
METLIN ID3206
PubChem Compound176
PDB IDACY
ChEBI ID15366
References
Synthesis ReferenceLaw, David John. Process for the preparation of carboxylic acids and/or derivatives thereof. PCT Int. Appl. (2007), 14pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Nicholson JK, Foxall PJ, Spraul M, Farrant RD, Lindon JC: 750 MHz 1H and 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy of human blood plasma. Anal Chem. 1995 Mar 1;67(5):793-811. Pubmed: 7762816
  2. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436
  3. Muniz-Junqueira MI, Braga Lopes C, Magalhaes CA, Schleicher CC, Veiga JP: Acute and chronic influence of hemodialysis according to the membrane used on phagocytic function of neutrophils and monocytes and pro-inflammatory cytokines production in chronic renal failure patients. Life Sci. 2005 Nov 4;77(25):3141-55. Epub 2005 Jul 11. Pubmed: 16005905
  4. Sugawara G, Nagino M, Nishio H, Ebata T, Takagi K, Asahara T, Nomoto K, Nimura Y: Perioperative synbiotic treatment to prevent postoperative infectious complications in biliary cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg. 2006 Nov;244(5):706-14. Pubmed: 17060763
  5. Camoutsis C, Trafalis D, Pairas G, Papageorgiou A: On the formation of 4-[N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl acetic acid esters of hecogenin and aza-homo-hecogenin and their antileukemic activity. Farmaco. 2005 Oct;60(10):826-9. Epub 2005 Aug 31. Pubmed: 16139280
  6. Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, Gupta A, Kumar R, Nigam A, Kumar R, Mandal SK, Roy R: Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. NMR Biomed. 2005 Jun;18(4):213-25. Pubmed: 15627241
  7. Li M, Pan XL, Wang LL, Feng Y, Huang N, Wu Q, Li X, Wang BY: [Study of antmicrobial mechanisms of human cervical mucus: isolation and characterization of antibacterial polypeptides] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2005 Apr 27;85(16):1109-12. Pubmed: 16029568
  8. Vaca G, Hernandez A, Ibarra B, Velazquez A, Olivares N, Sanchez-Corona J, Medina C, Cantu JM: Detection of inborn errors of metabolism in 1,117 patients studied because of suspected inherited disease. Arch Invest Med (Mex). 1981;12(3):341-8. Pubmed: 7294941
  9. Commodari F, Arnold DL, Sanctuary BC, Shoubridge EA: 1H NMR characterization of normal human cerebrospinal fluid and the detection of methylmalonic acid in a vitamin B12 deficient patient. NMR Biomed. 1991 Aug;4(4):192-200. Pubmed: 1931558
  10. Yagi K, Nakamura A, Sekine A: [Magnification endoscopy diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus with methylene blue and acetic acid] Nippon Rinsho. 2005 Aug;63(8):1411-5. Pubmed: 16101231
  11. Fan DD, Luo Y, Mi Y, Ma XX, Shang L: Characteristics of fed-batch cultures of recombinant Escherichia coli containing human-like collagen cDNA at different specific growth rates. Biotechnol Lett. 2005 Jun;27(12):865-70. Pubmed: 16086249
  12. Syrjanen K, Naud P, Derchain S, Roteli-Martins C, Longatto-Filho A, Tatti S, Branca M, Erzen M, Hammes LS, Matos J, Gontijo R, Sarian L, Braganca J, Arlindo FC, Maeda MY, Lorincz A, Dores GB, Costa S, Syrjanen S: Comparing PAP smear cytology, aided visual inspection, screening colposcopy, cervicography and HPV testing as optional screening tools in Latin America. Study design and baseline data of the LAMS study. Anticancer Res. 2005 Sep-Oct;25(5):3469-80. Pubmed: 16101165
  13. Yri OE, Bjoro T, Fossa SD: Failure to achieve castration levels in patients using leuprolide acetate in locally advanced prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2006 Jan;49(1):54-8; discussion 58. Epub 2005 Nov 15. Pubmed: 16314038
  14. eMedicine

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in ketogenesis (ketone body formation). Terminal step in leucine catabolism.
Gene Name:
HMGCL
Uniprot ID:
P35914
Molecular weight:
34359.84
Reactions
3-Hydroxy-3-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)glutaryl-CoA → 7-Methyl-3-oxo-6-octenoyl-CoA + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes acetyl-CoA to acetate and CoA.
Gene Name:
ACOT12
Uniprot ID:
Q8WYK0
Molecular weight:
62033.46
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Water → Coenzyme A + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity
Specific function:
Activates acetate so that it can be used for lipid synthesis or for energy generation.
Gene Name:
ACSS2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NR19
Molecular weight:
78579.11
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoAdetails
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid → Pyrophosphate + Acetyl adenylatedetails
General function:
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity
Specific function:
Important for maintaining normal body temperature during fasting and for energy homeostasis. Essential for energy expenditure under ketogenic conditions (By similarity). Converts acetate to acetyl-CoA so that it can be used for oxidation through the tricarboxylic cycle to produce ATP and CO(2).
Gene Name:
ACSS1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NUB1
Molecular weight:
74625.88
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoAdetails
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid → Pyrophosphate + Acetyl adenylatedetails
General function:
Involved in arylesterase activity
Specific function:
Has low activity towards the organophosphate paraxon and aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Rapidly hydrolyzes lactones such as statin prodrugs (e.g. lovastatin). Hydrolyzes aromatic lactones and 5- or 6-member ring lactones with aliphatic substituents but not simple lactones or those with polar substituents.
Gene Name:
PON3
Uniprot ID:
Q15166
Molecular weight:
39607.185
Reactions
A phenyl acetate + Water → a phenol + Acetic aciddetails
4-Hydroxyphenyl acetate + Water → Hydroquinone + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in arylesterase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. Capable of hydrolyzing a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and lactones, and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Mediates an enzymatic protection of low density lipoproteins against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to atheroma formation.
Gene Name:
PON1
Uniprot ID:
P27169
Molecular weight:
39730.99
Reactions
A phenyl acetate + Water → a phenol + Acetic aciddetails
4-Hydroxyphenyl acetate + Water → Hydroquinone + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in arylesterase activity
Specific function:
Capable of hydrolyzing lactones and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Has antioxidant activity. Is not associated with high density lipoprotein. Prevents LDL lipid peroxidation, reverses the oxidation of mildly oxidized LDL, and inhibits the ability of MM-LDL to induce monocyte chemotaxis.
Gene Name:
PON2
Uniprot ID:
Q15165
Molecular weight:
39380.535
Reactions
A phenyl acetate + Water → a phenol + Acetic aciddetails
4-Hydroxyphenyl acetate + Water → Hydroquinone + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Converts gamma-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde into gamma-butyrobetaine. Catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of a broad range of aldehydes to the corresponding acids in an NAD-dependent reaction.
Gene Name:
ALDH9A1
Uniprot ID:
P49189
Molecular weight:
56291.485
Reactions
Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
ALDHs play a major role in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde. They are involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation. This protein preferentially oxidizes aromatic aldehyde substrates. It may play a role in the oxidation of toxic aldehydes.
Gene Name:
ALDH3A1
Uniprot ID:
P30838
Molecular weight:
50394.57
Reactions
Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Multifunctional enzyme mediating important protective effects. Metabolizes betaine aldehyde to betaine, an important cellular osmolyte and methyl donor. Protects cells from oxidative stress by metabolizing a number of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes. Involved in lysine catabolism.
Gene Name:
ALDH7A1
Uniprot ID:
P49419
Molecular weight:
58486.74
Reactions
Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Seems to be the key enzyme in the formation of an RA gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during the early eye development and also in the development of the olfactory system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A3
Uniprot ID:
P47895
Molecular weight:
56107.995
Reactions
Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH2
Uniprot ID:
P05091
Molecular weight:
56380.93
Reactions
Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to fatty acids. Active on a variety of saturated and unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes between 6 and 24 carbons in length. Responsible for conversion of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) degradation product hexadecenal to hexadecenoic acid.
Gene Name:
ALDH3A2
Uniprot ID:
P51648
Molecular weight:
54847.36
Reactions
Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
ALDHs play a major role in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde. They are involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation.
Gene Name:
ALDH1B1
Uniprot ID:
P30837
Molecular weight:
57248.96
Reactions
Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Hydrolyzes aromatic and aliphatic esters, but has no catalytic activity toward amides or a fatty acyl-CoA ester. Hydrolyzes the methyl ester group of cocaine to form benzoylecgonine. Catalyzes the transesterification of cocaine to form cocaethylene. Displays fatty acid ethyl ester synthase activity, catalyzing the ethyl esterification of oleic acid to ethyloleate.
Gene Name:
CES1
Uniprot ID:
P23141
Molecular weight:
62520.62
Reactions
4-Methylumbelliferyl acetate + Water → 4-Methylumbelliferone + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Shows high catalytic efficiency for hydrolysis of cocaine, 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate, heroin and 6-monoacetylmorphine.
Gene Name:
CES2
Uniprot ID:
O00748
Molecular weight:
68898.39
Reactions
4-Methylumbelliferyl acetate + Water → 4-Methylumbelliferone + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in carboxylesterase activity
Specific function:
Serine hydrolase involved in the detoxification of formaldehyde.
Gene Name:
ESD
Uniprot ID:
P10768
Molecular weight:
31462.545
Reactions
4-Methylumbelliferyl acetate + Water → 4-Methylumbelliferone + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in 1-alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine esterase activity
Specific function:
Modulates the action of platelet-activating factor (PAF) by hydrolyzing the sn-2 ester bond to yield the biologically inactive lyso-PAF. Has a specificity for substrates with a short residue at the sn-2 position. It is inactive against long-chain phospholipids.
Gene Name:
PLA2G7
Uniprot ID:
Q13093
Molecular weight:
50076.99
Reactions
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Water → 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Acetic aciddetails
2-Acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Water → 1-Organyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in carboxylesterase activity
Specific function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular weight:
67795.525
Reactions
Acetylcholine + Water → Choline + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Inactivates paf by removing the acetyl group at the sn-2 position. This is a catalytic subunit. Plays an important role during the development of brain.
Gene Name:
PAFAH1B3
Uniprot ID:
Q15102
Molecular weight:
25734.13
Reactions
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Water → 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Acetic aciddetails
2-Acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Water → 1-Organyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Inactivates PAF by removing the acetyl group at the sn-2 position. This is a catalytic subunit.
Gene Name:
PAFAH1B2
Uniprot ID:
P68402
Molecular weight:
22733.715
Reactions
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Water → 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Acetic aciddetails
2-Acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Water → 1-Organyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in 1-alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine esterase activity
Specific function:
Has a marked selectivity for phospholipids with short acyl chains at the sn-2 position. May share a common physiologic function with the plasma-type enzyme.
Gene Name:
PAFAH2
Uniprot ID:
Q99487
Molecular weight:
44035.255
Reactions
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Water → 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Acetic aciddetails
2-Acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Water → 1-Organyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in sialate O-acetylesterase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the removal of O-acetyl ester groups from position 9 of the parent sialic acid, N-acetylneuraminic acid.
Gene Name:
SIAE
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAT2
Molecular weight:
54572.035
Reactions
N-acetyl-O-acetylneuraminate + Water → N-Acetylneuraminic acid + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH3B2
Uniprot ID:
P48448
Molecular weight:
42623.62
Reactions
Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Oxidizes medium and long chain saturated and unsaturated aldehydes. Metabolizes also benzaldehyde. Low activity towards acetaldehyde and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. May not metabolize short chain aldehydes. May use both NADP(+) and NAD(+) as cofactors. May have a protective role against the cytotoxicity induced by lipid peroxidation.
Gene Name:
ALDH3B1
Uniprot ID:
P43353
Molecular weight:
51839.245
Reactions
Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in acylphosphatase activity
Specific function:
Its physiological role is not yet clear.
Gene Name:
ACYP2
Uniprot ID:
P14621
Molecular weight:
11139.52
Reactions
Acetylphosphate + Water → Acetic acid + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in acylphosphatase activity
Specific function:
Its physiological role is not yet clear.
Gene Name:
ACYP1
Uniprot ID:
P07311
Molecular weight:
11260.84
Reactions
Acetylphosphate + Water → Acetic acid + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in metallopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the hydrolysis of N-acylated or N-acetylated amino acids (except L-aspartate).
Gene Name:
ACY1
Uniprot ID:
Q03154
Molecular weight:
45884.705
Reactions
N-Acetylornithine + Water → Acetic acid + Ornithinedetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds
Specific function:
Catalyzes the deacetylation of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA) to produce acetate and L-aspartate. NAA occurs in high concentration in brain and its hydrolysis NAA plays a significant part in the maintenance of intact white matter. In other tissues it act as a scavenger of NAA from body fluids.
Gene Name:
ASPA
Uniprot ID:
P45381
Molecular weight:
35734.79
Reactions
N-Acetyl-L-aspartic acid + Water → Acetic acid + L-Aspartic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in dynactin binding
Specific function:
Required for proper activation of Rho GTPases and actin polymerization at the leading edge of locomoting cerebellar neurons and postmigratory hippocampal neurons in response to calcium influx triggered via NMDA receptors. Non-catalytic subunit of an acetylhydrolase complex which inactivates platelet- activating factor (PAF) by removing the acetyl group at the SN-2 position. Positively regulates the activity of the minus-end directed microtubule motor protein dynein. May enhance dynein-mediated microtubule sliding by targeting dynein to the microtubule plus end. Required for several dynein- and microtubule-dependent processes such as the maintenance of Golgi integrity, the peripheral transport of microtubule fragments and the coupling of the nucleus and centrosome. Required during brain development for the proliferation of neuronal precursors and the migration of newly formed neurons from the ventricular/subventricular zone toward the cortical plate. Neuronal migration involves a process called nucleokinesis, whereby migrating cells extend an anterior process into which the nucleus subsequently translocates. During nucleokinesis dynein at the nuclear surface may translocate the nucleus towards the centrosome by exerting force on centrosomal microtubules. May also play a role in other forms of cell locomotion including the migration of fibroblasts during wound healing
Gene Name:
PAFAH1B1
Uniprot ID:
P43034
Molecular weight:
46637.7
General function:
Involved in N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol de
Specific function:
Involved in the second step of GPI biosynthesis. De-N-acetylation of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol.
Gene Name:
PIGL
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2B2
Molecular weight:
28530.965
Reactions
6-(N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminyl)-1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol + Water → 6-(alpha-D-glucosaminyl)-1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol + Acetic aciddetails
+ Water → + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds
Specific function:
Plays an important role in deacetylating mercapturic acids in kidney proximal tubules (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACY3
Uniprot ID:
Q96HD9
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
N-Acetyl-L-aspartic acid + Water → Acetic acid + L-Aspartic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Conversion of pregnenolone and progesterone to their 17-alpha-hydroxylated products and subsequently to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Catalyzes both the 17-alpha-hydroxylation and the 17,20-lyase reaction. Involved in sexual development during fetal life and at puberty.
Gene Name:
CYP17A1
Uniprot ID:
P05093
Molecular weight:
57369.995
Reactions
17a-Hydroxypregnenolone + Reduced acceptor + Oxygen → Dehydroepiandrosterone + Acetic acid + Acceptor + Waterdetails
17-Hydroxyprogesterone + Reduced acceptor + Oxygen → Androstenedione + Acetic acid + Acceptor + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the N-glycolyl group from N-glycolylglucosamine 6-phosphate (GlcNGc-6-P) in the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) degradation pathway. Although human is not able to catalyze formation of Neu5Gc due to the inactive CMAHP enzyme, Neu5Gc is present in food and must be degraded.
Gene Name:
AMDHD2
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y303
Molecular weight:
63594.415
Reactions
N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine 6-Phosphate + Water → Glucosamine 6-phosphate + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in citrate (pro-3S)-lyase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CLYBL
Uniprot ID:
Q8N0X4
Molecular weight:
37359.0
General function:
Involved in asparaginase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits lysophospholipase, transacylase, PAF acetylhydrolase and asparaginase activities.
Gene Name:
ASPG
Uniprot ID:
Q86U10
Molecular weight:
60882.4
Reactions
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Water → 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACSS2
Uniprot ID:
Q96FY7
Molecular weight:
59346.4
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Activates acetate so that it can be used for lipid synthesis or for energy generation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACSS3
Uniprot ID:
Q9H6R3
Molecular weight:
74777.655
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoAdetails

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate
Gene Name:
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID:
P53985
Molecular weight:
53957.7
References
  1. Tamai I, Sai Y, Ono A, Kido Y, Yabuuchi H, Takanaga H, Satoh E, Ogihara T, Amano O, Izeki S, Tsuji A: Immunohistochemical and functional characterization of pH-dependent intestinal absorption of weak organic acids by the monocarboxylic acid transporter MCT1. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;51(10):1113-21. Pubmed: 10579682
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost
Gene Name:
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID:
O94956
Molecular weight:
76697.9
References
  1. Kobayashi D, Nozawa T, Imai K, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Involvement of human organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-B (SLC21A9) in pH-dependent transport across intestinal apical membrane. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Aug;306(2):703-8. Epub 2003 Apr 30. Pubmed: 12724351
  2. Nozawa T, Imai K, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Functional characterization of pH-sensitive organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-B in human. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Feb;308(2):438-45. Epub 2003 Nov 10. Pubmed: 14610227