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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-03-13 21:29:05 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0004902
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB04902
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGanglioside GA1 (d18:1/16:0)
DescriptionGanglioside GA1 (d18:1/16:0) is a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide)or oligoglycosylceramide with one or more sialic acids (i.e. n-acetylneuraminic acid) linked on the sugar chain. It is a component the cell plasma membrane which modulates cell signal transduction events. Gangliosides have been found to be highly important in immunology. Ganglioside GA1 carries a net-negative charge at pH 7.0 and is acidic. Gangliosides can amount to 6% of the weight of lipids from brain, but they are found at low levels in all animal tissues. Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids. There are four types of glycosphingolipids, the cerebrosides, sulfatides, globosides and gangliosides. Gangliosides are very similar to globosides except that they also contain N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NANA) in varying amounts. The specific names for the gangliosides provide information about their structure. The letter G refers to ganglioside, and the subscripts M, D, T and Q indicate that the molecule contains mono-, di-, tri and quatra-sialic acid. The numbered subscripts 1, 2 and 3 refer to the carbohydrate sequence that is attached to the ceramide. In particular, 1 stands for GalGalNAcGalGlc-ceramide, 2 stands for GalNAcGalGlc-ceramide and 3 stands for GalGlc-ceramide. Deficiencies in lysosomal enzymes that degrade the carbohydrate portions of various gangliosides are responsible for a number of lysosomal storage diseases such as Tay-Sachs disease, Sandhoff disease, and GM1 gangliosidosis. The carbohydrate portion of the ganglioside GM1 is the site of attachment of cholera toxin, the protein secreted by Vibrio cholerae.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
asialo Ganglioside GM1aHMDB
asialo GM1HMDB
asialo GM1 GangliosideHMDB
Asialoganglioside g(m1) from bovine brainHMDB
Asialoganglioside GM1HMDB
Asialoganglioside GT1bHMDB
GA1HMDB
Gal-beta1->3galnac-beta1->4gal-beta1->4GLC-beta1->1'cerHMDB
ganglio-N-TetraosylceramideHMDB
Ganglioside ga1HMDB
GangliotetraosylceramideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC60H110N2O23
Average Molecular Weight1227.515
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight1226.749937836
IUPAC NameN-[(2S,3R,4E)-1-{[(2R,4R,5S,6R)-5-{[(2S,3R,4R,5R,6R)-5-{[(2S,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-5-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-4-{[(2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}oxan-2-yl]oxy}-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}-3-hydroxyoctadec-4-en-2-yl]hexadecanamide
Traditional NameN-[(2S,3R,4E)-1-{[(2R,4R,5S,6R)-5-{[(2S,3R,4R,5R,6R)-5-{[(2S,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-5-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-4-{[(2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}oxan-2-yl]oxy}-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}-3-hydroxyoctadec-4-en-2-yl]hexadecanamide
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)N[C@@H](CO[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O[C@@H]2O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O[C@@H]3O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O)[C@H](O[C@@H]4O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]4O)[C@H]3NC(C)=O)[C@H](O)[C@H]2O)[C@H](O)C1O)[C@H](O)\C=C\CCCCCCCCCCCCC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C60H110N2O23/c1-4-6-8-10-12-14-16-18-20-22-24-26-28-30-39(68)38(62-44(69)31-29-27-25-23-21-19-17-15-13-11-9-7-5-2)36-78-58-52(76)49(73)55(42(34-65)81-58)84-60-53(77)50(74)54(43(35-66)82-60)83-57-45(61-37(3)67)56(47(71)41(33-64)79-57)85-59-51(75)48(72)46(70)40(32-63)80-59/h28,30,38-43,45-60,63-66,68,70-77H,4-27,29,31-36H2,1-3H3,(H,61,67)(H,62,69)/b30-28+/t38-,39+,40+,41+,42+,43+,45+,46-,47-,48-,49+,50+,51+,52?,53+,54-,55+,56+,57-,58+,59-,60-/m0/s1
InChI KeyOJVSVTBGNHQDJH-LEOVTFLHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as galnacb1-4galb1-4glc- (ganglio series). These are neutral glycosphingolipids in which the root sequence is GalNAcb1-4Galb1-4Glc.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSphingolipids
Sub ClassGlycosphingolipids
Direct ParentGalNAcb1-4Galb1-4Glc- (Ganglio series)
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Galnacb1-4galb1-4glcb-cer_backbone
  • Glycosyl-n-acylsphingosine
  • Oligosaccharide
  • Fatty acyl glycoside
  • N-acyl-alpha-hexosamine
  • Alkyl glycoside
  • Glycosyl compound
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Fatty amide
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Oxane
  • Fatty acyl
  • Acetamide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Polyol
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Oxacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Acetal
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Physiological effect

Organoleptic effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0Not Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.06 g/LALOGPS
logP3.39ALOGPS
logP3.49ChemAxon
logS-4.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count23ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count15ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area395.03 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count43ChemAxon
Refractivity306.53 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability137.93 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Brain
  • Nerve Cells
  • Placenta
  • Spleen
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023493
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID17216293
KEGG Compound IDC06136
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN ID7158
PubChem Compound22833626
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Nobile-Orazio E, Manfredini E, Carpo M, Meucci N, Monaco S, Ferrari S, Bonetti B, Cavaletti G, Gemignani F, Durelli L, et al.: Frequency and clinical correlates of anti-neural IgM antibodies in neuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy. Ann Neurol. 1994 Sep;36(3):416-24. [PubMed:8080249 ]
  2. Ledvinova J, Poupetova H, Hanackova A, Pisacka M, Elleder M: Blood group B glycosphingolipids in alpha-galactosidase deficiency (Fabry disease): influence of secretor status. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997 Apr 1;1345(2):180-7. [PubMed:9106497 ]
  3. Matsuda J, Suzuki O, Oshima A, Ogura A, Noguchi Y, Yamamoto Y, Asano T, Takimoto K, Sukegawa K, Suzuki Y, Naiki M: Beta-galactosidase-deficient mouse as an animal model for GM1-gangliosidosis. Glycoconj J. 1997 Sep;14(6):729-36. [PubMed:9337086 ]
  4. Ogawa-Goto K, Ohta Y, Kubota K, Funamoto N, Abe T, Taki T, Nagashima K: Glycosphingolipids of human peripheral nervous system myelins isolated from cauda equina. J Neurochem. 1993 Oct;61(4):1398-403. [PubMed:7690848 ]
  5. Habu S, Fukui H, Shimamura K, Kasai M, Nagai Y, Okumura K, Tamaoki N: In vivo effects of anti-asialo GM1. I. Reduction of NK activity and enhancement of transplanted tumor growth in nude mice. J Immunol. 1981 Jul;127(1):34-8. [PubMed:7240748 ]
  6. Nakamura K, Hashimoto Y, Suzuki M, Suzuki A, Yamakawa T: Characterization of GM1b in mouse spleen. J Biochem. 1984 Oct;96(4):949-57. [PubMed:6520127 ]
  7. Shpitz B, Chambers CA, Singhal AB, Hozumi N, Fernandes BJ, Roifman CM, Weiner LM, Roder JC, Gallinger S: High level functional engraftment of severe combined immunodeficient mice with human peripheral blood lymphocytes following pretreatment with radiation and anti-asialo GM1. J Immunol Methods. 1994 Feb 28;169(1):1-15. [PubMed:7907638 ]
  8. Dasgupta S, Hogan EL, Spicer SS: Stage-specific expression of fuco-neolacto- (Lewis X) and ganglio-series neutral glycosphingolipids during brain development: characterization of Lewis X and related glycosphingolipids in bovine, human and rat brain. Glycoconj J. 1996 Jun;13(3):367-75. [PubMed:8781967 ]
  9. Okamoto M, Kaji R, Kasetani H, Yoshida H, Moriya Y, Saito M, Sato M: Purification and characterization of interferon-gamma-inducing molecule of OK-432, a penicillin-killed streptococcal preparation, by monoclonal antibody neutralizing interferon-gamma-inducing activity of OK-432. J Immunother Emphasis Tumor Immunol. 1993 May 4;13(4):232-42. [PubMed:8334107 ]
  10. Yoshimura M, Ihara Y, Ohnishi A, Ijuhin N, Nishiura T, Kanakura Y, Matsuzawa Y, Taniguchi N: Bisecting N-acetylglucosamine on K562 cells suppresses natural killer cytotoxicity and promotes spleen colonization. Cancer Res. 1996 Jan 15;56(2):412-8. [PubMed:8542600 ]
  11. Yuki N, Yanagisawa K, Saito Y, Aikawa M, Miyatake T: [Proximal lower motor neuron syndrome associated with serum antibodies to asialo-GM1, GM1 and LM1]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 1993 Aug;33(8):891-4. [PubMed:8261703 ]
  12. Gori AH, Ahmed K, Martinez G, Masaki H, Watanabe K, Nagatake T: Mediation of attachment of Burkholderia pseudomallei to human pharyngeal epithelial cells by the asialoganglioside GM1-GM2 receptor complex. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999 Sep;61(3):473-5. [PubMed:10497993 ]
  13. Chaouat G, Tranchot Diallo J, Volumenie JL, Menu E, Gras G, Delage G, Mognetti B: Immune suppression and Th1/Th2 balance in pregnancy revisited: a (very) personal tribute to Tom Wegmann. Am J Reprod Immunol. 1997 Jun;37(6):427-34. [PubMed:9228297 ]
  14. Ito M, Hiramatsu H, Kobayashi K, Suzue K, Kawahata M, Hioki K, Ueyama Y, Koyanagi Y, Sugamura K, Tsuji K, Heike T, Nakahata T: NOD/SCID/gamma(c)(null) mouse: an excellent recipient mouse model for engraftment of human cells. Blood. 2002 Nov 1;100(9):3175-82. [PubMed:12384415 ]
  15. Fujiwara S, Hashiba H, Hirota T, Forstner JF: Purification and characterization of a novel protein produced by Bifidobacterium longum SBT2928 that inhibits the binding of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Pb176 (CFA/II) to gangliotetraosylceramide. J Appl Microbiol. 1999 Apr;86(4):615-21. [PubMed:10212407 ]
  16. Vukelic Z, Metelmann W, Muthing J, Kos M, Peter-Katalinic J: Anencephaly: structural characterization of gangliosides in defined brain regions. Biol Chem. 2001 Feb;382(2):259-74. [PubMed:11308024 ]
  17. Okamoto M, Gohda H, Ohe G, Yoshida H, Matsuno T, Saito M, Sato M: Cytokine-inducing activity and antitumor effect of a liposome-incorporated interferon-gamma-inducing molecule derived from OK-432, a streptococcal preparation. J Immunother. 2000 Jan;23(1):94-103. [PubMed:10687142 ]
  18. Imundo L, Barasch J, Prince A, Al-Awqati Q: Cystic fibrosis epithelial cells have a receptor for pathogenic bacteria on their apical surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Mar 28;92(7):3019-23. [PubMed:7708767 ]
  19. (). Imundo, L., Barasch, J., Prince, A., Al-Awqati, Q. Cystic fibrosis epithelial cells have a receptor for pathogenic bacteria on their apical surface. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (1995), 92(7), 3019-23. .

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
LPH splits lactose in the small intestine.
Gene Name:
LCT
Uniprot ID:
P09848
Molecular weight:
218584.77
General function:
Involved in sialyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of ganglioside GM3 (alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1, 4-beta-D-glucosylceramide).
Gene Name:
ST3GAL5
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNP4
Molecular weight:
45584.69
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Cleaves beta-linked terminal galactosyl residues from gangliosides, glycoproteins, and glycosaminoglycans. Isoform 2 has no beta-galactosidase catalytic activity, but plays functional roles in the formation of extracellular elastic fibers (elastogenesis) and in the development of connective tissue. Seems to be identical to the elastin-binding protein (EBP), a major component of the non-integrin cell surface receptor expressed on fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, chondroblasts, leukocytes, and certain cancer cell types. In elastin producing cells, associates with tropoelastin intracellularly and functions as a recycling molecular chaperone which facilitates the secretions of tropoelastin and its assembly into elastic fibers.
Gene Name:
GLB1
Uniprot ID:
P16278
Molecular weight:
Not Available