Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Ammonia (HMDB00051)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2005-11-16 08:48:42 -0700
Update Date 2013-05-29 13:24:38 -0600
HMDB ID HMDB00051
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Ammonia
Description Ammonia is a colorless alkaline gas with a characteristic sharp smell. Ammonia is one of the most abundant nitrogen-containing compounds in the atmosphere. It is an irritant with a characteristic pungent odor, which is widely used in industry. Inasmuch as ammonia is highly soluble in water and, upon inhalation, is deposited in the upper airways, occupational exposures to ammonia have commonly been associated with sinusitis, upper airway irritation, and eye irritation. Acute exposures to high levels of ammonia have also been associated with diseases of the lower airways and interstitial lung. Ammonia has been shown to be a neurotoxin that predominantly affects astrocytes. Disturbed mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, factors implicated in the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition, appear to be involved in the mechanism of ammonia neurotoxicity. Ammonia is formed in nearly all tissues and organs of the vertebrate organism; it is the most common endogenous neurotoxic compounds. Ammonia can affect the glutamatergic and GABAergic neuronal systems, the two prevailing neuronal systems of the cortical structures. Ammonia is well recognized to be central in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and has been of importance to generations dating back to the early Egyptians. The gut produces ammonia which is metabolized in the liver and almost all organ systems are involved in ammonia metabolism. Colonic bacteria produce ammonia by splitting urea and other amino acids, however this does not explain hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy. The alternative explanation is that hyperammonemia is the result of intestinal breakdown of amino acids, especially glutamine. The intestines have significant glutaminase activity, predominantly located in the enterocytes. On the other hand, this organ has only a little glutamine synthetase activity, making it a major glutamine-consuming organ. In addition to the intestine, the kidney is an important source of blood ammonia in patients with liver disease. Ammonia is also taken up by the muscle and brain in hepatic coma, and there is confirmation that ammonia is metabolized in muscle. The excessive formation of ammonia in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients has been demonstrated, and it has been shown that some Alzheimer's disease patients exhibit elevated blood ammonia concentrations. Ammonia is the most important natural modulator of lysosomal protein processing: there is evidence for the involvement of aberrant lysosomal processing of beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) in the formation of amyloid deposits. Inflammatory processes and activation of microglia are widely believed to be implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Ammonia is able to affect the characteristic functions of microglia, such as endocytosis, and cytokine production. Based on these facts, an ammonia-based hypothesis for Alzheimer's disease has been suggested. (PMID: 17006913 Link_out, 16167195 Link_out, 15377862 Link_out, 15369278 Link_out, 12020619 Link_out).
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. Ammonia anhydrous
  2. Ammonia inhalant
  3. Ammonia solution strong [usan]
  4. Ammonia water
  5. Ammoniak
  6. Liquid ammonia
  7. Am-fol
  8. Ammonia
  9. Ammonia (conc 20% or greater)
  10. Ammonia gas
  11. Ammonia solution
  12. Ammonia solution strong (NF)
  13. Ammonia water (JP15)
  14. Ammoniac [french]
  15. Ammoniaca [italian]
  16. Ammoniacum gummi
  17. Ammoniak kconzentrierter
  18. Ammoniak [german]
  19. Ammoniakgas
  20. Ammonium ion
  21. Amoniak [polish]
  22. Anhydrous ammonia
  23. Aromatic ammonia vaporole
  24. Azane
  25. NH(3)
  26. NH3
  27. Nitro-sil
  28. Primaeres amin
  29. Sekundaeres amin
  30. Spirit of hartshorn
  31. Tertiaeres amin
Chemical Formula H3N
Average Molecular Weight 17.0305
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 17.026549101
IUPAC Name ammonia
Traditional IUPAC Name ammonia
CAS Registry Number 7664-41-7
SMILES N
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/H3N/h1H3
InChI Key QGZKDVFQNNGYKY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Inorganic Compounds
Super Class Homogeneous Non-metal Compounds
Class Other Non-metal Organides
Sub Class Other Non-metal Hydrides
Other Descriptors
  • a small molecule(Cyc)
  • azane(ChEBI)
  • mononuclear parent hydride(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct Parent Other Non-metal Hydrides
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Alanine and aspartate metabolism
  • Component of Aminosugars metabolism
  • Component of Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Component of Cysteine metabolism
  • Component of D-Arginine and D-ornithine metabolism
  • Component of D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Component of Histidine metabolism
  • Component of Methionine metabolism
  • Component of Nitrogen metabolism
  • Component of Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Component of Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Component of Purine metabolism
  • Component of Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Component of Selenoamino acid metabolism
  • Component of Tryptophan metabolism
  • Component of Tyrosine metabolism
  • Component of Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • Component of beta-Alanine metabolism
Application Not Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
State Liquid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point -77.7 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility 482 mg/mL at 24 °C Not Available
LogP Not Available Not Available
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
LogP -0.98 ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic) 8.86 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 1 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 1 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 13.59 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 0 ChemAxon
Refractivity 15.51 ChemAxon
Polarizability 1.99 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 0 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge 1 ChemAxon
Spectra
Not Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
Pathways
Name SMPDB Link KEGG Link
Glutamate Metabolism SMP00072 map00250 Link_out
Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Metabolism SMP00008 map00360 Link_out
Arginine and Proline Metabolism SMP00020 map00330 Link_out
Urea Cycle SMP00059 map00330 Link_out
Glucose-Alanine Cycle SMP00127 Not Available
Glycine and Serine Metabolism SMP00004 map00260 Link_out
D-Arginine and D-Ornithine Metabolism SMP00036 map00472 Link_out
Ammonia Recycling SMP00009 map00910 Link_out
Homocysteine Degradation SMP00455 Not Available
Amino Sugar Metabolism SMP00045 map00520 Link_out
Threonine and 2-Oxobutanoate Degradation SMP00452 Not Available
Folate Metabolism SMP00053 map00670 Link_out
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
27.5 +/- 3.6 uM Newborn (0-30 days old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
29.0 (10.0-47.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • The Merck Ma...
Blood Detected and Quantified
40.0 (0 - 80.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
29.0 (13.0 - 46.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
35.0 (20.0 - 58.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
29.0 (17.0 - 51.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
52.5 (25.0-80.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cellular Cytoplasm Detected and Quantified
800 (700-900) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
11.9 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Urine Detected and Quantified
2810.0 +/- 947.0 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Urine Detected and Quantified
1900.0 +/- 350.0 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
2330.0 (724.0-3950.0) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 1100.0 (200.0-2000.0) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASL)
Blood Detected and Quantified 1100.0 (200.0-2000.0) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Citrullinemia Type I
Blood Detected and Quantified 175.0 (150.0-200.0) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Fumaric Aciduria
Blood Detected and Quantified 50.4 +/- 17.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Short bowel syndrome
Blood Detected and Quantified 1030.0 (60.0-2000.0) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase Deficiency
Blood Detected and Quantified 200.0 (100.0-300.0) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both 3-Methyl-Crotonyl-Glycinuria
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Short bowel syndrome
  • Pita AM, Wakabayashi Y, Fernandez-Bustos MA, Virgili N, Riudor E, Soler J, Farriol M: Plasma urea-cycle-related amino acids, ammonium levels, and urinary orotic acid excretion in short-bowel patients managed with an oral diet. Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;22(1):93-8. Pubmed: 12553956 Link_out
      3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency
          3-methyl-crotonyl-glycinuria
              Argininosuccinic aciduria
                  Citrullinemia type I
                      Fumarase deficiency
                          Associated OMIM IDs
                          • 246450 Link_out (3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency)
                          • 210200 Link_out (3-methyl-crotonyl-glycinuria)
                          • 207900 Link_out (Argininosuccinic aciduria)
                          • 215700 Link_out (Citrullinemia type I)
                          • 606812 Link_out (Fumarase deficiency)
                          DrugBank ID Not Available
                          DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
                          Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
                          Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
                          FoodDB ID FDB003908
                          KNApSAcK ID C00007267 Link_out
                          Chemspider ID 217 Link_out
                          KEGG Compound ID C00014 Link_out
                          BioCyc ID AMMONIA Link_out
                          BiGG ID Not Available
                          Wikipedia Link Ammonia Link_out
                          NuGOwiki Link HMDB00051 Link_out
                          Metagene Link HMDB00051 Link_out
                          METLIN ID 3189 Link_out
                          PubChem Compound 222 Link_out
                          PDB ID NH3 Link_out
                          ChEBI ID 16134 Link_out
                          References
                          Synthesis Reference Mohr, Rudolf. Ammonia separation from offgas obtained from melamine synthesis. U.S. (1971), 5 pp. CODEN: USXXAM US 3555784 19710119 CAN 77:50902 AN 1972:450902
                          Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
                          General References
                          1. Yoshida Y, Higashi T, Nouso K, Nakatsukasa H, Nakamura SI, Watanabe A, Tsuji T: Effects of zinc deficiency/zinc supplementation on ammonia metabolism in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. Acta Med Okayama. 2001 Dec;55(6):349-55. Pubmed: 11779097 Link_out
                          2. Huizenga JR, Teelken AW, Tangerman A, de Jager AE, Gips CH, Jansen PL: Determination of ammonia in cerebrospinal fluid using the indophenol direct method. Mol Chem Neuropathol. 1998 Jun-Aug;34(2-3):169-77. Pubmed: 10327416 Link_out
                          3. Cohen BI: The significance of ammonia/gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ratio for normality and liver disorders. Med Hypotheses. 2002 Dec;59(6):757-8. Pubmed: 12445521 Link_out
                          4. Kochar DK, Agarwal P, Kochar SK, Jain R, Rawat N, Pokharna RK, Kachhawa S, Srivastava T: Hepatocyte dysfunction and hepatic encephalopathy in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. QJM. 2003 Jul;96(7):505-12. Pubmed: 12881593 Link_out
                          5. Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. Pubmed: 8579834 Link_out
                          6. Cooper AJ: Role of glutamine in cerebral nitrogen metabolism and ammonia neurotoxicity. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2001;7(4):280-6. Pubmed: 11754523 Link_out
                          7. Remer T: Influence of nutrition on acid-base balance--metabolic aspects. Eur J Nutr. 2001 Oct;40(5):214-20. Pubmed: 11842946 Link_out
                          8. Kaiho T, Tanaka T, Tsuchiya S, Yanagisawa S, Takeuchi O, Miura M, Saigusa N, Miyazaki M: Effect of the herbal medicine Dai-kenchu-to for serum ammonia in hepatectomized patients. Hepatogastroenterology. 2005 Jan-Feb;52(61):161-5. Pubmed: 15783019 Link_out
                          9. Nybo L, Dalsgaard MK, Steensberg A, Moller K, Secher NH: Cerebral ammonia uptake and accumulation during prolonged exercise in humans. J Physiol. 2005 Feb 15;563(Pt 1):285-90. Epub 2004 Dec 20. Pubmed: 15611036 Link_out
                          10. Huizenga JR, Vissink A, Kuipers EJ, Gips CH: Helicobacter pylori and ammonia concentrations of whole, parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva. Clin Oral Investig. 1999 Jun;3(2):84-7. Pubmed: 10803116 Link_out
                          11. Satoh M, Yokoya S, Hachiya Y, Hachiya M, Fujisawa T, Hoshino K, Saji T: Two hyperandrogenic adolescent girls with congenital portosystemic shunt. Eur J Pediatr. 2001 May;160(5):307-11. Pubmed: 11388600 Link_out
                          12. Suarez I, Bodega G, Fernandez B: Glutamine synthetase in brain: effect of ammonia. Neurochem Int. 2002 Aug-Sep;41(2-3):123-42. Pubmed: 12020613 Link_out
                          13. Helewski K, Kowalczyk-Ziomek G, Konecki J: [Ammonia and GABA-ergic neurotransmission in pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy] Wiad Lek. 2003;56(11-12):560-3. Pubmed: 15058165 Link_out
                          14. Grasten SM, Juntunen KS, Poutanen KS, Gylling HK, Miettinen TA, Mykkanen HM: Rye bread improves bowel function and decreases the concentrations of some compounds that are putative colon cancer risk markers in middle-aged women and men. J Nutr. 2000 Sep;130(9):2215-21. Pubmed: 10958815 Link_out
                          15. Pita AM, Wakabayashi Y, Fernandez-Bustos MA, Virgili N, Riudor E, Soler J, Farriol M: Plasma urea-cycle-related amino acids, ammonium levels, and urinary orotic acid excretion in short-bowel patients managed with an oral diet. Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;22(1):93-8. Pubmed: 12553956 Link_out
                          16. Geier M, Bosch OJ, Boeckh J: Ammonia as an attractive component of host odour for the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Chem Senses. 1999 Dec;24(6):647-53. Pubmed: 10587497 Link_out
                          17. Iwata H, Ueda Y: Pharmacokinetic considerations in development of a bioartificial liver. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2004;43(4):211-25. Pubmed: 15005636 Link_out
                          18. Ohmoto K, Miyake I, Tsuduki M, Ohno S, Yamamoto S: Control of solitary gastric fundal varices and portosystemic encephalopathy accompanying liver cirrhosis by balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO): a case report. Hepatogastroenterology. 1999 Mar-Apr;46(26):1249-52. Pubmed: 10370701 Link_out
                          19. Verrotti A, Greco R, Morgese G, Chiarelli F: Carnitine deficiency and hyperammonemia in children receiving valproic acid with and without other anticonvulsant drugs. Int J Clin Lab Res. 1999;29(1):36-40. Pubmed: 10356662 Link_out
                          20. Hussein HS, Flickinger EA, Fahey GC Jr: Petfood applications of inulin and oligofructose. J Nutr. 1999 Jul;129(7 Suppl):1454S-6S. Pubmed: 10395620 Link_out
                          21. Albrecht J, Norenberg MD: Glutamine: a Trojan horse in ammonia neurotoxicity. Hepatology. 2006 Oct;44(4):788-94. Pubmed: 17006913 Link_out
                          22. Shawcross DL, Damink SW, Butterworth RF, Jalan R: Ammonia and hepatic encephalopathy: the more things change, the more they remain the same. Metab Brain Dis. 2005 Sep;20(3):169-79. Pubmed: 16167195 Link_out
                          23. Norenberg MD, Rama Rao KV, Jayakumar AR: Ammonia neurotoxicity and the mitochondrial permeability transition. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2004 Aug;36(4):303-7. Pubmed: 15377862 Link_out
                          24. Brautbar N, Wu MP, Richter ED: Chronic ammonia inhalation and interstitial pulmonary fibrosis: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Environ Health. 2003 Sep;58(9):592-6. Pubmed: 15369278 Link_out
                          25. Seiler N: Ammonia and Alzheimer's disease. Neurochem Int. 2002 Aug-Sep;41(2-3):189-207. Pubmed: 12020619 Link_out

                          Enzymes

                          Show all enzymes and transporters Important Only showing the first 50 enzymes. There are 85 enzymes in total.

                          Name: Deoxycytidylate deaminase
                          Reactions:
                          dCMP + Water unknown dUMP + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: DCTD
                          Uniprot ID: P32321 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: D-aspartate oxidase
                          Reactions:
                          D-Aspartic acid + Water + Oxygen unknown Oxalacetic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Gene Name: DDO
                          Uniprot ID: Q99489 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B
                          Reactions:
                          Tryptamine + Water + Oxygen unknown Indoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Tyramine + Water + Oxygen unknown 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen unknown Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Norepinephrine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water unknown Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Serotonin + Water + Oxygen unknown 5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          N-Acetylputrescine + Water + Oxygen unknown N4-Acetylaminobutanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Dopamine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          1-Methylhistamine + Water + Oxygen unknown Methylimidazole acetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          3-Methoxytyramine + Water + Oxygen unknown Homovanillin + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammonia details
                          Normetanephrine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          3-Hydroxykynurenamine + Oxygen unknown Quinoline-4,8-diol + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          5-Hydroxykynurenamine + Water + Oxygen unknown 4,6-Dihydroxyquinoline + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide + Water details
                          Didemethylcitalopram + Water + Oxygen unknown Citalopram aldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Gene Name: MAOB
                          Uniprot ID: P27338 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A
                          Reactions:
                          Tryptamine + Water + Oxygen unknown Indoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Tyramine + Water + Oxygen unknown 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen unknown Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Norepinephrine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water unknown Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Serotonin + Water + Oxygen unknown 5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          N-Acetylputrescine + Water + Oxygen unknown N4-Acetylaminobutanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Dopamine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          1-Methylhistamine + Water + Oxygen unknown Methylimidazole acetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          3-Methoxytyramine + Water + Oxygen unknown Homovanillin + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammonia details
                          Normetanephrine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          3-Hydroxykynurenamine + Oxygen unknown Quinoline-4,8-diol + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          5-Hydroxykynurenamine + Water + Oxygen unknown 4,6-Dihydroxyquinoline + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide + Water details
                          Didemethylcitalopram + Water + Oxygen unknown Citalopram aldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Gene Name: MAOA
                          Uniprot ID: P21397 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: D-amino-acid oxidase
                          Reactions:
                          A D-amino acid + Water + Oxygen unknown a 2-oxo acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Glycine + Water + Oxygen unknown Glyoxylic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          D-Ornithine + Water + Oxygen unknown 5-Amino-2-oxopentanoic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Cephalosporin C + Water + Oxygen unknown (7R)-7-(5-Carboxy-5-oxopentanoyl)aminocephalosporinate + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Gene Name: DAO
                          Uniprot ID: P14920 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase 1
                          Reactions:
                          Glucosamine 6-phosphate + Water unknown Fructose 6-phosphate + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: GNPDA1
                          Uniprot ID: P46926 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Porphobilinogen deaminase
                          Reactions:
                          Porphobilinogen + Water unknown Hydroxymethylbilane + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: HMBS
                          Uniprot ID: P08397 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Carbamoyl-phosphate synthase [ammonia], mitochondrial
                          Reactions:
                          Adenosine triphosphate + Ammonia + CO(2) + Water unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + Carbamoyl phosphate details
                          Adenosine triphosphate + Ammonia + Carbon dioxide + Water unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + Carbamoyl phosphate details
                          Gene Name: CPS1
                          Uniprot ID: P31327 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Amiloride-sensitive amine oxidase [copper-containing]
                          Reactions:
                          Histamine + Water + Oxygen unknown Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Putrescine + Oxygen + Water unknown 4-Aminobutyraldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Tryptamine + Water + Oxygen unknown Indoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Gene Name: ABP1
                          Uniprot ID: P19801 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Membrane primary amine oxidase
                          Reactions:
                          RCH(2)NH(2) + Water + Oxygen unknown RCHO + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Tyramine + Water + Oxygen unknown 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen unknown Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water unknown Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          1,3-Diaminopropane + Oxygen + Water unknown 3-Aminopropionaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          N-Methylputrescine + Oxygen + Hydrogen Ion unknown 1-Methylpyrrolinium + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammonia details
                          Dopamine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Methylamine + Oxygen + Water unknown Formaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Cadaverine + Water + Oxygen unknown 5-Aminopentanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Gene Name: AOC3
                          Uniprot ID: Q16853 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Retina-specific copper amine oxidase
                          Reactions:
                          RCH(2)NH(2) + Water + Oxygen unknown RCHO + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Tyramine + Water + Oxygen unknown 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen unknown Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water unknown Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          1,3-Diaminopropane + Oxygen + Water unknown 3-Aminopropionaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          N-Methylputrescine + Oxygen + Hydrogen Ion unknown 1-Methylpyrrolinium + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammonia details
                          Dopamine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Methylamine + Oxygen + Water unknown Formaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Cadaverine + Water + Oxygen unknown 5-Aminopentanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Gene Name: AOC2
                          Uniprot ID: O75106 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 1
                          Reactions:
                          RS-CH(2)-CH(NH(3)(+))COO(-) + Water unknown RSH + Ammonia + Pyruvic acid details
                          Gene Name: CCBL1
                          Uniprot ID: Q16773 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Cystathionine gamma-lyase
                          Reactions:
                          L-Cystathionine + Water unknown L-Cysteine + Ammonia + 2-Ketobutyric acid details
                          L-Cysteine + Water unknown Hydrogen sulfide + Pyruvic acid + Ammonia details
                          L-Cystine + Water unknown Pyruvic acid + Ammonia + Thiocysteine details
                          Selenomethionine + Water unknown Methaneselenol + Ammonia + 2-Ketobutyric acid details
                          Selenocystathionine + Water unknown Selenocysteine + Ammonia + 2-Ketobutyric acid details
                          Gene Name: CTH
                          Uniprot ID: P32929 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Beta-ureidopropionase
                          Reactions:
                          Ureidopropionic acid + Water unknown Beta-Alanine + CO(2) + Ammonia details
                          Ureidopropionic acid + Water unknown Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxide + Ammonia details
                          Ureidoisobutyric acid + Water unknown 3-Aminoisobutanoic acid + Carbon dioxide + Ammonia details
                          alpha-Fluoro-beta-ureidopropionic acid + Water unknown alpha-Fluoro-beta-alanine + Carbon dioxide + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: UPB1
                          Uniprot ID: Q9UBR1 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Biotinidase
                          Reactions:
                          Biotin amide + Water unknown Biotin + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: BTD
                          Uniprot ID: P43251 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: GMP synthase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]
                          Reactions:
                          Adenosine triphosphate + Xanthylic acid + Ammonia unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Guanosine monophosphate details
                          Gene Name: GMPS
                          Uniprot ID: P49915 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: AMP deaminase 3
                          Reactions:
                          Adenosine monophosphate + Water unknown Inosinic acid + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: AMPD3
                          Uniprot ID: Q01432 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: AMP deaminase 2
                          Reactions:
                          Adenosine monophosphate + Water unknown Inosinic acid + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: AMPD2
                          Uniprot ID: Q01433 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: AMP deaminase 1
                          Reactions:
                          Adenosine monophosphate + Water unknown Inosinic acid + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: AMPD1
                          Uniprot ID: P23109 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Adenosine deaminase
                          Reactions:
                          Adenosine + Water unknown Inosine + Ammonia details
                          Deoxyadenosine + Water unknown Deoxyinosine + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: ADA
                          Uniprot ID: P00813 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase E
                          Reactions:
                          Protein glutamine + alkylamine unknown protein N(5)-alkylglutamine + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: TGM3
                          Uniprot ID: Q08188 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Glutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrial
                          Reactions:
                          L-Glutamic acid + Water + NAD(P)(+) unknown Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NAD(P)H details
                          L-Glutamic acid + NAD + Water unknown Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
                          L-Glutamic acid + NADP + Water unknown Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
                          Gene Name: GLUD2
                          Uniprot ID: P49448 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 2
                          Reactions:
                          Protein glutamine + alkylamine unknown protein N(5)-alkylglutamine + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: TGM2
                          Uniprot ID: P21980 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Protein-arginine deiminase type-6
                          Reactions:
                          Protein L-arginine + Water unknown protein L-citrulline + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: PADI6
                          Uniprot ID: Q6TGC4 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Glutamine synthetase
                          Reactions:
                          Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + Ammonia unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + L-Glutamine details
                          Gene Name: GLUL
                          Uniprot ID: P15104 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: L-serine dehydratase/L-threonine deaminase
                          Reactions:
                          L-Serine unknown Pyruvic acid + Ammonia details
                          L-Threonine unknown 2-Ketobutyric acid + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: SDS
                          Uniprot ID: P20132 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Coagulation factor XIII A chain
                          Reactions:
                          Protein glutamine + alkylamine unknown protein N(5)-alkylglutamine + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: F13A1
                          Uniprot ID: P00488 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Protein-arginine deiminase type-4
                          Reactions:
                          Protein L-arginine + Water unknown protein L-citrulline + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: PADI4
                          Uniprot ID: Q9UM07 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase
                          Reactions:
                          Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate + Water + Oxygen unknown Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Pyridoxamine + Water + Oxygen unknown Pyridoxal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Gene Name: PNPO
                          Uniprot ID: Q9NVS9 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Glutaminase liver isoform, mitochondrial
                          Reactions:
                          L-Glutamine + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + Ammonia details
                          D-Glutamine + Water unknown D-Glutamic acid + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: GLS2
                          Uniprot ID: Q9UI32 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: CTP synthase 1
                          Reactions:
                          Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine triphosphate + Ammonia unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + Cytidine triphosphate details
                          Gene Name: CTPS1
                          Uniprot ID: P17812 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Protein-arginine deiminase type-3
                          Reactions:
                          Protein L-arginine + Water unknown protein L-citrulline + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: PADI3
                          Uniprot ID: Q9ULW8 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: GMP reductase 2
                          Reactions:
                          Inosinic acid + Ammonia + NADP unknown Guanosine monophosphate + NADPH details
                          Inosinic acid + Ammonia + NADP unknown Guanosine monophosphate + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
                          Gene Name: GMPR2
                          Uniprot ID: Q9P2T1 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 5
                          Reactions:
                          Protein glutamine + alkylamine unknown protein N(5)-alkylglutamine + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: TGM5
                          Uniprot ID: O43548 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrial
                          Reactions:
                          L-Glutamine + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + Ammonia details
                          D-Glutamine + Water unknown D-Glutamic acid + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: GLS
                          Uniprot ID: O94925 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 4
                          Reactions:
                          Protein glutamine + alkylamine unknown protein N(5)-alkylglutamine + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: TGM4
                          Uniprot ID: P49221 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase K
                          Reactions:
                          Protein glutamine + alkylamine unknown protein N(5)-alkylglutamine + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: TGM1
                          Uniprot ID: P22735 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Histidine ammonia-lyase
                          Reactions:
                          L-Histidine unknown Urocanic acid + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: HAL
                          Uniprot ID: P42357 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Protein-arginine deiminase type-2
                          Reactions:
                          Protein L-arginine + Water unknown protein L-citrulline + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: PADI2
                          Uniprot ID: Q9Y2J8 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: GMP reductase 1
                          Reactions:
                          Inosinic acid + Ammonia + NADP unknown Guanosine monophosphate + NADPH details
                          Inosinic acid + Ammonia + NADP unknown Guanosine monophosphate + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
                          Gene Name: GMPR
                          Uniprot ID: P36959 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Formimidoyltransferase-cyclodeaminase
                          Reactions:
                          5-Formiminotetrahydrofolic acid unknown 5,10-Methenyltetrahydrofolic acid + Ammonia details
                          5-Formiminotetrahydrofolic acid + Hydrogen Ion unknown 5,10-Methenyltetrahydrofolic acid + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: FTCD
                          Uniprot ID: O95954 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Protein-arginine deiminase type-1
                          Reactions:
                          Protein L-arginine + Water unknown protein L-citrulline + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: PADI1
                          Uniprot ID: Q9ULC6 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Aminomethyltransferase, mitochondrial
                          Reactions:
                          [Protein]-S(8)-aminomethyldihydrolipoyllysine + Tetrahydrofolic acid unknown [protein]-dihydrolipoyllysine + 5,10-Methylene-THF + Ammonia details
                          Glycine + Tetrahydrofolic acid + NAD unknown 5,10-Methylene-THF + Ammonia + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
                          S-Aminomethyldihydrolipoylprotein + Tetrahydrofolic acid unknown Dihydrolipoylprotein + 5,10-Methylene-THF + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: AMT
                          Uniprot ID: P48728 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Guanine deaminase
                          Reactions:
                          Guanine + Water unknown Xanthine + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: GDA
                          Uniprot ID: Q9Y2T3 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 6
                          Reactions:
                          Protein glutamine + alkylamine unknown protein N(5)-alkylglutamine + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: TGM6
                          Uniprot ID: O95932 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase
                          Reactions:
                          L-glutaminyl-peptide unknown 5-oxoprolyl-peptide + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: QPCT
                          Uniprot ID: Q16769 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase Z
                          Reactions:
                          Protein glutamine + alkylamine unknown protein N(5)-alkylglutamine + Ammonia details
                          Gene Name: TGM7
                          Uniprot ID: Q96PF1 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial
                          Reactions:
                          L-Glutamic acid + Water + NAD(P)(+) unknown Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NAD(P)H details
                          L-Glutamic acid + NAD + Water unknown Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
                          L-Glutamic acid + NADP + Water unknown Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
                          Gene Name: GLUD1
                          Uniprot ID: P00367 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Protein-lysine 6-oxidase
                          Reactions:
                          Peptidyl-L-lysyl-peptide + Oxygen + Water unknown peptidyl-allysyl-peptide + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                          Gene Name: LOX
                          Uniprot ID: P28300 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA
                          Name: Ammonium transporter Rh type A
                          Reactions: Not Available
                          Gene Name: RHAG
                          Uniprot ID: Q02094 Link_out
                          Protein Sequence: FASTA
                          Gene Sequence: FASTA