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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-05-29 19:24:38 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00051
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAmmonia
DescriptionAmmonia is a colorless alkaline gas with a characteristic sharp smell. Ammonia is one of the most abundant nitrogen-containing compounds in the atmosphere. It is an irritant with a characteristic pungent odor, which is widely used in industry. Inasmuch as ammonia is highly soluble in water and, upon inhalation, is deposited in the upper airways, occupational exposures to ammonia have commonly been associated with sinusitis, upper airway irritation, and eye irritation. Acute exposures to high levels of ammonia have also been associated with diseases of the lower airways and interstitial lung. Ammonia has been shown to be a neurotoxin that predominantly affects astrocytes. Disturbed mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, factors implicated in the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition, appear to be involved in the mechanism of ammonia neurotoxicity. Ammonia is formed in nearly all tissues and organs of the vertebrate organism; it is the most common endogenous neurotoxic compounds. Ammonia can affect the glutamatergic and GABAergic neuronal systems, the two prevailing neuronal systems of the cortical structures. Ammonia is well recognized to be central in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and has been of importance to generations dating back to the early Egyptians. The gut produces ammonia which is metabolized in the liver and almost all organ systems are involved in ammonia metabolism. Colonic bacteria produce ammonia by splitting urea and other amino acids, however this does not explain hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy. The alternative explanation is that hyperammonemia is the result of intestinal breakdown of amino acids, especially glutamine. The intestines have significant glutaminase activity, predominantly located in the enterocytes. On the other hand, this organ has only a little glutamine synthetase activity, making it a major glutamine-consuming organ. In addition to the intestine, the kidney is an important source of blood ammonia in patients with liver disease. Ammonia is also taken up by the muscle and brain in hepatic coma, and there is confirmation that ammonia is metabolized in muscle. The excessive formation of ammonia in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients has been demonstrated, and it has been shown that some Alzheimer's disease patients exhibit elevated blood ammonia concentrations. Ammonia is the most important natural modulator of lysosomal protein processing: there is evidence for the involvement of aberrant lysosomal processing of beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) in the formation of amyloid deposits. Inflammatory processes and activation of microglia are widely believed to be implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Ammonia is able to affect the characteristic functions of microglia, such as endocytosis, and cytokine production. Based on these facts, an ammonia-based hypothesis for Alzheimer's disease has been suggested. (PMID: 17006913 , 16167195 , 15377862 , 15369278 , 12020619 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Ammonia anhydrous
  2. Ammonia inhalant
  3. Ammonia solution strong [usan]
  4. Ammonia water
  5. Ammoniak
  6. Liquid ammonia
  7. Am-fol
  8. Ammonia
  9. Ammonia (conc 20% or greater)
  10. Ammonia gas
  11. Ammonia solution
  12. Ammonia solution strong (NF)
  13. Ammonia water (JP15)
  14. Ammoniac [french]
  15. Ammoniaca [italian]
  16. Ammoniacum gummi
  17. Ammoniak kconzentrierter
  18. Ammoniak [german]
  19. Ammoniakgas
  20. Ammonium ion
  21. Amoniak [polish]
  22. Anhydrous ammonia
  23. Aromatic ammonia vaporole
  24. Azane
  25. NH(3)
  26. NH3
  27. Nitro-sil
  28. Primaeres amin
  29. Sekundaeres amin
  30. Spirit of hartshorn
  31. Tertiaeres amin
Chemical FormulaH3N
Average Molecular Weight17.0305
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight17.026549101
IUPAC Nameammonia
Traditional IUPAC Nameammonia
CAS Registry Number7664-41-7
SMILES
N
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/H3N/h1H3
InChI KeyQGZKDVFQNNGYKY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Non-metal Compounds
ClassOther Non-metal Organides
Sub ClassOther Non-metal Hydrides
Other Descriptors
  • a small molecule(Cyc)
  • azane(ChEBI)
  • mononuclear parent hydride(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentOther Non-metal Hydrides
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Alanine and aspartate metabolism
  • Component of Aminosugars metabolism
  • Component of Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Component of Cysteine metabolism
  • Component of D-Arginine and D-ornithine metabolism
  • Component of D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Component of Histidine metabolism
  • Component of Methionine metabolism
  • Component of Nitrogen metabolism
  • Component of Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Component of Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Component of Purine metabolism
  • Component of Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Component of Selenoamino acid metabolism
  • Component of Tryptophan metabolism
  • Component of Tyrosine metabolism
  • Component of Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • Component of beta-Alanine metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-77.7 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility482 mg/mL at 24 °CNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.98ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)8.86ChemAxon
physiological charge1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count1ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count1ChemAxon
polar surface area13.59ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity15.51ChemAxon
polarizability1.99ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Amino Sugar MetabolismSMP00045map00520
Ammonia RecyclingSMP00009map00910
Arginine and Proline MetabolismSMP00020map00330
D-Arginine and D-Ornithine MetabolismSMP00036map00472
Folate MetabolismSMP00053map00670
Glucose-Alanine CycleSMP00127Not Available
Glutamate MetabolismSMP00072map00250
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004map00260
Homocysteine DegradationSMP00455Not Available
Phenylalanine and Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00008map00360
Threonine and 2-Oxobutanoate DegradationSMP00452Not Available
Urea CycleSMP00059map00330
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified27.5 +/- 3.6 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified29.0 (10.0-47.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • The Merck Manual,...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified40.0 (0 - 80.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified29.0 (13.0 - 46.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified35.0 (20.0 - 58.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified29.0 (17.0 - 51.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified52.5 (25.0-80.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified800 (700-900) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified11.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2810.0 +/- 947.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1900.0 +/- 350.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2330.0 (724.0-3950.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    BloodDetected and Quantified1100.0 (200.0-2000.0) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothArgininosuccinic aciduria (ASL) details
    BloodDetected and Quantified1100.0 (200.0-2000.0) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothCitrullinemia Type I details
    BloodDetected and Quantified175.0 (150.0-200.0) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothFumaric Aciduria details
    BloodDetected and Quantified50.4 +/- 17.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothShort bowel syndrome details
    BloodDetected and Quantified1030.0 (60.0-2000.0) uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase Deficiency details
    BloodDetected and Quantified200.0 (100.0-300.0) uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both3-Methyl-Crotonyl-Glycinuria details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency
    1. MetaGene
    Argininosuccinic aciduria
    1. MetaGene
    3-methyl-crotonyl-glycinuria
    1. MetaGene
    Citrullinemia type I
    1. MetaGene
    Fumarase deficiency
    1. MetaGene
    Short bowel syndrome
    1. Pita AM, Wakabayashi Y, Fernandez-Bustos MA, Virgili N, Riudor E, Soler J, Farriol M: Plasma urea-cycle-related amino acids, ammonium levels, and urinary orotic acid excretion in short-bowel patients managed with an oral diet. Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;22(1):93-8. Pubmed: 12553956
    Associated OMIM IDs
    • 246450 (3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency)
    • 210200 (3-methyl-crotonyl-glycinuria)
    • 207900 (Argininosuccinic aciduria)
    • 215700 (Citrullinemia type I)
    • 606812 (Fumarase deficiency)
    DrugBank IDNot Available
    DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB003908
    KNApSAcK IDC00007267
    Chemspider ID217
    KEGG Compound IDC00014
    BioCyc IDAMMONIA
    BiGG IDNot Available
    Wikipedia LinkAmmonia
    NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00051
    Metagene LinkHMDB00051
    METLIN ID3189
    PubChem Compound222
    PDB IDNH3
    ChEBI ID16134
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceMohr, Rudolf. Ammonia separation from offgas obtained from melamine synthesis. U.S. (1971), 5 pp. CODEN: USXXAM US 3555784 19710119 CAN 77:50902 AN 1972:450902
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
    General References
    1. Yoshida Y, Higashi T, Nouso K, Nakatsukasa H, Nakamura SI, Watanabe A, Tsuji T: Effects of zinc deficiency/zinc supplementation on ammonia metabolism in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. Acta Med Okayama. 2001 Dec;55(6):349-55. Pubmed: 11779097
    2. Huizenga JR, Teelken AW, Tangerman A, de Jager AE, Gips CH, Jansen PL: Determination of ammonia in cerebrospinal fluid using the indophenol direct method. Mol Chem Neuropathol. 1998 Jun-Aug;34(2-3):169-77. Pubmed: 10327416
    3. Cohen BI: The significance of ammonia/gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ratio for normality and liver disorders. Med Hypotheses. 2002 Dec;59(6):757-8. Pubmed: 12445521
    4. Kochar DK, Agarwal P, Kochar SK, Jain R, Rawat N, Pokharna RK, Kachhawa S, Srivastava T: Hepatocyte dysfunction and hepatic encephalopathy in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. QJM. 2003 Jul;96(7):505-12. Pubmed: 12881593
    5. Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. Pubmed: 8579834
    6. Cooper AJ: Role of glutamine in cerebral nitrogen metabolism and ammonia neurotoxicity. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2001;7(4):280-6. Pubmed: 11754523
    7. Remer T: Influence of nutrition on acid-base balance--metabolic aspects. Eur J Nutr. 2001 Oct;40(5):214-20. Pubmed: 11842946
    8. Kaiho T, Tanaka T, Tsuchiya S, Yanagisawa S, Takeuchi O, Miura M, Saigusa N, Miyazaki M: Effect of the herbal medicine Dai-kenchu-to for serum ammonia in hepatectomized patients. Hepatogastroenterology. 2005 Jan-Feb;52(61):161-5. Pubmed: 15783019
    9. Nybo L, Dalsgaard MK, Steensberg A, Moller K, Secher NH: Cerebral ammonia uptake and accumulation during prolonged exercise in humans. J Physiol. 2005 Feb 15;563(Pt 1):285-90. Epub 2004 Dec 20. Pubmed: 15611036
    10. Huizenga JR, Vissink A, Kuipers EJ, Gips CH: Helicobacter pylori and ammonia concentrations of whole, parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva. Clin Oral Investig. 1999 Jun;3(2):84-7. Pubmed: 10803116
    11. Satoh M, Yokoya S, Hachiya Y, Hachiya M, Fujisawa T, Hoshino K, Saji T: Two hyperandrogenic adolescent girls with congenital portosystemic shunt. Eur J Pediatr. 2001 May;160(5):307-11. Pubmed: 11388600
    12. Suarez I, Bodega G, Fernandez B: Glutamine synthetase in brain: effect of ammonia. Neurochem Int. 2002 Aug-Sep;41(2-3):123-42. Pubmed: 12020613
    13. Helewski K, Kowalczyk-Ziomek G, Konecki J: [Ammonia and GABA-ergic neurotransmission in pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy] Wiad Lek. 2003;56(11-12):560-3. Pubmed: 15058165
    14. Grasten SM, Juntunen KS, Poutanen KS, Gylling HK, Miettinen TA, Mykkanen HM: Rye bread improves bowel function and decreases the concentrations of some compounds that are putative colon cancer risk markers in middle-aged women and men. J Nutr. 2000 Sep;130(9):2215-21. Pubmed: 10958815
    15. Pita AM, Wakabayashi Y, Fernandez-Bustos MA, Virgili N, Riudor E, Soler J, Farriol M: Plasma urea-cycle-related amino acids, ammonium levels, and urinary orotic acid excretion in short-bowel patients managed with an oral diet. Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;22(1):93-8. Pubmed: 12553956
    16. Geier M, Bosch OJ, Boeckh J: Ammonia as an attractive component of host odour for the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Chem Senses. 1999 Dec;24(6):647-53. Pubmed: 10587497
    17. Iwata H, Ueda Y: Pharmacokinetic considerations in development of a bioartificial liver. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2004;43(4):211-25. Pubmed: 15005636
    18. Ohmoto K, Miyake I, Tsuduki M, Ohno S, Yamamoto S: Control of solitary gastric fundal varices and portosystemic encephalopathy accompanying liver cirrhosis by balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO): a case report. Hepatogastroenterology. 1999 Mar-Apr;46(26):1249-52. Pubmed: 10370701
    19. Verrotti A, Greco R, Morgese G, Chiarelli F: Carnitine deficiency and hyperammonemia in children receiving valproic acid with and without other anticonvulsant drugs. Int J Clin Lab Res. 1999;29(1):36-40. Pubmed: 10356662
    20. Hussein HS, Flickinger EA, Fahey GC Jr: Petfood applications of inulin and oligofructose. J Nutr. 1999 Jul;129(7 Suppl):1454S-6S. Pubmed: 10395620
    21. Shawcross DL, Damink SW, Butterworth RF, Jalan R: Ammonia and hepatic encephalopathy: the more things change, the more they remain the same. Metab Brain Dis. 2005 Sep;20(3):169-79. Pubmed: 16167195
    22. Albrecht J, Norenberg MD: Glutamine: a Trojan horse in ammonia neurotoxicity. Hepatology. 2006 Oct;44(4):788-94. Pubmed: 17006913
    23. Norenberg MD, Rama Rao KV, Jayakumar AR: Ammonia neurotoxicity and the mitochondrial permeability transition. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2004 Aug;36(4):303-7. Pubmed: 15377862
    24. Brautbar N, Wu MP, Richter ED: Chronic ammonia inhalation and interstitial pulmonary fibrosis: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Environ Health. 2003 Sep;58(9):592-6. Pubmed: 15369278
    25. Seiler N: Ammonia and Alzheimer's disease. Neurochem Int. 2002 Aug-Sep;41(2-3):189-207. Pubmed: 12020619

    Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 85 proteins in total.

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in zinc ion binding
    Specific function:
    Supplies the nucleotide substrate for thymidylate synthetase.
    Gene Name:
    DCTD
    Uniprot ID:
    P32321
    Molecular weight:
    21013.96
    Reactions
    dCMP + Water → dUMP + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in D-amino-acid oxidase activity
    Specific function:
    Selectively catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-aspartate and its N-methylated derivative, N-methyl D-aspartate.
    Gene Name:
    DDO
    Uniprot ID:
    Q99489
    Molecular weight:
    40992.53
    Reactions
    D-Aspartic acid + Water + Oxygen → Oxalacetic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
    Gene Name:
    MAOB
    Uniprot ID:
    P27338
    Molecular weight:
    58762.475
    Reactions
    Tryptamine + Water + Oxygen → Indoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Tyramine + Water + Oxygen → 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen → Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Norepinephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water → Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Serotonin + Water + Oxygen → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    N-Acetylputrescine + Water + Oxygen → N4-Acetylaminobutanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Dopamine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    1-Methylhistamine + Water + Oxygen → Methylimidazole acetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    3-Methoxytyramine + Water + Oxygen → Homovanillin + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammoniadetails
    Normetanephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    3-Hydroxykynurenamine + Oxygen → Quinoline-4,8-diol + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    5-Hydroxykynurenamine + Water + Oxygen → 4,6-Dihydroxyquinoline + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide + Waterdetails
    Didemethylcitalopram + Water + Oxygen → Citalopram aldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
    Gene Name:
    MAOA
    Uniprot ID:
    P21397
    Molecular weight:
    59681.27
    Reactions
    Tryptamine + Water + Oxygen → Indoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Tyramine + Water + Oxygen → 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen → Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Norepinephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water → Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Serotonin + Water + Oxygen → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    N-Acetylputrescine + Water + Oxygen → N4-Acetylaminobutanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Dopamine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    1-Methylhistamine + Water + Oxygen → Methylimidazole acetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    3-Methoxytyramine + Water + Oxygen → Homovanillin + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammoniadetails
    Normetanephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    3-Hydroxykynurenamine + Oxygen → Quinoline-4,8-diol + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    5-Hydroxykynurenamine + Water + Oxygen → 4,6-Dihydroxyquinoline + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide + Waterdetails
    Didemethylcitalopram + Water + Oxygen → Citalopram aldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in D-amino-acid oxidase activity
    Specific function:
    Regulates the level of the neuromodulator D-serine in the brain. Has high activity towards D-DOPA and contributes to dopamine synthesis. Could act as a detoxifying agent which removes D-amino acids accumulated during aging. Acts on a variety of D-amino acids with a preference for those having small hydrophobic side chains followed by those bearing polar, aromatic, and basic groups. Does not act on acidic amino acids.
    Gene Name:
    DAO
    Uniprot ID:
    P14920
    Molecular weight:
    39473.75
    Reactions
    A D-amino acid + Water + Oxygen → a 2-oxo acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Glycine + Water + Oxygen → Glyoxylic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    D-Ornithine + Water + Oxygen → 5-Amino-2-oxopentanoic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Cephalosporin C + Water + Oxygen → (7R)-7-(5-Carboxy-5-oxopentanoyl)aminocephalosporinate + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in carbohydrate metabolic process
    Specific function:
    Seems to trigger calcium oscillations in mammalian eggs. These oscillations serve as the essential trigger for egg activation and early development of the embryo (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    GNPDA1
    Uniprot ID:
    P46926
    Molecular weight:
    32668.29
    Reactions
    Glucosamine 6-phosphate + Water → Fructose 6-phosphate + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in hydroxymethylbilane synthase activity
    Specific function:
    Tetrapolymerization of the monopyrrole PBG into the hydroxymethylbilane pre-uroporphyrinogen in several discrete steps.
    Gene Name:
    HMBS
    Uniprot ID:
    P08397
    Molecular weight:
    39329.74
    Reactions
    Porphobilinogen + Water → Hydroxymethylbilane + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Involved in the urea cycle of ureotelic animals where the enzyme plays an important role in removing excess ammonia from the cell.
    Gene Name:
    CPS1
    Uniprot ID:
    P31327
    Molecular weight:
    165649.075
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + Ammonia + CO(2) + Water → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Carbamoyl phosphatedetails
    Adenosine triphosphate + Ammonia + Carbon dioxide + Water → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Carbamoyl phosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in copper ion binding
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the degradation of compounds such as putrescine, histamine, spermine, and spermidine, substances involved in allergic and immune responses, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation, tumor formation, and possibly apoptosis. Placental DAO is thought to play a role in the regulation of the female reproductive function.
    Gene Name:
    ABP1
    Uniprot ID:
    P19801
    Molecular weight:
    85377.1
    Reactions
    Histamine + Water + Oxygen → Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Putrescine + Oxygen + Water → 4-Aminobutyraldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Tryptamine + Water + Oxygen → Indoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in copper ion binding
    Specific function:
    Cell adhesion protein that participates in lymphocyte recirculation by mediating the binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node vascular endothelial cells in an L-selectin-independent fashion. Has a monoamine oxidase activity. May play a role in adipogenesis.
    Gene Name:
    AOC3
    Uniprot ID:
    Q16853
    Molecular weight:
    84621.27
    Reactions
    RCH(2)NH(2) + Water + Oxygen → RCHO + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Tyramine + Water + Oxygen → 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen → Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water → Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    1,3-Diaminopropane + Oxygen + Water → 3-Aminopropionaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    N-Methylputrescine + Oxygen + Hydrogen Ion → 1-Methylpyrrolinium + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammoniadetails
    Dopamine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Methylamine + Oxygen + Water → Formaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Cadaverine + Water + Oxygen → 5-Aminopentanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in copper ion binding
    Specific function:
    Has a monoamine oxidase activity with substrate specificity for 2-phenylethylamine and tryptamine. May play a role in adipogenesis. May be a critical modulator of signal transmission in retina.
    Gene Name:
    AOC2
    Uniprot ID:
    O75106
    Molecular weight:
    80515.11
    Reactions
    RCH(2)NH(2) + Water + Oxygen → RCHO + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Tyramine + Water + Oxygen → 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen → Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water → Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    1,3-Diaminopropane + Oxygen + Water → 3-Aminopropionaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    N-Methylputrescine + Oxygen + Hydrogen Ion → 1-Methylpyrrolinium + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammoniadetails
    Dopamine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Methylamine + Oxygen + Water → Formaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Cadaverine + Water + Oxygen → 5-Aminopentanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). Metabolizes the cysteine conjugates of certain halogenated alkenes and alkanes to form reactive metabolites. Catalyzes the beta-elimination of S-conjugates and Se-conjugates of L-(seleno)cysteine, resulting in the cleavage of the C-S or C-Se bond.
    Gene Name:
    CCBL1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q16773
    Molecular weight:
    47874.765
    Reactions
    RS-CH(2)-CH(NH(3)(+))COO(-) + Water → RSH + Ammonia + Pyruvic aciddetails
    General function:
    Involved in pyridoxal phosphate binding
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the last step in the trans-sulfuration pathway from methionine to cysteine. Has broad substrate specificity. Converts cystathionine to cysteine, ammonia and 2-oxobutanoate. Converts two cysteine molecules to lanthionine and hydrogen sulfide. Can also accept homocysteine as substrate. Specificity depends on the levels of the endogenous substrates. Generates the endogenous signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and so contributes to the regulation of blood pressure. Acts as a cysteine-protein sulfhydrase by mediating sulfhydration of target proteins: sulfhydration consists of converting -SH groups into -SSH on specific cysteine residues of target proteins such as GAPDH, PTPN1 and NF-kappa-B subunit RELA, thereby regulating their function.
    Gene Name:
    CTH
    Uniprot ID:
    P32929
    Molecular weight:
    41259.91
    Reactions
    L-Cystathionine + Water → L-Cysteine + Ammonia + 2-Ketobutyric aciddetails
    L-Cysteine + Water → Hydrogen sulfide + Pyruvic acid + Ammoniadetails
    L-Cystine + Water → Pyruvic acid + Ammonia + Thiocysteinedetails
    Selenomethionine + Water → Methaneselenol + Ammonia + 2-Ketobutyric aciddetails
    Selenocystathionine + Water → Selenocysteine + Ammonia + 2-Ketobutyric aciddetails
    General function:
    Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds
    Specific function:
    Converts N-carbamyl-beta-aminoisobutyric acid and N-carbamyl-beta-alanine to, respectively, beta-aminoisobutyric acid and beta-alanine, ammonia and carbon dioxide.
    Gene Name:
    UPB1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9UBR1
    Molecular weight:
    43165.705
    Reactions
    Ureidopropionic acid + Water → Beta-Alanine + CO(2) + Ammoniadetails
    Ureidopropionic acid + Water → Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxide + Ammoniadetails
    Ureidoisobutyric acid + Water → 3-Aminoisobutanoic acid + Carbon dioxide + Ammoniadetails
    alpha-Fluoro-beta-ureidopropionic acid + Water → alpha-Fluoro-beta-alanine + Carbon dioxide + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds, in linear amides
    Specific function:
    Catalytic release of biotin from biocytin, the product of biotin-dependent carboxylases degradation.
    Gene Name:
    BTD
    Uniprot ID:
    P43251
    Molecular weight:
    61132.43
    Reactions
    Biotin amide + Water → Biotin + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Involved in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides which are not only essential for DNA and RNA synthesis, but also provide GTP, which is involved in a number of cellular processes important for cell division.
    Gene Name:
    GMPS
    Uniprot ID:
    P49915
    Molecular weight:
    76714.79
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + Xanthylic acid + Ammonia → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Guanosine monophosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in deaminase activity
    Specific function:
    AMP deaminase plays a critical role in energy metabolism.
    Gene Name:
    AMPD3
    Uniprot ID:
    Q01432
    Molecular weight:
    89727.485
    Reactions
    Adenosine monophosphate + Water → Inosinic acid + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in deaminase activity
    Specific function:
    AMP deaminase plays a critical role in energy metabolism.
    Gene Name:
    AMPD2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q01433
    Molecular weight:
    100686.95
    Reactions
    Adenosine monophosphate + Water → Inosinic acid + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in deaminase activity
    Specific function:
    AMP deaminase plays a critical role in energy metabolism.
    Gene Name:
    AMPD1
    Uniprot ID:
    P23109
    Molecular weight:
    90218.455
    Reactions
    Adenosine monophosphate + Water → Inosinic acid + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in deaminase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine and 2-deoxyadenosine. Plays an important role in purine metabolism and in adenosine homeostasis. Modulates signaling by extracellular adenosine, and so contributes indirectly to cellular signaling events. Acts as a positive regulator of T-cell coactivation, by binding DPP4. Its interaction with DPP4 regulates lymphocyte-epithelial cell adhesion.
    Gene Name:
    ADA
    Uniprot ID:
    P00813
    Molecular weight:
    40764.13
    Reactions
    Adenosine + Water → Inosine + Ammoniadetails
    Deoxyadenosine + Water → Deoxyinosine + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the calcium-dependent formation of isopeptide cross-links between glutamine and lysine residues in various proteins, as well as the conjugation of polyamines to proteins. Involved in the formation of the cornified envelope (CE), a specialized component consisting of covalent cross-links of proteins beneath the plasma membrane of terminally differentiated keratinocytes. Catalyzes small proline-rich proteins (SPRR1 and SPRR2) and LOR cross-linking to form small interchain oligomers, which are further cross-linked by TGM1 onto the growing CE scaffold (By similarity). In hair follicles, involved in cross-linking structural proteins to hardening the inner root sheath.
    Gene Name:
    TGM3
    Uniprot ID:
    Q08188
    Molecular weight:
    76631.26
    Reactions
    Protein glutamine + alkylamine → protein N(5)-alkylglutamine + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Important for recycling the chief excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, during neurotransmission.
    Gene Name:
    GLUD2
    Uniprot ID:
    P49448
    Molecular weight:
    61433.465
    Reactions
    L-Glutamic acid + Water + NAD(P)(+) → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NAD(P)Hdetails
    L-Glutamic acid + NAD + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    L-Glutamic acid + NADP + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    General function:
    Involved in protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to proteins.
    Gene Name:
    TGM2
    Uniprot ID:
    P21980
    Molecular weight:
    77328.21
    Reactions
    Protein glutamine + alkylamine → protein N(5)-alkylglutamine + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in protein-arginine deiminase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the deimination of arginine residues of proteins. May be involved in cytoskeletal reorganization in the egg and early embryo (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    PADI6
    Uniprot ID:
    Q6TGC4
    Molecular weight:
    77726.735
    Reactions
    Protein L-arginine + Water → protein L-citrulline + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in glutamate-ammonia ligase activity
    Specific function:
    This enzyme has 2 functions: it catalyzes the production of glutamine and 4-aminobutanoate (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA), the latter in a pyridoxal phosphate-independent manner (By similarity). Essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts.
    Gene Name:
    GLUL
    Uniprot ID:
    P15104
    Molecular weight:
    42064.15
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + Ammonia → ADP + Phosphoric acid + L-Glutaminedetails
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    SDS
    Uniprot ID:
    P20132
    Molecular weight:
    34625.105
    Reactions
    L-Serine → Pyruvic acid + Ammoniadetails
    L-Threonine → 2-Ketobutyric acid + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Factor XIII is activated by thrombin and calcium ion to a transglutaminase that catalyzes the formation of gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysine cross-links between fibrin chains, thus stabilizing the fibrin clot. Also cross-link alpha-2-plasmin inhibitor, or fibronectin, to the alpha chains of fibrin.
    Gene Name:
    F13A1
    Uniprot ID:
    P00488
    Molecular weight:
    83267.785
    Reactions
    Protein glutamine + alkylamine → protein N(5)-alkylglutamine + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in protein-arginine deiminase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the citrullination/deimination of arginine residues of proteins. Citrullinates histone H3 at 'Arg-8' and/or 'Arg-17' and histone H4 at 'Arg-3', which prevents their methylation by CARM1 and HRMT1L2/PRMT1 and represses transcription. Citrullinates EP300/P300 at 'Arg-2142', which favors its interaction with NCOA2/GRIP1.
    Gene Name:
    PADI4
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9UM07
    Molecular weight:
    74078.65
    Reactions
    Protein L-arginine + Water → protein L-citrulline + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in pyridoxamine-phosphate oxidase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the oxidation of either pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP) or pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) into pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP).
    Gene Name:
    PNPO
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9NVS9
    Molecular weight:
    29987.79
    Reactions
    Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate + Water + Oxygen → Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Pyridoxamine + Water + Oxygen → Pyridoxal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in glutaminase activity
    Specific function:
    Plays an important role in the regulation of glutamine catabolism. Promotes mitochondrial respiration and increases ATP generation in cells by catalyzing the synthesis of glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate. Increases cellular anti-oxidant function via NADH and glutathione production. May play a role in preventing tumor proliferation.
    Gene Name:
    GLS2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9UI32
    Molecular weight:
    66322.225
    Reactions
    L-Glutamine + Water → L-Glutamic acid + Ammoniadetails
    D-Glutamine + Water → D-Glutamic acid + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in CTP synthase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amination of UTP to CTP with either L-glutamine or ammonia as the source of nitrogen.
    Gene Name:
    CTPS1
    Uniprot ID:
    P17812
    Molecular weight:
    66689.9
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine triphosphate + Ammonia → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Cytidine triphosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in protein-arginine deiminase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the deimination of arginine residues of proteins.
    Gene Name:
    PADI3
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9ULW8
    Molecular weight:
    74742.705
    Reactions
    Protein L-arginine + Water → protein L-citrulline + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the irreversible NADPH-dependent deamination of GMP to IMP. It functions in the conversion of nucleobase, nucleoside and nucleotide derivatives of G to A nucleotides, and in maintaining the intracellular balance of A and G nucleotides. Plays a role in modulating cellular differentiation.
    Gene Name:
    GMPR2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9P2T1
    Molecular weight:
    37874.125
    Reactions
    Inosinic acid + Ammonia + NADP → Guanosine monophosphate + NADPHdetails
    Inosinic acid + Ammonia + NADP → Guanosine monophosphate + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    General function:
    Involved in protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to proteins. Contributes to the formation of the cornified cell envelope of keratinocytes.
    Gene Name:
    TGM5
    Uniprot ID:
    O43548
    Molecular weight:
    71918.045
    Reactions
    Protein glutamine + alkylamine → protein N(5)-alkylglutamine + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in glutaminase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the first reaction in the primary pathway for the renal catabolism of glutamine. Plays a role in maintaining acid-base homeostasis. Regulates the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain. Isoform 2 lacks catalytic activity.
    Gene Name:
    GLS
    Uniprot ID:
    O94925
    Molecular weight:
    65459.525
    Reactions
    L-Glutamine + Water → L-Glutamic acid + Ammoniadetails
    D-Glutamine + Water → D-Glutamic acid + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Associated with the mammalian reproductive process. Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to specific proteins in the seminal tract.
    Gene Name:
    TGM4
    Uniprot ID:
    P49221
    Molecular weight:
    77144.595
    Reactions
    Protein glutamine + alkylamine → protein N(5)-alkylglutamine + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to proteins. Responsible for cross-linking epidermal proteins during formation of the stratum corneum.
    Gene Name:
    TGM1
    Uniprot ID:
    P22735
    Molecular weight:
    89786.14
    Reactions
    Protein glutamine + alkylamine → protein N(5)-alkylglutamine + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in histidine ammonia-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    HAL
    Uniprot ID:
    P42357
    Molecular weight:
    49122.09
    Reactions
    L-Histidine → Urocanic acid + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in protein-arginine deiminase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the deimination of arginine residues of proteins (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    PADI2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9Y2J8
    Molecular weight:
    75563.35
    Reactions
    Protein L-arginine + Water → protein L-citrulline + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the irreversible NADPH-dependent deamination of GMP to IMP. It functions in the conversion of nucleobase, nucleoside and nucleotide derivatives of G to A nucleotides, and in maintaining the intracellular balance of A and G nucleotides.
    Gene Name:
    GMPR
    Uniprot ID:
    P36959
    Molecular weight:
    37418.58
    Reactions
    Inosinic acid + Ammonia + NADP → Guanosine monophosphate + NADPHdetails
    Inosinic acid + Ammonia + NADP → Guanosine monophosphate + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Folate-dependent enzyme, that displays both transferase and deaminase activity. Serves to channel one-carbon units from formiminoglutamate to the folate pool. Binds and promotes bundling of vimentin filaments originating from the Golgi (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    FTCD
    Uniprot ID:
    O95954
    Molecular weight:
    58925.93
    Reactions
    5-Formiminotetrahydrofolic acid → 5,10-Methenyltetrahydrofolic acid + Ammoniadetails
    5-Formiminotetrahydrofolic acid + Hydrogen Ion → 5,10-Methenyltetrahydrofolic acid + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in protein-arginine deiminase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the deimination of arginine residues of proteins (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    PADI1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9ULC6
    Molecular weight:
    74664.97
    Reactions
    Protein L-arginine + Water → protein L-citrulline + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in aminomethyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine.
    Gene Name:
    AMT
    Uniprot ID:
    P48728
    Molecular weight:
    43945.65
    Reactions
    [Protein]-S(8)-aminomethyldihydrolipoyllysine + Tetrahydrofolic acid → [protein]-dihydrolipoyllysine + 5,10-Methylene-THF + Ammoniadetails
    Glycine + Tetrahydrofolic acid + NAD → 5,10-Methylene-THF + Ammonia + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    S-Aminomethyldihydrolipoylprotein + Tetrahydrofolic acid → Dihydrolipoylprotein + 5,10-Methylene-THF + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in hydrolase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of guanine, producing xanthine and ammonia (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    GDA
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9Y2T3
    Molecular weight:
    52836.65
    Reactions
    Guanine + Water → Xanthine + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to proteins (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    TGM6
    Uniprot ID:
    O95932
    Molecular weight:
    70515.44
    Reactions
    Protein glutamine + alkylamine → protein N(5)-alkylglutamine + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in peptidase activity
    Specific function:
    Responsible for the biosynthesis of pyroglutamyl peptides. Has a bias against acidic and tryptophan residues adjacent to the N-terminal glutaminyl residue and a lack of importance of chain length after the second residue. Also catalyzes N-terminal pyroglutamate formation. In vitro, catalyzes pyroglutamate formation of N-terminally truncated form of APP amyloid-beta peptides [Glu-3]-beta-amyloid. May be involved in the N-terminal pyroglutamate formation of several amyloid-related plaque-forming peptides.
    Gene Name:
    QPCT
    Uniprot ID:
    Q16769
    Molecular weight:
    40876.14
    Reactions
    L-glutaminyl-peptide → 5-oxoprolyl-peptide + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to proteins.
    Gene Name:
    TGM7
    Uniprot ID:
    Q96PF1
    Molecular weight:
    79940.615
    Reactions
    Protein glutamine + alkylamine → protein N(5)-alkylglutamine + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    May be involved in learning and memory reactions by increasing the turnover of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    GLUD1
    Uniprot ID:
    P00367
    Molecular weight:
    61397.315
    Reactions
    L-Glutamic acid + Water + NAD(P)(+) → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NAD(P)Hdetails
    L-Glutamic acid + NAD + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    L-Glutamic acid + NADP + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    General function:
    Involved in copper ion binding
    Specific function:
    Responsible for the post-translational oxidative deamination of peptidyl lysine residues in precursors to fibrous collagen and elastin. In addition to cross-linking of extracellular matrix proteins, may have a direct role in tumor suppression.
    Gene Name:
    LOX
    Uniprot ID:
    P28300
    Molecular weight:
    46943.67
    Reactions
    Peptidyl-L-lysyl-peptide + Oxygen + Water → peptidyl-allysyl-peptide + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in ammonium transmembrane transporter activity
    Specific function:
    Associated with rhesus blood group antigen expression. May be part of an oligomeric complex which is likely to have a transport or channel function in the erythrocyte membrane.
    Gene Name:
    RHAG
    Uniprot ID:
    Q02094
    Molecular weight:
    44197.55

    Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 85 proteins in total.