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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:07:50 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00063
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCortisol
DescriptionCortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that is involved in the response to stress; The main glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions. As an oral or injectable drug, cortisol is also known as hydrocortisone. It is used as an immunosuppressive drug, given by injection in the treatment of severe allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis and angioedema, in place of prednisolone in patients who need steroid treatment but cannot take oral medication, and peri-operatively in patients on long-term steroid treatment to prevent an Addisonian crisis. Cortisol or Hydrocortisone is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that is involved in the response to stress. It increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels, may cause infertility in women, and suppresses the immune system. Its synthetic counterpart (hydrocortisone) is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions. Cortisol is synthesized from pregnenolone. The amount of cortisol present in the serum undergoes diurnal variation, with the highest levels present in the early morning, and lower levels in the evening, several hours after the onset of sleep. Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that is involved in the response to stress; it increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels, may cause infertility in women, and suppresses the immune system. Synthetic cortisol, also known as hydrocortisone, is used as a drug mainly to fight allergies and inflammation; it increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels, may cause infertility in women, and suppresses the immune system. Synthetic cortisol, also known as hydrocortisone, is used as a drug mainly to fight allergies and inflammation.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 11-beta-Hydrocortisone
  2. 11-beta-Hydroxycortisone
  3. 11-Hydrocortisone
  4. 11a-Hydroxycorticosterone
  5. 11alpha-Hydroxycorticosterone
  6. 11b,17,21-Trihydroxyprogesterone
  7. 11b-Hydrocortisone
  8. 11b-Hydroxycortisone
  9. 11beta,17,21-Trihydroxyprogesterone
  10. 11beta-Hydrocortisone
  11. 11beta-Hydroxycortisone
  12. 17-Hydroxycorticosterone
  13. 17a-Hydroxycorticosterone
  14. 17alpha-Hydroxycorticosterone
  15. 4-Pregnene-11alpha,21-triol 3,20-dione
  16. 4-Pregnene-11b,17a,21-triol-3,20-dione
  17. Acticort
  18. Aeroseb HC
  19. Aeroseb-HC
  20. Ala-Cort
  21. Ala-Scalp
  22. Alacort
  23. Algicirtis
  24. Alphaderm
  25. Amberin
  26. Anflam
  27. Anti-inflammatory hormone
  28. Aquacort
  29. Aquanil HC
  30. Barseb HC
  31. Basan-Corti
  32. CaldeCORT Spray
  33. Cetacort
  34. Chronocort
  35. Clear aid
  36. Cleiton
  37. Cobadex
  38. Compound F
  39. Cor-Tar-Quin
  40. Cort-Dome
  41. Cort-Quin
  42. Cortanal
  43. Cortenema
  44. Cortesal
  45. Corticreme
  46. Cortifan
  47. Cortifoam
  48. Cortiment
  49. Cortisol alcohol
  50. Cortisolonum
  51. Cortisporin
  52. Cortisporin Otico
  53. Cortispray
  54. Cortizol
  55. Cortolotion
  56. Cortonema
  57. Cortoxide
  58. Cremesone
  59. Cremicort-H
  60. Cutisol
  61. Delacort
  62. Derm-Aid
  63. Dermil
  64. Dermolate
  65. Dihydrocostisone
  66. Dioderm
  67. Dome-cort
  68. Domolene-HC
  69. Drotic
  70. Ef corlin
  71. Efcorbin
  72. Efcortelan
  73. Efcortelin
  74. Eldercort
  75. Epicort
  76. Epiderm H
  77. Esiderm H
  78. Evacort
  79. Ficortril
  80. Fiocortril
  81. Foille Insetti
  82. Genacort
  83. Gyno-Cortisone
  84. H-Cort
  85. HC
  86. Heb Cort
  87. Heb-Cort
  88. Hidalone
  89. Hidro-Colisona
  90. Hidrocortisona
  91. Hycort
  92. Hycortol
  93. Hycortole
  94. Hydracort
  95. Hydrasson
  96. Hydro-Adreson
  97. Hydro-colisona
  98. Hydrocort
  99. Hydrocortal
  100. Hydrocorticosterone
  101. Hydrocortisone
  102. Hydrocortisone alcohol
  103. Hydrocortisone base
  104. Hydrocortisone free alcohol
  105. Hydrocortisonum
  106. Hydrocortistab
  107. Hydrocortisyl
  108. Hydrocortone
  109. Hydroskin
  110. Hydroxycortisone
  111. Hysone
  112. Hytisone
  113. Hytone
  114. Hytone lotion
  115. Idrocortisone
  116. Incortin-H
  117. Incortin-hydrogen
  118. Kendall'S compound F
  119. Komed HC
  120. Kyypakkaus
  121. Lacticare HC
  122. Lacticare-HC
  123. Lactisona
  124. Lubricort
  125. Maintasone
  126. Medicort
  127. Meusicort
  128. Mildison
  129. Milliderm
  130. Neo-Cort-Dome
  131. Neosporin-H Ear
  132. Nutracort
  133. Nystaform-HC
  134. Optef
  135. Otalgine
  136. Otic-Neo-Cort-Dome
  137. Otobiotic
  138. Otocort
  139. Otosone-F
  140. Pediotic Suspension
  141. Penecort
  142. Permicort
  143. Polcort H
  144. Preparation H Hydrocortisone Cream
  145. Prepcort
  146. Prestwick_265
  147. Prevex HC
  148. Proctocort
  149. Proctofoam
  150. Protocort
  151. Racet
  152. Rectoid
  153. Reichstein'S substance M
  154. Remederm HC
  155. Sanatison
  156. Scalpicin Capilar
  157. Schericur
  158. Scheroson F
  159. Sigmacort
  160. Signef
  161. Stiefcorcil
  162. Synacort
  163. Systral Hydrocort
  164. Tarcortin
  165. Timocort
  166. Topicort
  167. Transderma H
  168. Traumaide
  169. Uniderm
  170. Vioform-Hydrocortisone
  171. VoSol HC
  172. Vytone
  173. Zenoxone
Chemical FormulaC21H30O5
Average Molecular Weight362.4599
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight362.20932407
IUPAC Name(1S,2R,10S,11S,14S,15S,17S)-14,17-dihydroxy-14-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-6-en-5-one
Traditional IUPAC Name(1S,2R,10S,11S,14S,15S,17S)-14,17-dihydroxy-14-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-6-en-5-one
CAS Registry Number50-23-7
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@@](O)(C(=O)CO)[C@@]1(C)C[C@H](O)[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CCC2=CC(=O)CC[C@]12C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C21H30O5/c1-19-7-5-13(23)9-12(19)3-4-14-15-6-8-21(26,17(25)11-22)20(15,2)10-16(24)18(14)19/h9,14-16,18,22,24,26H,3-8,10-11H2,1-2H3/t14-,15-,16-,18+,19-,20-,21+/m0/s1
InChI KeyJYGXADMDTFJGBT-CZFMHFDVSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassLipids
ClassSteroids and Steroid Derivatives
Sub ClassGluco/mineralocorticoids, Progestogins and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Homopolycyclic Compounds
Substituents
  • 11 Hydroxy Steroid
  • 17 Hydroxy Steroid
  • 20 Keto Steroid
  • 3 Keto Steroid
  • Alpha Ketoaldehyde
  • Cyclic Alcohol
  • Cyclohexane
  • Cyclohexene
  • Decaline
  • Ketone
  • Primary Alcohol
  • Secondary Alcohol
  • Tertiary Alcohol
Direct ParentGluco/mineralocorticoids, Progestogins and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Hormones, Membrane component
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point220 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.32 mg/mLNot Available
LogP1.61HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.2 g/LALOGPS
logP1.79ALOGPS
logP1.28ChemAxon
logS-3.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.58ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area94.83ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity97.4ChemAxon
Polarizability39.24ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Fetus
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gonads
  • Gut
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Lymphocyte
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Skin
  • Spleen
  • Testes
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
SteroidogenesisSMP00130map00140
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.34 (0.028-0.66) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.32 +/- 0.19 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.199 (0.058-0.475) uMInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.359 (0.130-0.519) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.427 (0.110-0.744) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.386 (0.100-0.671) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.348 (0.090-0.605) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.313 (0.081-0.545) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.282 (0.073-0.491) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.255 (0.066-0.443) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.46 +/- 0.30 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.14 (0.0-0.28) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.052 +/- 0.023 uMElderly (>65 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.02 +/- 0.011 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.03 +/- 0.005 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2.35 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0081 (0.0019-0.014) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.016(0.012-0.021) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0061 +/- 0.00064 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.001 (0.00-0.002) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothGlucocorticoid deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.001 (0.0-0.002) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothAdrenal Hypolasia details
BloodDetected and Quantified10.55 +/- 1.93 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.001 (0.00-0.002) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothGlucocorticoid deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.27 +/- 0.06 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMajor affective disorder details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.41 +/- 0.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothTic disorder details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0096 (0.0027-0.016) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleGynecological diseases (benign) details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0001+/- 0.00001 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleFunctional hypothalamic amenorrhea details
SalivaDetected and Quantified8.69 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothStress period details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.021 +/- 0.0097 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0082 +/- 0.0014 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.026 +/- 0.011 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Rheumatoid arthritis
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0052 +/- 0.001 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Rheumatoid arthritis
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.44 +/- 0.09 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothAnorexia nervosa details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Anorexia nervosa
  1. Vierhapper H, Kiss A, Nowotny P, Wiesnagrotzki S, Monder C, Waldhausl W: Metabolism of cortisol in anorexia nervosa. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1990 Jun;122(6):753-8. Pubmed: 2165347
Benign gynecological diseases
  1. Murakami K, Nakagawa T, Shozu M, Uchide K, Koike K, Inoue M: Changes with aging of steroidal levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of women. Maturitas. 1999 Sep 24;33(1):71-80. Pubmed: 10585175
Bipolar disorder
  1. Walker EF, Bonsall R, Walder DJ: Plasma hormones and catecholamine metabolites in monozygotic twins discordant for psychosis. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 2002 Mar;15(1):10-7. Pubmed: 11877547
Schizophrenia
  1. Walker EF, Bonsall R, Walder DJ: Plasma hormones and catecholamine metabolites in monozygotic twins discordant for psychosis. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 2002 Mar;15(1):10-7. Pubmed: 11877547
Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea
  1. Brundu B, Loucks TL, Adler LJ, Cameron JL, Berga SL: Increased cortisol in the cerebrospinal fluid of women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Apr;91(4):1561-5. Epub 2006 Feb 7. Pubmed: 16464944
Rheumatoid arthritis
  1. Straub RH, Weidler C, Demmel B, Herrmann M, Kees F, Schmidt M, Scholmerich J, Schedel J: Renal clearance and daily excretion of cortisol and adrenal androgens in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004 Aug;63(8):961-8. Pubmed: 15249323
Stress
  1. Krahwinkel T, Nastali S, Azrak B, Willershausen B: The effect of examination stress conditions on the cortisol content of saliva - a study of students from clinical semesters. Eur J Med Res. 2004 May 28;9(5):256-60. Pubmed: 15257879
Tic disorder
  1. Hoekstra PJ, Anderson GM, Troost PW, Kallenberg CG, Minderaa RB: Plasma kynurenine and related measures in tic disorder patients. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Jun;16 Suppl 1:71-7. Pubmed: 17665285
ACTH deficiency, isolated
  1. MetaGene
Adrenal hypoplasia
  1. MetaGene
Glucocorticoid deficiency, familial isolated
  1. MetaGene
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021888
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID571435
KEGG Compound IDC00735
BioCyc IDCPD-286
BiGG ID35828
Wikipedia LinkCortisol
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00063
Metagene LinkHMDB00063
METLIN ID5124
PubChem Compound657311
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceHanson, Frederick R.; Mann, Kingsley M.; Nielson, Eldon D.; Anderson, Hugh V.; Brunner, Mari P.; Karnemaat, John N.; Colingsworth, Donald R.; Haines, Wm. J. Microbiological transformations of steroids. VIII. Preparation of 17a-hydroxycorticosterone. Journ
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Schwarz S, Pohl P: Steroid hormones and steroid hormone binding globulins in cerebrospinal fluid studied in individuals with intact and with disturbed blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Neuroendocrinology. 1992 Feb;55(2):174-82. Pubmed: 1620285
  2. Al-Damluji S, Iveson T, Thomas JM, Pendlebury DJ, Rees LH, Besser GM: Food-induced cortisol secretion is mediated by central alpha-1 adrenoceptor modulation of pituitary ACTH secretion. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1987 May;26(5):629-36. Pubmed: 2822298
  3. Krahwinkel T, Nastali S, Azrak B, Willershausen B: The effect of examination stress conditions on the cortisol content of saliva - a study of students from clinical semesters. Eur J Med Res. 2004 May 28;9(5):256-60. Pubmed: 15257879
  4. Rubin RT, Miller TH, Rhodes ME, Czambel RK: Adrenal cortical responses to low- and high-dose ACTH(1-24) administration in major depressives vs. matched controls. Psychiatry Res. 2006 Jun 30;143(1):43-50. Epub 2006 May 16. Pubmed: 16707164
  5. Morris JG, Nevill ME, Boobis LH, Macdonald IA, Williams C: Muscle metabolism, temperature, and function during prolonged, intermittent, high-intensity running in air temperatures of 33 degrees and 17 degrees C. Int J Sports Med. 2005 Dec;26(10):805-14. Pubmed: 16320162
  6. Deuschle M, Lecei O, Stalla GK, Landgraf R, Hamann B, Lederbogen F, Uhr M, Luppa P, Maras A, Colla M, Heuser I: Steroid synthesis inhibition with ketoconazole and its effect upon the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system in healthy humans. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Feb;28(2):379-83. Epub 2002 Aug 12. Pubmed: 12589391
  7. Clauss SB, Holmes KW, Hopkins P, Stein E, Cho M, Tate A, Johnson-Levonas AO, Kwiterovich PO: Efficacy and safety of lovastatin therapy in adolescent girls with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Pediatrics. 2005 Sep;116(3):682-8. Pubmed: 16140708
  8. Stark JG, Werner S, Homrighausen S, Tang Y, Krieg M, Derendorf H, Moellmann H, Hochhaus G: Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of total lymphocytes and selected subtypes after oral budesonide. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2006 Aug;33(4):441-59. Epub 2006 Apr 22. Pubmed: 16633890
  9. Makras P, Koukoulis GN, Bourikas G, Papatheodorou G, Bedevis K, Menounos P, Pappas D, Kartalis G: Effect of 4 weeks of basic military training on peripheral blood leucocytes and urinary excretion of catecholamines and cortisol. J Sports Sci. 2005 Aug;23(8):825-34. Pubmed: 16195034
  10. Costa A, Benedetto C, Fabris C, Giraudi GF, Testori O, Bertino E, Marozio L, Varvello G, Arisio R, Ariano M, Emanuel A: Cortisol in human tissues at different stages of life. J Endocrinol Invest. 1996 Jul-Aug;19(7):463-71. Pubmed: 8884541
  11. Targher G, Bertolini L, Zoppini G, Zenari L, Falezza G: Relationship of non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis to cortisol secretion in diet-controlled Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med. 2005 Sep;22(9):1146-50. Pubmed: 16108840
  12. Pruessner JC, Baldwin MW, Dedovic K, Renwick R, Mahani NK, Lord C, Meaney M, Lupien S: Self-esteem, locus of control, hippocampal volume, and cortisol regulation in young and old adulthood. Neuroimage. 2005 Dec;28(4):815-26. Epub 2005 Jul 14. Pubmed: 16023372
  13. Whorwood CB, Donovan SJ, Flanagan D, Phillips DI, Byrne CD: Increased glucocorticoid receptor expression in human skeletal muscle cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes. 2002 Apr;51(4):1066-75. Pubmed: 11916927
  14. Takahashi T, Ikeda K, Ishikawa M, Tsukasaki T, Nakama D, Tanida S, Kameda T: Social stress-induced cortisol elevation acutely impairs social memory in humans. Neurosci Lett. 2004 Jun 10;363(2):125-30. Pubmed: 15172099
  15. Chapman TE, Kraan GP, Nagel GT, Wolthers BG, Drayer NM: Measurement of the cortisol production rate in two sisters with 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency using [1,2,3,4-13C]cortisol and isotope dilution mass spectrometry. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1991 Apr;38(4):489-96. Pubmed: 2031862
  16. Heckmann M, Wudy SA, Haack D, Pohlandt F: Reference range for serum cortisol in well preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1999 Nov;81(3):F171-4. Pubmed: 10525017
  17. Turpeinen U, Markkanen H, Valimaki M, Stenman UH: Determination of urinary free cortisol by HPLC. Clin Chem. 1997 Aug;43(8 Pt 1):1386-91. Pubmed: 9267318
  18. Chrousos GP, Ghaly L, Shedden A, Iezzoni DG, Harris AG: Effects of mometasone furoate dry powder inhaler and beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane and chlorofluorocarbon on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in asthmatic subjects. Chest. 2005 Jul;128(1):70-7. Pubmed: 16002918
  19. Ritsner M, Gibel A, Maayan R, Ratner Y, Ram E, Biadsy H, Modai I, Weizman A: Cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone ratio and responses to antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Oct;30(10):1913-22. Pubmed: 15870835
  20. Seidegard J, Dahlstrom K, Kullberg A: Effect of grapefruit juice on urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol excretion. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1998 May;25(5):379-81. Pubmed: 9612666

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Has steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase activity. In addition to this activity, the 18 or 19-hydroxylation of steroids and the aromatization of androstendione to estrone have also been ascribed to cytochrome P450 XIB.
Gene Name:
CYP11B1
Uniprot ID:
P15538
Molecular weight:
57572.44
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Modulates intracellular glucocorticoid levels, thus protecting the nonselective mineralocorticoid receptor from occupation by glucocorticoids.
Gene Name:
HSD11B2
Uniprot ID:
P80365
Molecular weight:
44126.06
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of 7-ketocholesterol to 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol. In intact cells, the reaction runs only in one direction, from 7-ketocholesterol to 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HSD11B1
Uniprot ID:
P28845
Molecular weight:
32400.665
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Receptor for both mineralocorticoids (MC) such as aldosterone and glucocorticoids (GC) such as corticosterone or cortisol. Binds to mineralocorticoid response elements (MRE) and transactivates target genes. The effect of MC is to increase ion and water transport and thus raise extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure and lower potassium levels
Gene Name:
NR3C2
Uniprot ID:
P08235
Molecular weight:
107066.6
General function:
Involved in 3-beta-hydroxy-delta5-steroid dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
3-beta-HSD is a bifunctional enzyme, that catalyzes the oxidative conversion of Delta(5)-ene-3-beta-hydroxy steroid, and the oxidative conversion of ketosteroids. The 3-beta-HSD enzymatic system plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of all classes of hormonal steroids.
Gene Name:
HSD3B2
Uniprot ID:
P26439
Molecular weight:
42051.845
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
P450-CYP21B
Uniprot ID:
Q16874
Molecular weight:
56000.9
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP21A2
Uniprot ID:
Q08AG9
Molecular weight:
55972.9