Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Cortisol (HMDB00063)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2005-11-16 08:48:42 -0700
Update Date 2013-02-08 17:07:50 -0700
HMDB ID HMDB00063
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Cortisol
Description Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that is involved in the response to stress; The main glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions. As an oral or injectable drug, cortisol is also known as hydrocortisone. It is used as an immunosuppressive drug, given by injection in the treatment of severe allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis and angioedema, in place of prednisolone in patients who need steroid treatment but cannot take oral medication, and peri-operatively in patients on long-term steroid treatment to prevent an Addisonian crisis. Cortisol or Hydrocortisone is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that is involved in the response to stress. It increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels, may cause infertility in women, and suppresses the immune system. Its synthetic counterpart (hydrocortisone) is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions. Cortisol is synthesized from pregnenolone. The amount of cortisol present in the serum undergoes diurnal variation, with the highest levels present in the early morning, and lower levels in the evening, several hours after the onset of sleep. Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that is involved in the response to stress; it increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels, may cause infertility in women, and suppresses the immune system. Synthetic cortisol, also known as hydrocortisone, is used as a drug mainly to fight allergies and inflammation; it increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels, may cause infertility in women, and suppresses the immune system. Synthetic cortisol, also known as hydrocortisone, is used as a drug mainly to fight allergies and inflammation.
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. 11-beta-Hydrocortisone
  2. 11-beta-Hydroxycortisone
  3. 11-Hydrocortisone
  4. 11a-Hydroxycorticosterone
  5. 11alpha-Hydroxycorticosterone
  6. 11b,17,21-Trihydroxyprogesterone
  7. 11b-Hydrocortisone
  8. 11b-Hydroxycortisone
  9. 11beta,17,21-Trihydroxyprogesterone
  10. 11beta-Hydrocortisone
  11. 11beta-Hydroxycortisone
  12. 17-Hydroxycorticosterone
  13. 17a-Hydroxycorticosterone
  14. 17alpha-Hydroxycorticosterone
  15. 4-Pregnene-11alpha,21-triol 3,20-dione
  16. 4-Pregnene-11b,17a,21-triol-3,20-dione
  17. Acticort
  18. Aeroseb HC
  19. Aeroseb-HC
  20. Ala-Cort
  21. Ala-Scalp
  22. Alacort
  23. Algicirtis
  24. Alphaderm
  25. Amberin
  26. Anflam
  27. Anti-inflammatory hormone
  28. Aquacort
  29. Aquanil HC
  30. Barseb HC
  31. Basan-Corti
  32. CaldeCORT Spray
  33. Cetacort
  34. Chronocort
  35. Clear aid
  36. Cleiton
  37. Cobadex
  38. Compound F
  39. Cor-Tar-Quin
  40. Cort-Dome
  41. Cort-Quin
  42. Cortanal
  43. Cortenema
  44. Cortesal
  45. Corticreme
  46. Cortifan
  47. Cortifoam
  48. Cortiment
  49. Cortisol alcohol
  50. Cortisolonum
  51. Cortisporin
  52. Cortisporin Otico
  53. Cortispray
  54. Cortizol
  55. Cortolotion
  56. Cortonema
  57. Cortoxide
  58. Cremesone
  59. Cremicort-H
  60. Cutisol
  61. Delacort
  62. Derm-Aid
  63. Dermil
  64. Dermolate
  65. Dihydrocostisone
  66. Dioderm
  67. Dome-cort
  68. Domolene-HC
  69. Drotic
  70. Ef corlin
  71. Efcorbin
  72. Efcortelan
  73. Efcortelin
  74. Eldercort
  75. Epicort
  76. Epiderm H
  77. Esiderm H
  78. Evacort
  79. Ficortril
  80. Fiocortril
  81. Foille Insetti
  82. Genacort
  83. Gyno-Cortisone
  84. H-Cort
  85. HC
  86. Heb Cort
  87. Heb-Cort
  88. Hidalone
  89. Hidro-Colisona
  90. Hidrocortisona
  91. Hycort
  92. Hycortol
  93. Hycortole
  94. Hydracort
  95. Hydrasson
  96. Hydro-Adreson
  97. Hydro-colisona
  98. Hydrocort
  99. Hydrocortal
  100. Hydrocorticosterone
  101. Hydrocortisone
  102. Hydrocortisone alcohol
  103. Hydrocortisone base
  104. Hydrocortisone free alcohol
  105. Hydrocortisonum
  106. Hydrocortistab
  107. Hydrocortisyl
  108. Hydrocortone
  109. Hydroskin
  110. Hydroxycortisone
  111. Hysone
  112. Hytisone
  113. Hytone
  114. Hytone lotion
  115. Idrocortisone
  116. Incortin-H
  117. Incortin-hydrogen
  118. Kendall'S compound F
  119. Komed HC
  120. Kyypakkaus
  121. Lacticare HC
  122. Lacticare-HC
  123. Lactisona
  124. Lubricort
  125. Maintasone
  126. Medicort
  127. Meusicort
  128. Mildison
  129. Milliderm
  130. Neo-Cort-Dome
  131. Neosporin-H Ear
  132. Nutracort
  133. Nystaform-HC
  134. Optef
  135. Otalgine
  136. Otic-Neo-Cort-Dome
  137. Otobiotic
  138. Otocort
  139. Otosone-F
  140. Pediotic Suspension
  141. Penecort
  142. Permicort
  143. Polcort H
  144. Preparation H Hydrocortisone Cream
  145. Prepcort
  146. Prestwick_265
  147. Prevex HC
  148. Proctocort
  149. Proctofoam
  150. Protocort
  151. Racet
  152. Rectoid
  153. Reichstein'S substance M
  154. Remederm HC
  155. Sanatison
  156. Scalpicin Capilar
  157. Schericur
  158. Scheroson F
  159. Sigmacort
  160. Signef
  161. Stiefcorcil
  162. Synacort
  163. Systral Hydrocort
  164. Tarcortin
  165. Timocort
  166. Topicort
  167. Transderma H
  168. Traumaide
  169. Uniderm
  170. Vioform-Hydrocortisone
  171. VoSol HC
  172. Vytone
  173. Zenoxone
Chemical Formula C21H30O5
Average Molecular Weight 362.4599
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 362.20932407
IUPAC Name (1S,2R,10S,11S,14S,15S,17S)-14,17-dihydroxy-14-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-6-en-5-one
Traditional IUPAC Name (1S,2R,10S,11S,14S,15S,17S)-14,17-dihydroxy-14-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-6-en-5-one
CAS Registry Number 50-23-7
SMILES [H][C@@]12CC[C@@](O)(C(=O)CO)[C@@]1(C)C[C@H](O)[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CCC2=CC(=O)CC[C@]12C
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/C21H30O5/c1-19-7-5-13(23)9-12(19)3-4-14-15-6-8-21(26,17(25)11-22)20(15,2)10-16(24)18(14)19/h9,14-16,18,22,24,26H,3-8,10-11H2,1-2H3/t14-,15-,16-,18+,19-,20-,21+/m0/s1
InChI Key JYGXADMDTFJGBT-CZFMHFDVSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Lipids
Class Steroids and Steroid Derivatives
Sub Class Gluco/mineralocorticoids, Progestogins and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Homopolycyclic Compounds
Substituents
  • 11 Hydroxy Steroid
  • 17 Hydroxy Steroid
  • 20 Keto Steroid
  • 3 Keto Steroid
  • Alpha Ketoaldehyde
  • Cyclic Alcohol
  • Cyclohexane
  • Cyclohexene
  • Decaline
  • Ketone
  • Primary Alcohol
  • Secondary Alcohol
  • Tertiary Alcohol
Direct Parent Gluco/mineralocorticoids, Progestogins and Derivatives
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Hormones, Membrane component
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Physical Properties
State Solid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point 220 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility 0.32 mg/mL Not Available
LogP 1.61 HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
Water Solubility 0.2 g/L ALOGPS
LogP 1.79 ALOGPS
LogP 1.28 ChemAxon
LogS -3.26 ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic) 12.58 ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic) -2.8 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 5 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 3 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 94.83 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 2 ChemAxon
Refractivity 97.4 ChemAxon
Polarizability 39.24 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 0 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge 0 ChemAxon
Spectra
Not Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Muscle
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Bladder
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Lymphocyte
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Testes
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Brain
  • Prostate
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Fetus
  • Skin
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Nerve Cells
  • Platelet
  • Gonads
  • Gut
  • Spleen
Pathways
Name SMPDB Link KEGG Link
Steroidogenesis SMP00130 map00140 Link_out
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.34 (0.028-0.66) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.32 +/- 0.19 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.199 (0.058-0.475) uM Infant (0-1 year old) Both Comment Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.359 (0.130-0.519) uM Infant (0-1 year old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.427 (0.110-0.744) uM Infant (0-1 year old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.386 (0.100-0.671) uM Infant (0-1 year old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.348 (0.090-0.605) uM Infant (0-1 year old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.313 (0.081-0.545) uM Infant (0-1 year old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.282 (0.073-0.491) uM Infant (0-1 year old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.255 (0.066-0.443) uM Infant (0-1 year old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.46 +/- 0.30 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.14 (0.0-0.28) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.052 +/- 0.023 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Not Specified Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.02 +/- 0.011 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.03 +/- 0.005 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Comment Normal
Saliva Detected and Quantified
2.35 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.0081 (0.0019-0.014) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.016(0.012-0.021) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.0061 +/- 0.00064 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.001 (0.00-0.002) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Glucocorticoid deficiency
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.001 (0.0-0.002) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Adrenal Hypolasia
Blood Detected and Quantified 10.55 +/- 1.93 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Schizophrenia
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.001 (0.00-0.002) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Glucocorticoid deficiency
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.27 +/- 0.06 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Major affective disorder
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.41 +/- 0.2 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Tic disorder
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 0.0096 (0.0027-0.016) uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Gynecological diseases (benign)
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 0.0001+/- 0.00001 uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea
Saliva Detected and Quantified 8.69 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Stress period
Urine Detected and Quantified 0.021 +/- 0.0097 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Urine Detected and Quantified 0.0082 +/- 0.0014 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Urine Detected and Quantified 0.026 +/- 0.011 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Rheumatoid arthritis
Urine Detected and Quantified 0.0052 +/- 0.001 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Rheumatoid arthritis
Urine Detected and Quantified 0.44 +/- 0.09 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Anorexia nervosa
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Stress
  • Krahwinkel T, Nastali S, Azrak B, Willershausen B: The effect of examination stress conditions on the cortisol content of saliva - a study of students from clinical semesters. Eur J Med Res. 2004 May 28;9(5):256-60. Pubmed: 15257879 Link_out
      Benign gynecological diseases
      • Murakami K, Nakagawa T, Shozu M, Uchide K, Koike K, Inoue M: Changes with aging of steroidal levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of women. Maturitas. 1999 Sep 24;33(1):71-80. Pubmed: 10585175 Link_out
          Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea
          • Brundu B, Loucks TL, Adler LJ, Cameron JL, Berga SL: Increased cortisol in the cerebrospinal fluid of women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Apr;91(4):1561-5. Epub 2006 Feb 7. Pubmed: 16464944 Link_out
              Bipolar disorder
              • Walker EF, Bonsall R, Walder DJ: Plasma hormones and catecholamine metabolites in monozygotic twins discordant for psychosis. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 2002 Mar;15(1):10-7. Pubmed: 11877547 Link_out
                  Tic disorder
                  • Hoekstra PJ, Anderson GM, Troost PW, Kallenberg CG, Minderaa RB: Plasma kynurenine and related measures in tic disorder patients. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Jun;16 Suppl 1:71-7. Pubmed: 17665285 Link_out
                      Schizophrenia
                      • Walker EF, Bonsall R, Walder DJ: Plasma hormones and catecholamine metabolites in monozygotic twins discordant for psychosis. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 2002 Mar;15(1):10-7. Pubmed: 11877547 Link_out
                          Anorexia nervosa
                          • Vierhapper H, Kiss A, Nowotny P, Wiesnagrotzki S, Monder C, Waldhausl W: Metabolism of cortisol in anorexia nervosa. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1990 Jun;122(6):753-8. Pubmed: 2165347 Link_out
                              Rheumatoid arthritis
                              • Straub RH, Weidler C, Demmel B, Herrmann M, Kees F, Schmidt M, Scholmerich J, Schedel J: Renal clearance and daily excretion of cortisol and adrenal androgens in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004 Aug;63(8):961-8. Pubmed: 15249323 Link_out
                                  ACTH deficiency, isolated
                                      Adrenal hypoplasia
                                          Glucocorticoid deficiency, familial isolated
                                              Associated OMIM IDs
                                              DrugBank ID Not Available
                                              DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
                                              Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
                                              Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
                                              FoodDB ID FDB021888
                                              KNApSAcK ID Not Available
                                              Chemspider ID 571435 Link_out
                                              KEGG Compound ID C00735 Link_out
                                              BioCyc ID CPD-286 Link_out
                                              BiGG ID 35828 Link_out
                                              Wikipedia Link Cortisol Link_out
                                              NuGOwiki Link HMDB00063 Link_out
                                              Metagene Link HMDB00063 Link_out
                                              METLIN ID 5124 Link_out
                                              PubChem Compound 657311 Link_out
                                              PDB ID Not Available
                                              ChEBI ID Not Available
                                              References
                                              Synthesis Reference Hanson, Frederick R.; Mann, Kingsley M.; Nielson, Eldon D.; Anderson, Hugh V.; Brunner, Mari P.; Karnemaat, John N.; Colingsworth, Donald R.; Haines, Wm. J. Microbiological transformations of steroids. VIII. Preparation of 17a-hydroxycorticosterone. Journ
                                              Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
                                              General References
                                              1. Al-Damluji S, Iveson T, Thomas JM, Pendlebury DJ, Rees LH, Besser GM: Food-induced cortisol secretion is mediated by central alpha-1 adrenoceptor modulation of pituitary ACTH secretion. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1987 May;26(5):629-36. Pubmed: 2822298 Link_out
                                              2. Krahwinkel T, Nastali S, Azrak B, Willershausen B: The effect of examination stress conditions on the cortisol content of saliva - a study of students from clinical semesters. Eur J Med Res. 2004 May 28;9(5):256-60. Pubmed: 15257879 Link_out
                                              3. Rubin RT, Miller TH, Rhodes ME, Czambel RK: Adrenal cortical responses to low- and high-dose ACTH(1-24) administration in major depressives vs. matched controls. Psychiatry Res. 2006 Jun 30;143(1):43-50. Epub 2006 May 16. Pubmed: 16707164 Link_out
                                              4. Morris JG, Nevill ME, Boobis LH, Macdonald IA, Williams C: Muscle metabolism, temperature, and function during prolonged, intermittent, high-intensity running in air temperatures of 33 degrees and 17 degrees C. Int J Sports Med. 2005 Dec;26(10):805-14. Pubmed: 16320162 Link_out
                                              5. Deuschle M, Lecei O, Stalla GK, Landgraf R, Hamann B, Lederbogen F, Uhr M, Luppa P, Maras A, Colla M, Heuser I: Steroid synthesis inhibition with ketoconazole and its effect upon the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system in healthy humans. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Feb;28(2):379-83. Epub 2002 Aug 12. Pubmed: 12589391 Link_out
                                              6. Clauss SB, Holmes KW, Hopkins P, Stein E, Cho M, Tate A, Johnson-Levonas AO, Kwiterovich PO: Efficacy and safety of lovastatin therapy in adolescent girls with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Pediatrics. 2005 Sep;116(3):682-8. Pubmed: 16140708 Link_out
                                              7. Stark JG, Werner S, Homrighausen S, Tang Y, Krieg M, Derendorf H, Moellmann H, Hochhaus G: Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of total lymphocytes and selected subtypes after oral budesonide. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2006 Aug;33(4):441-59. Epub 2006 Apr 22. Pubmed: 16633890 Link_out
                                              8. Schwarz S, Pohl P: Steroid hormones and steroid hormone binding globulins in cerebrospinal fluid studied in individuals with intact and with disturbed blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Neuroendocrinology. 1992 Feb;55(2):174-82. Pubmed: 1620285 Link_out
                                              9. Makras P, Koukoulis GN, Bourikas G, Papatheodorou G, Bedevis K, Menounos P, Pappas D, Kartalis G: Effect of 4 weeks of basic military training on peripheral blood leucocytes and urinary excretion of catecholamines and cortisol. J Sports Sci. 2005 Aug;23(8):825-34. Pubmed: 16195034 Link_out
                                              10. Costa A, Benedetto C, Fabris C, Giraudi GF, Testori O, Bertino E, Marozio L, Varvello G, Arisio R, Ariano M, Emanuel A: Cortisol in human tissues at different stages of life. J Endocrinol Invest. 1996 Jul-Aug;19(7):463-71. Pubmed: 8884541 Link_out
                                              11. Targher G, Bertolini L, Zoppini G, Zenari L, Falezza G: Relationship of non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis to cortisol secretion in diet-controlled Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med. 2005 Sep;22(9):1146-50. Pubmed: 16108840 Link_out
                                              12. Pruessner JC, Baldwin MW, Dedovic K, Renwick R, Mahani NK, Lord C, Meaney M, Lupien S: Self-esteem, locus of control, hippocampal volume, and cortisol regulation in young and old adulthood. Neuroimage. 2005 Dec;28(4):815-26. Epub 2005 Jul 14. Pubmed: 16023372 Link_out
                                              13. Whorwood CB, Donovan SJ, Flanagan D, Phillips DI, Byrne CD: Increased glucocorticoid receptor expression in human skeletal muscle cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes. 2002 Apr;51(4):1066-75. Pubmed: 11916927 Link_out
                                              14. Takahashi T, Ikeda K, Ishikawa M, Tsukasaki T, Nakama D, Tanida S, Kameda T: Social stress-induced cortisol elevation acutely impairs social memory in humans. Neurosci Lett. 2004 Jun 10;363(2):125-30. Pubmed: 15172099 Link_out
                                              15. Chapman TE, Kraan GP, Nagel GT, Wolthers BG, Drayer NM: Measurement of the cortisol production rate in two sisters with 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency using [1,2,3,4-13C]cortisol and isotope dilution mass spectrometry. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1991 Apr;38(4):489-96. Pubmed: 2031862 Link_out
                                              16. Heckmann M, Wudy SA, Haack D, Pohlandt F: Reference range for serum cortisol in well preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1999 Nov;81(3):F171-4. Pubmed: 10525017 Link_out
                                              17. Turpeinen U, Markkanen H, Valimaki M, Stenman UH: Determination of urinary free cortisol by HPLC. Clin Chem. 1997 Aug;43(8 Pt 1):1386-91. Pubmed: 9267318 Link_out
                                              18. Chrousos GP, Ghaly L, Shedden A, Iezzoni DG, Harris AG: Effects of mometasone furoate dry powder inhaler and beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane and chlorofluorocarbon on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in asthmatic subjects. Chest. 2005 Jul;128(1):70-7. Pubmed: 16002918 Link_out
                                              19. Ritsner M, Gibel A, Maayan R, Ratner Y, Ram E, Biadsy H, Modai I, Weizman A: Cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone ratio and responses to antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Oct;30(10):1913-22. Pubmed: 15870835 Link_out
                                              20. Seidegard J, Dahlstrom K, Kullberg A: Effect of grapefruit juice on urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol excretion. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1998 May;25(5):379-81. Pubmed: 9612666 Link_out

                                              Enzymes
                                              Name: Cytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrial
                                              Reactions: Not Available
                                              Gene Name: CYP11B1
                                              Uniprot ID: P15538 Link_out
                                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                              Name: Corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 2
                                              Reactions: Not Available
                                              Gene Name: HSD11B2
                                              Uniprot ID: P80365 Link_out
                                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                              Name: Corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 1
                                              Reactions: Not Available
                                              Gene Name: HSD11B1
                                              Uniprot ID: P28845 Link_out
                                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                              Name: Mineralocorticoid receptor
                                              Reactions: Not Available
                                              Gene Name: NR3C2
                                              Uniprot ID: P08235 Link_out
                                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                              Name: 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-->4-isomerase type 2
                                              Reactions: Not Available
                                              Gene Name: HSD3B2
                                              Uniprot ID: P26439 Link_out
                                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                              Name: Cytochrome P450 21-hydroxylase
                                              Reactions: Not Available
                                              Gene Name: P450-CYP21B
                                              Uniprot ID: Q16874 Link_out
                                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                              Name: Cytochrome P450, family 21, subfamily A, polypeptide 2
                                              Reactions: Not Available
                                              Gene Name: CYP21A2
                                              Uniprot ID: Q08AG9 Link_out
                                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                              Gene Sequence: FASTA