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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-10-23 17:06:26 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000063
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00063
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCortisol
DescriptionCortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that is involved in the response to stress; The main glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions. As an oral or injectable drug, cortisol is also known as hydrocortisone. It is used as an immunosuppressive drug, given by injection in the treatment of severe allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis and angioedema, in place of prednisolone in patients who need steroid treatment but cannot take oral medication, and peri-operatively in patients on long-term steroid treatment to prevent an Addisonian crisis. Cortisol or Hydrocortisone is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that is involved in the response to stress. It increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels, may cause infertility in women, and suppresses the immune system. Its synthetic counterpart (hydrocortisone) is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions. Cortisol is synthesized from pregnenolone. The amount of cortisol present in the serum undergoes diurnal variation, with the highest levels present in the early morning, and lower levels in the evening, several hours after the onset of sleep. Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that is involved in the response to stress; it increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels, may cause infertility in women, and suppresses the immune system. Synthetic cortisol, also known as hydrocortisone, is used as a drug mainly to fight allergies and inflammation; it increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels, may cause infertility in women, and suppresses the immune system. Synthetic cortisol, also known as hydrocortisone, is used as a drug mainly to fight allergies and inflammation.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
11-beta-HydrocortisoneHMDB
11-beta-HydroxycortisoneHMDB
11-HydrocortisoneHMDB
11a-HydroxycorticosteroneHMDB
11alpha-HydroxycorticosteroneHMDB
11b,17,21-TrihydroxyprogesteroneHMDB
11b-HydrocortisoneHMDB
11b-HydroxycortisoneHMDB
11beta,17,21-TrihydroxyprogesteroneHMDB
11beta-HydrocortisoneHMDB
11beta-HydroxycortisoneHMDB
17-HydroxycorticosteroneHMDB
17a-HydroxycorticosteroneHMDB
17alpha-HydroxycorticosteroneHMDB
4-Pregnene-11alpha,21-triol 3,20-dioneHMDB
4-Pregnene-11b,17a,21-triol-3,20-dioneHMDB
ActicortHMDB
Aeroseb HCHMDB
Aeroseb-HCHMDB
Ala-cortHMDB
Ala-scalpHMDB
AlacortHMDB
AlgicirtisHMDB
AlphadermHMDB
AmberinHMDB
AnflamHMDB
Anti-inflammatory hormoneHMDB
AquacortHMDB
Aquanil HCHMDB
Barseb HCHMDB
Basan-cortiHMDB
CaldeCORT sprayHMDB
CetacortHMDB
ChronocortHMDB
Clear aidHMDB
CleitonHMDB
CobadexHMDB
Compound FHMDB
Cor-tar-quinHMDB
Cort-domeHMDB
Cort-quinHMDB
CortanalHMDB
CortenemaHMDB
CortesalHMDB
CorticremeHMDB
CortifanHMDB
CortifoamHMDB
CortimentHMDB
Cortisol alcoholHMDB
CortisolonumHMDB
CortisporinHMDB
Cortisporin oticoHMDB
CortisprayHMDB
CortizolHMDB
CortolotionHMDB
CortonemaHMDB
CortoxideHMDB
CremesoneHMDB
Cremicort-HHMDB
CutisolHMDB
DelacortHMDB
Derm-aidHMDB
DermilHMDB
DermolateHMDB
DihydrocostisoneHMDB
DiodermHMDB
Dome-cortHMDB
Domolene-HCHMDB
DroticHMDB
Ef corlinHMDB
EfcorbinHMDB
EfcortelanHMDB
EfcortelinHMDB
EldercortHMDB
EpicortHMDB
Epiderm HHMDB
Esiderm HHMDB
EvacortHMDB
FicortrilHMDB
FiocortrilHMDB
Foille insettiHMDB
GenacortHMDB
gyno-CortisoneHMDB
H-CortHMDB
HCHMDB
Heb cortHMDB
Heb-cortHMDB
HidaloneHMDB
hidro-ColisonaHMDB
HidrocortisonaHMDB
HycortHMDB
HycortolHMDB
HycortoleHMDB
HydracortHMDB
HydrassonHMDB
hydro-AdresonHMDB
hydro-ColisonaHMDB
HydrocortHMDB
HydrocortalHMDB
HydrocorticosteroneHMDB
HydrocortisoneHMDB
Hydrocortisone alcoholHMDB
Hydrocortisone baseHMDB
Hydrocortisone free alcoholHMDB
HydrocortisonumHMDB
HydrocortistabHMDB
HydrocortisylHMDB
HydrocortoneHMDB
HydroskinHMDB
HydroxycortisoneHMDB
HysoneHMDB
HytisoneHMDB
HytoneHMDB
Hytone lotionHMDB
IdrocortisoneHMDB
Incortin-HHMDB
Incortin-hydrogenHMDB
Kendall'S compound FHMDB
Komed HCHMDB
KyypakkausHMDB
Lacticare HCHMDB
Lacticare-HCHMDB
LactisonaHMDB
LubricortHMDB
MaintasoneHMDB
MedicortHMDB
MeusicortHMDB
MildisonHMDB
MillidermHMDB
neo-Cort-domeHMDB
Neosporin-H earHMDB
NutracortHMDB
Nystaform-HCHMDB
OptefHMDB
OtalgineHMDB
Otic-neo-cort-domeHMDB
OtobioticHMDB
OtocortHMDB
Otosone-FHMDB
Pediotic suspensionHMDB
PenecortHMDB
PermicortHMDB
Polcort HHMDB
Preparation H hydrocortisone creamHMDB
PrepcortHMDB
Prestwick_265HMDB
Prevex HCHMDB
ProctocortHMDB
ProctofoamHMDB
ProtocortHMDB
RacetHMDB
RectoidHMDB
Reichstein'S substance mHMDB
Remederm HCHMDB
SanatisonHMDB
Scalpicin capilarHMDB
SchericurHMDB
Scheroson FHMDB
SigmacortHMDB
SignefHMDB
StiefcorcilHMDB
SynacortHMDB
Systral hydrocortHMDB
TarcortinHMDB
TimocortHMDB
TopicortHMDB
Transderma HHMDB
TraumaideHMDB
UnidermHMDB
Vioform-hydrocortisoneHMDB
VoSol HCHMDB
VytoneHMDB
ZenoxoneHMDB
Chemical FormulaC21H30O5
Average Molecular Weight362.4599
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight362.20932407
IUPAC Name(1S,2R,10S,11S,14S,15S,17S)-14,17-dihydroxy-14-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadec-6-en-5-one
Traditional Name17α-hydroxycorticosterone
CAS Registry Number50-23-7
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@@](O)(C(=O)CO)[C@@]1(C)C[C@H](O)[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CCC2=CC(=O)CC[C@]12C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C21H30O5/c1-19-7-5-13(23)9-12(19)3-4-14-15-6-8-21(26,17(25)11-22)20(15,2)10-16(24)18(14)19/h9,14-16,18,22,24,26H,3-8,10-11H2,1-2H3/t14-,15-,16-,18+,19-,20-,21+/m0/s1
InChI KeyJYGXADMDTFJGBT-CZFMHFDVSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 21-hydroxysteroids. These are steroids carrying a hydroxyl group at the 21-position of the steroid backbone.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassHydroxysteroids
Direct Parent21-hydroxysteroids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Progestogin-skeleton
  • 21-hydroxysteroid
  • 20-oxosteroid
  • Pregnane-skeleton
  • 3-oxo-delta-4-steroid
  • 3-oxosteroid
  • Oxosteroid
  • 11-beta-hydroxysteroid
  • 11-hydroxysteroid
  • 17-hydroxysteroid
  • Delta-4-steroid
  • Cyclohexenone
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Alpha-hydroxy ketone
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Ketone
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

  Health condition:

Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Biofluid and excreta:

  Tissue and substructures:

  Organ and components:

    Endocrine gland:

  Cell and elements:

    Cell:

    Element:

Source:

  Biological:

    Animal:

Route of exposure:

  Enteral:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Biochemical pathway:

    Cellular process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

  Molecular messenger:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point220 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.32 mg/mLNot Available
LogP1.61HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.2 g/LALOGPS
logP1.79ALOGPS
logP1.28ChemAxon
logS-3.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.58ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area94.83 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity97.4 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability39.24 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-053r-3967000000-125d928e479016368100View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-03di-3521090000-92c353a6bf125d408dd4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01ot-0009000000-862028a83a35574ed4d7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-01tj-0249000000-f36b2ecd66c42004e163View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a59-1492000000-120c7b567d593551959fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0009000000-cfde4c83b4f9237d6b99View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-114u-2019000000-f70fb8347b279a4639b6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9075000000-3b98ca796996f423bcadView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Fetus
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gonads
  • Gut
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Lymphocyte
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Skin
  • Spleen
  • Testes
Pathways
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 5 or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 17 Alpha-hydroxylase DeficiencyPw000179Pw000179 greyscalePw000179 simpleNot Available
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndromePw000694Pw000694 greyscalePw000694 simpleNot Available
Congenital Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia (CLAH) or Lipoid CAHPw000178Pw000178 greyscalePw000178 simpleNot Available
Corticosterone methyl oxidase I deficiency (CMO I)Pw000553Pw000553 greyscalePw000553 simpleNot Available
Corticosterone methyl oxidase II deficiency - CMO IIPw000554Pw000554 greyscalePw000554 simpleNot Available
Displaying entries 6 - 10 of 12 in total
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.287 +/- 0.099 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0130-0.340 uMNewborn (2 - <15 days old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.014-0.46 uMInfant (15 days - <1 year old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.048-0.30 uMChildren (1 - <9 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.060-0.35 uMChildren (9 - <14 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.077-0.45 uMAdolescent (14 - <17 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.097-0.51 uMAdolescent (17 - <19 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.32 +/- 0.19 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.199 (0.058-0.475) uMInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.359 (0.130-0.519) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.427 (0.110-0.744) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.386 (0.100-0.671) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.348 (0.090-0.605) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.313 (0.081-0.545) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.282 (0.073-0.491) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.255 (0.066-0.443) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.46 +/- 0.30 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.14 (0.0-0.28) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.052 +/- 0.023 uMElderly (>65 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.02 +/- 0.011 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.03 +/- 0.005 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0069 +/- 0.0058 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0063 +/- 0.0052 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0063 +/- 0.005 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0077 +/- 0.0052 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2.35 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0081 (0.0019-0.014) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.016(0.012-0.021) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0061 +/- 0.00064 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.34 (0.028-0.66) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothACTH deficiency, isolated details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.001 (0.00-0.002) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothGlucocorticoid deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.001 (0.0-0.002) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothAdrenal Hypolasia details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.326 +/- 0.090 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
BloodDetected and Quantified10.55 +/- 1.93 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.001 (0.00-0.002) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothGlucocorticoid deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.27 +/- 0.06 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMajor affective disorder details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.41 +/- 0.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothTic disorder details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0096 (0.0027-0.016) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleGynecological diseases (benign) details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0001+/- 0.00001 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleFunctional hypothalamic amenorrhea details
SalivaDetected and Quantified8.69 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothStress period details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.021 +/- 0.0097 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0082 +/- 0.0014 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.026 +/- 0.011 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Rheumatoid arthritis
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0052 +/- 0.001 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Rheumatoid arthritis
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.44 +/- 0.09 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothAnorexia nervosa details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Anorexia nervosa
  1. Vierhapper H, Kiss A, Nowotny P, Wiesnagrotzki S, Monder C, Waldhausl W: Metabolism of cortisol in anorexia nervosa. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1990 Jun;122(6):753-8. [PubMed:2165347 ]
Benign gynecological diseases
  1. Murakami K, Nakagawa T, Shozu M, Uchide K, Koike K, Inoue M: Changes with aging of steroidal levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of women. Maturitas. 1999 Sep 24;33(1):71-80. [PubMed:10585175 ]
Bipolar disorder
  1. Walker EF, Bonsall R, Walder DJ: Plasma hormones and catecholamine metabolites in monozygotic twins discordant for psychosis. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 2002 Mar;15(1):10-7. [PubMed:11877547 ]
Schizophrenia
  1. Walker EF, Bonsall R, Walder DJ: Plasma hormones and catecholamine metabolites in monozygotic twins discordant for psychosis. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 2002 Mar;15(1):10-7. [PubMed:11877547 ]
  2. Schwarz E, Guest PC, Rahmoune H, Harris LW, Wang L, Leweke FM, Rothermundt M, Bogerts B, Koethe D, Kranaster L, Ohrmann P, Suslow T, McAllister G, Spain M, Barnes A, van Beveren NJ, Baron-Cohen S, Steiner J, Torrey FE, Yolken RH, Bahn S: Identification of a biological signature for schizophrenia in serum. Mol Psychiatry. 2012 May;17(5):494-502. doi: 10.1038/mp.2011.42. Epub 2011 Apr 12. [PubMed:21483431 ]
  3. Bicikova M, Hill M, Ripova D, Mohr P, Hampl R: Determination of steroid metabolome as a possible tool for laboratory diagnosis of schizophrenia. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013 Jan;133:77-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2012.08.009. Epub 2012 Aug 24. [PubMed:22944140 ]
Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea
  1. Brundu B, Loucks TL, Adler LJ, Cameron JL, Berga SL: Increased cortisol in the cerebrospinal fluid of women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Apr;91(4):1561-5. Epub 2006 Feb 7. [PubMed:16464944 ]
Rheumatoid arthritis
  1. Straub RH, Weidler C, Demmel B, Herrmann M, Kees F, Schmidt M, Scholmerich J, Schedel J: Renal clearance and daily excretion of cortisol and adrenal androgens in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004 Aug;63(8):961-8. [PubMed:15249323 ]
Stress
  1. Krahwinkel T, Nastali S, Azrak B, Willershausen B: The effect of examination stress conditions on the cortisol content of saliva - a study of students from clinical semesters. Eur J Med Res. 2004 May 28;9(5):256-60. [PubMed:15257879 ]
Tic disorder
  1. Hoekstra PJ, Anderson GM, Troost PW, Kallenberg CG, Minderaa RB: Plasma kynurenine and related measures in tic disorder patients. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Jun;16 Suppl 1:71-7. doi: 10.1007/s00787-007-1009-1. [PubMed:17665285 ]
ACTH deficiency, isolated
    MetaGene
Adrenal hypoplasia
    MetaGene
Glucocorticoid deficiency, familial isolated
    MetaGene
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021888
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID571435
KEGG Compound IDC00735
BioCyc IDCORTISOL
BiGG ID35828
Wikipedia LinkCortisol
METLIN ID5124
PubChem Compound657311
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceHanson, Frederick R.; Mann, Kingsley M.; Nielson, Eldon D.; Anderson, Hugh V.; Brunner, Mari P.; Karnemaat, John N.; Colingsworth, Donald R.; Haines, Wm. J. Microbiological transformations of steroids. VIII. Preparation of 17a-hydroxycorticosterone. Journ
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Schwarz S, Pohl P: Steroid hormones and steroid hormone binding globulins in cerebrospinal fluid studied in individuals with intact and with disturbed blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Neuroendocrinology. 1992 Feb;55(2):174-82. [PubMed:1620285 ]
  2. Al-Damluji S, Iveson T, Thomas JM, Pendlebury DJ, Rees LH, Besser GM: Food-induced cortisol secretion is mediated by central alpha-1 adrenoceptor modulation of pituitary ACTH secretion. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1987 May;26(5):629-36. [PubMed:2822298 ]
  3. Krahwinkel T, Nastali S, Azrak B, Willershausen B: The effect of examination stress conditions on the cortisol content of saliva - a study of students from clinical semesters. Eur J Med Res. 2004 May 28;9(5):256-60. [PubMed:15257879 ]
  4. Rubin RT, Miller TH, Rhodes ME, Czambel RK: Adrenal cortical responses to low- and high-dose ACTH(1-24) administration in major depressives vs. matched controls. Psychiatry Res. 2006 Jun 30;143(1):43-50. Epub 2006 May 16. [PubMed:16707164 ]
  5. Morris JG, Nevill ME, Boobis LH, Macdonald IA, Williams C: Muscle metabolism, temperature, and function during prolonged, intermittent, high-intensity running in air temperatures of 33 degrees and 17 degrees C. Int J Sports Med. 2005 Dec;26(10):805-14. [PubMed:16320162 ]
  6. Deuschle M, Lecei O, Stalla GK, Landgraf R, Hamann B, Lederbogen F, Uhr M, Luppa P, Maras A, Colla M, Heuser I: Steroid synthesis inhibition with ketoconazole and its effect upon the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system in healthy humans. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Feb;28(2):379-83. Epub 2002 Aug 12. [PubMed:12589391 ]
  7. Clauss SB, Holmes KW, Hopkins P, Stein E, Cho M, Tate A, Johnson-Levonas AO, Kwiterovich PO: Efficacy and safety of lovastatin therapy in adolescent girls with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Pediatrics. 2005 Sep;116(3):682-8. [PubMed:16140708 ]
  8. Stark JG, Werner S, Homrighausen S, Tang Y, Krieg M, Derendorf H, Moellmann H, Hochhaus G: Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of total lymphocytes and selected subtypes after oral budesonide. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2006 Aug;33(4):441-59. Epub 2006 Apr 22. [PubMed:16633890 ]
  9. Makras P, Koukoulis GN, Bourikas G, Papatheodorou G, Bedevis K, Menounos P, Pappas D, Kartalis G: Effect of 4 weeks of basic military training on peripheral blood leucocytes and urinary excretion of catecholamines and cortisol. J Sports Sci. 2005 Aug;23(8):825-34. [PubMed:16195034 ]
  10. Costa A, Benedetto C, Fabris C, Giraudi GF, Testori O, Bertino E, Marozio L, Varvello G, Arisio R, Ariano M, Emanuel A: Cortisol in human tissues at different stages of life. J Endocrinol Invest. 1996 Jul-Aug;19(7):463-71. [PubMed:8884541 ]
  11. Targher G, Bertolini L, Zoppini G, Zenari L, Falezza G: Relationship of non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis to cortisol secretion in diet-controlled Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med. 2005 Sep;22(9):1146-50. [PubMed:16108840 ]
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Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Has steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase activity. In addition to this activity, the 18 or 19-hydroxylation of steroids and the aromatization of androstendione to estrone have also been ascribed to cytochrome P450 XIB.
Gene Name:
CYP11B1
Uniprot ID:
P15538
Molecular weight:
57572.44
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Modulates intracellular glucocorticoid levels, thus protecting the nonselective mineralocorticoid receptor from occupation by glucocorticoids.
Gene Name:
HSD11B2
Uniprot ID:
P80365
Molecular weight:
44126.06
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of 7-ketocholesterol to 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol. In intact cells, the reaction runs only in one direction, from 7-ketocholesterol to 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HSD11B1
Uniprot ID:
P28845
Molecular weight:
32400.665
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Receptor for both mineralocorticoids (MC) such as aldosterone and glucocorticoids (GC) such as corticosterone or cortisol. Binds to mineralocorticoid response elements (MRE) and transactivates target genes. The effect of MC is to increase ion and water transport and thus raise extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure and lower potassium levels
Gene Name:
NR3C2
Uniprot ID:
P08235
Molecular weight:
107066.6
General function:
Involved in 3-beta-hydroxy-delta5-steroid dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
3-beta-HSD is a bifunctional enzyme, that catalyzes the oxidative conversion of Delta(5)-ene-3-beta-hydroxy steroid, and the oxidative conversion of ketosteroids. The 3-beta-HSD enzymatic system plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of all classes of hormonal steroids.
Gene Name:
HSD3B2
Uniprot ID:
P26439
Molecular weight:
42051.845
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
P450-CYP21B
Uniprot ID:
Q16874
Molecular weight:
56000.9
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP21A2
Uniprot ID:
Q08AG9
Molecular weight:
55972.9