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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-02-21 20:57:18 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000063
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00063
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCortisol
DescriptionCortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that is involved in the response to stress; the main glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex. Cortisol produced by the adrenal cortex increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels, may cause infertility in women, and suppresses the immune system. As an oral or injectable drug, cortisol is also known as hydrocortisone. It is used as an immunosuppressive drug, given by injection in the treatment of severe allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis and angioedema, in place of prednisolone in patients who need steroid treatment but cannot take oral medication, and peri-operatively in patients on long-term steroid treatment to prevent an Addisonian crisis. Hydrocortisone is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions. Cortisol is synthesized from pregnenolone. The amount of cortisol present in the serum undergoes diurnal variation, with the highest levels present in the early morning, and lower levels in the evening, several hours after the onset of sleep. Moreover, cortisol is found to be associated with ACTH deficiency, isolated and glucocorticoid deficiency, which are inborn errors of metabolism.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
11-beta-HydrocortisoneHMDB
11-beta-HydroxycortisoneHMDB
11-HydrocortisoneHMDB
11a-HydroxycorticosteroneHMDB
11alpha-HydroxycorticosteroneHMDB
11b,17,21-TrihydroxyprogesteroneHMDB
11b-HydrocortisoneHMDB
11b-HydroxycortisoneHMDB
11beta,17,21-TrihydroxyprogesteroneHMDB
11beta-HydrocortisoneHMDB
11beta-HydroxycortisoneHMDB
17-HydroxycorticosteroneHMDB
17a-HydroxycorticosteroneHMDB
17alpha-HydroxycorticosteroneHMDB
4-Pregnene-11alpha,21-triol 3,20-dioneHMDB
4-Pregnene-11b,17a,21-triol-3,20-dioneHMDB
ActicortHMDB
Aeroseb HCHMDB
Aeroseb-HCHMDB
Ala-cortHMDB
Ala-scalpHMDB
AlacortHMDB
AlgicirtisHMDB
AlphadermHMDB
AmberinHMDB
AnflamHMDB
Anti-inflammatory hormoneHMDB
AquacortHMDB
Aquanil HCHMDB
Barseb HCHMDB
Basan-cortiHMDB
CaldeCORT sprayHMDB
CetacortHMDB
ChronocortHMDB
Clear aidHMDB
CleitonHMDB
CobadexHMDB
Compound FHMDB
Cor-tar-quinHMDB
Cort-domeHMDB
Cort-quinHMDB
CortanalHMDB
CortenemaHMDB
CortesalHMDB
CorticremeHMDB
CortifanHMDB
CortifoamHMDB
CortimentHMDB
Cortisol alcoholHMDB
CortisolonumHMDB
CortisporinHMDB
Cortisporin oticoHMDB
CortisprayHMDB
CortizolHMDB
CortolotionHMDB
CortonemaHMDB
CortoxideHMDB
CremesoneHMDB
Cremicort-HHMDB
CutisolHMDB
DelacortHMDB
Derm-aidHMDB
DermilHMDB
DermolateHMDB
DihydrocostisoneHMDB
DiodermHMDB
Dome-cortHMDB
Domolene-HCHMDB
DroticHMDB
Ef corlinHMDB
EfcorbinHMDB
EfcortelanHMDB
EfcortelinHMDB
EldercortHMDB
EpicortHMDB
Epiderm HHMDB
Esiderm HHMDB
EvacortHMDB
FicortrilHMDB
FiocortrilHMDB
Foille insettiHMDB
GenacortHMDB
gyno-CortisoneHMDB
H-CortHMDB
HCHMDB
Heb cortHMDB
Heb-cortHMDB
HidaloneHMDB
hidro-ColisonaHMDB
HidrocortisonaHMDB
HycortHMDB
HycortolHMDB
HycortoleHMDB
HydracortHMDB
HydrassonHMDB
hydro-AdresonHMDB
hydro-ColisonaHMDB
HydrocortHMDB
HydrocortalHMDB
HydrocorticosteroneHMDB
HydrocortisoneHMDB
Hydrocortisone alcoholHMDB
Hydrocortisone baseHMDB
Hydrocortisone free alcoholHMDB
HydrocortisonumHMDB
HydrocortistabHMDB
HydrocortisylHMDB
HydrocortoneHMDB
HydroskinHMDB
HydroxycortisoneHMDB
HysoneHMDB
HytisoneHMDB
HytoneHMDB
Hytone lotionHMDB
IdrocortisoneHMDB
Incortin-HHMDB
Incortin-hydrogenHMDB
Kendall'S compound FHMDB
Komed HCHMDB
KyypakkausHMDB
Lacticare HCHMDB
Lacticare-HCHMDB
LactisonaHMDB
LubricortHMDB
MaintasoneHMDB
MedicortHMDB
MeusicortHMDB
MildisonHMDB
MillidermHMDB
neo-Cort-domeHMDB
Neosporin-H earHMDB
NutracortHMDB
Nystaform-HCHMDB
OptefHMDB
OtalgineHMDB
Otic-neo-cort-domeHMDB
OtobioticHMDB
OtocortHMDB
Otosone-FHMDB
Pediotic suspensionHMDB
PenecortHMDB
PermicortHMDB
Polcort HHMDB
Preparation H hydrocortisone creamHMDB
PrepcortHMDB
Prestwick_265HMDB
Prevex HCHMDB
ProctocortHMDB
ProctofoamHMDB
ProtocortHMDB
RacetHMDB
RectoidHMDB
Reichstein'S substance mHMDB
Remederm HCHMDB
SanatisonHMDB
Scalpicin capilarHMDB
SchericurHMDB
Scheroson FHMDB
SigmacortHMDB
SignefHMDB
StiefcorcilHMDB
SynacortHMDB
Systral hydrocortHMDB
TarcortinHMDB
TimocortHMDB
TopicortHMDB
Transderma HHMDB
TraumaideHMDB
UnidermHMDB
Vioform-hydrocortisoneHMDB
VoSol HCHMDB
VytoneHMDB
ZenoxoneHMDB
Chemical FormulaC21H30O5
Average Molecular Weight362.4599
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight362.20932407
IUPAC Name(1S,2R,10S,11S,14S,15S,17S)-14,17-dihydroxy-14-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadec-6-en-5-one
Traditional Name17α-hydroxycorticosterone
CAS Registry Number50-23-7
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@@](O)(C(=O)CO)[C@@]1(C)C[C@H](O)[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CCC2=CC(=O)CC[C@]12C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C21H30O5/c1-19-7-5-13(23)9-12(19)3-4-14-15-6-8-21(26,17(25)11-22)20(15,2)10-16(24)18(14)19/h9,14-16,18,22,24,26H,3-8,10-11H2,1-2H3/t14-,15-,16-,18+,19-,20-,21+/m0/s1
InChI KeyJYGXADMDTFJGBT-CZFMHFDVSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 21-hydroxysteroids. These are steroids carrying a hydroxyl group at the 21-position of the steroid backbone.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassHydroxysteroids
Direct Parent21-hydroxysteroids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Progestogin-skeleton
  • 21-hydroxysteroid
  • 20-oxosteroid
  • Pregnane-skeleton
  • 3-oxo-delta-4-steroid
  • 3-oxosteroid
  • Oxosteroid
  • 11-beta-hydroxysteroid
  • 11-hydroxysteroid
  • 17-hydroxysteroid
  • Delta-4-steroid
  • Cyclohexenone
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Alpha-hydroxy ketone
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Ketone
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Hormones, Membrane component
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point220 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.32 mg/mLNot Available
LogP1.61HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.2 g/LALOGPS
logP1.79ALOGPS
logP1.28ChemAxon
logS-3.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.58ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area94.83 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity97.4 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability39.24 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-053r-3967000000-125d928e479016368100View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-03di-3521090000-92c353a6bf125d408dd4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01ot-0009000000-862028a83a35574ed4d7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-01tj-0249000000-f36b2ecd66c42004e163View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a59-1492000000-120c7b567d593551959fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0009000000-cfde4c83b4f9237d6b99View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-114u-2019000000-f70fb8347b279a4639b6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9075000000-3b98ca796996f423bcadView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Fetus
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gonads
  • Gut
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Lymphocyte
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Skin
  • Spleen
  • Testes
Pathways
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP11B1)Pw000551Pw000551 greyscalePw000551 simpleNot Available
17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP17)Pw000542Pw000542 greyscalePw000542 simpleNot Available
21-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP21)Pw000552Pw000552 greyscalePw000552 simpleNot Available
3-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase DeficiencyPw000695Pw000695 greyscalePw000695 simpleNot Available
Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 3 or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase DeficiencyPw000177Pw000177 greyscalePw000177 simpleNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.287 +/- 0.099 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0130-0.340 uMNewborn (2 - <15 days old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.014-0.46 uMInfant (15 days - <1 year old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.048-0.30 uMChildren (1 - <9 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.060-0.35 uMChildren (9 - <14 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.077-0.45 uMAdolescent (14 - <17 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.097-0.51 uMAdolescent (17 - <19 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.150-0.650 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.028-0.634 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.32 +/- 0.19 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.221-0.690 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.199 (0.058-0.475) uMInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.359 (0.130-0.519) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.171 +/- 0.0662 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.427 (0.110-0.744) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.386 (0.100-0.671) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.348 (0.090-0.605) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.313 (0.081-0.545) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.282 (0.073-0.491) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.255 (0.066-0.443) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.171-0.538 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.881-1.656 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.07-0.55 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)BothNormal
    • Physician's Guide...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.138-0.690 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.46 +/- 0.30 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.260-0.719 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.14 (0.0-0.28) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.052 +/- 0.023 uMElderly (>65 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.02 +/- 0.011 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.03 +/- 0.005 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0069 +/- 0.0058 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0063 +/- 0.0052 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0063 +/- 0.005 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0077 +/- 0.0052 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2.35 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0081 (0.0019-0.014) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.016(0.012-0.021) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified<0.00960 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00184-0.0184 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0061 +/- 0.00064 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified1.036 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Male
3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase Deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.235 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Female
Adrenal insufficiency, congenital, with 46,XY sex reversal, partial or complete
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0124-0.455 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)MaleAdrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified<0.0276 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Female
Adrenal insufficiency, congenital, with 46,XY sex reversal, partial or complete
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.34 (0.028-0.66) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothACTH deficiency, isolated
    • MetaGene: Metabol...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.001 (0.0-0.002) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothAdrenal Hypoplasia
    • MetaGene: Metabol...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.326 +/- 0.090 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
BloodDetected and Quantified10.55 +/- 1.93 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.381 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Female
3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCHAD)
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.135 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Female
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.300 +/- 0.200 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not Specified
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.684-0.991 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Glucocorticoid resistance
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.400 +/- 0.200 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.07 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.12 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Male
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.290-0.390 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.280-0.480 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00615 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)MaleGlucocorticoid deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.353 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Male3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase Deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.360 +/- 0.100 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAdrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.230 +/- 0.120 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedAdrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.300 +/- 0.120 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothAdrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.360 +/- 0.120 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleAdrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified<0.138 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleProprotein Convertase 1/3 Deficiency details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified<0.0280 uMInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleLipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.152 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.556 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)FemaleBartter Syndrome, Type 2, Antenatal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.434-0.654 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Antley-Bixler syndrome with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.558 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Female
Aromatase deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.27 +/- 0.06 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMajor affective disorder details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0806 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Female
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.41 +/- 0.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothTic disorder details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0469 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.221 uMInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleCorticosterone methyloxidase I deficiency- CMO I details
BloodDetected and Quantified<0.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleACTH deficiency, isolated details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.22 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleACTH deficiency, isolated details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0096 (0.0027-0.016) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleGynecological diseases (benign) details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0001+/- 0.00001 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleFunctional hypothalamic amenorrhea details
SalivaDetected and Quantified8.69 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothStress period details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.021 +/- 0.0097 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0082 +/- 0.0014 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0133 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleGlucocorticoid resistance details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0114 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleLeptin Deficiency or Dysfunction details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.026 +/- 0.011 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Rheumatoid arthritis
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0052 +/- 0.001 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Rheumatoid arthritis
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.44 +/- 0.09 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothAnorexia nervosa details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency
  1. Hattori N, Ishihara T, Moridera K, Hino M, Ikekubo K, Kurahachi H: A case of late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to partial 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. Endocr J. 1993 Feb;40(1):107-9. [PubMed:7951484 ]
  2. Lutfallah C, Wang W, Mason JI, Chang YT, Haider A, Rich B, Castro-Magana M, Copeland KC, David R, Pang S: Newly proposed hormonal criteria via genotypic proof for type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jun;87(6):2611-22. doi: 10.1210/jcem.87.6.8615. [PubMed:12050224 ]
  3. Guven A, Polat S: Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumor in Two Brothers with a Novel Mutation in the 3-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase-2 Gene. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2017 Mar 1;9(1):85-90. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.3306. Epub 2016 Jul 29. [PubMed:27476613 ]
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency
  1. Santarelli F, Cassanello M, Enea A, Poma F, D'Onofrio V, Guala G, Garrone G, Puccinelli P, Caruso U, Porta F, Spada M: A neonatal case of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric-coenzyme A lyase deficiency. Ital J Pediatr. 2013 May 24;39:33. doi: 10.1186/1824-7288-39-33. [PubMed:23705938 ]
Anorexia nervosa
  1. Vierhapper H, Kiss A, Nowotny P, Wiesnagrotzki S, Monder C, Waldhausl W: Metabolism of cortisol in anorexia nervosa. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1990 Jun;122(6):753-8. [PubMed:2165347 ]
Benign gynecological diseases
  1. Murakami K, Nakagawa T, Shozu M, Uchide K, Koike K, Inoue M: Changes with aging of steroidal levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of women. Maturitas. 1999 Sep 24;33(1):71-80. [PubMed:10585175 ]
Bipolar disorder
  1. Walker EF, Bonsall R, Walder DJ: Plasma hormones and catecholamine metabolites in monozygotic twins discordant for psychosis. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 2002 Mar;15(1):10-7. [PubMed:11877547 ]
Corticosterone methyl oxidase I deficiency
  1. Ustyol A, Atabek ME, Taylor N, Yeung MC, Chan AO: Corticosterone Methyl Oxidase Deficiency Type 1 with Normokalemia in an Infant. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2016 Sep 1;8(3):356-9. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.2824. Epub 2016 Apr 29. [PubMed:27125267 ]
Schizophrenia
  1. Walker EF, Bonsall R, Walder DJ: Plasma hormones and catecholamine metabolites in monozygotic twins discordant for psychosis. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 2002 Mar;15(1):10-7. [PubMed:11877547 ]
  2. Schwarz E, Guest PC, Rahmoune H, Harris LW, Wang L, Leweke FM, Rothermundt M, Bogerts B, Koethe D, Kranaster L, Ohrmann P, Suslow T, McAllister G, Spain M, Barnes A, van Beveren NJ, Baron-Cohen S, Steiner J, Torrey FE, Yolken RH, Bahn S: Identification of a biological signature for schizophrenia in serum. Mol Psychiatry. 2012 May;17(5):494-502. doi: 10.1038/mp.2011.42. Epub 2011 Apr 12. [PubMed:21483431 ]
  3. Bicikova M, Hill M, Ripova D, Mohr P, Hampl R: Determination of steroid metabolome as a possible tool for laboratory diagnosis of schizophrenia. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013 Jan;133:77-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2012.08.009. Epub 2012 Aug 24. [PubMed:22944140 ]
Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea
  1. Brundu B, Loucks TL, Adler LJ, Cameron JL, Berga SL: Increased cortisol in the cerebrospinal fluid of women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Apr;91(4):1561-5. Epub 2006 Feb 7. [PubMed:16464944 ]
Rheumatoid arthritis
  1. Straub RH, Weidler C, Demmel B, Herrmann M, Kees F, Schmidt M, Scholmerich J, Schedel J: Renal clearance and daily excretion of cortisol and adrenal androgens in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004 Aug;63(8):961-8. [PubMed:15249323 ]
Stress
  1. Krahwinkel T, Nastali S, Azrak B, Willershausen B: The effect of examination stress conditions on the cortisol content of saliva - a study of students from clinical semesters. Eur J Med Res. 2004 May 28;9(5):256-60. [PubMed:15257879 ]
Tic disorder
  1. Hoekstra PJ, Anderson GM, Troost PW, Kallenberg CG, Minderaa RB: Plasma kynurenine and related measures in tic disorder patients. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Jun;16 Suppl 1:71-7. doi: 10.1007/s00787-007-1009-1. [PubMed:17665285 ]
ACTH deficiency, isolated
  1. Harano Y, Kitano A, Akiyama Y, Kotajima L, Honda K, Arioka H: A case of isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency: a rare but possible cause of hypercalcemia. Int Med Case Rep J. 2015 Mar 27;8:77-9. doi: 10.2147/IMCRJ.S63778. eCollection 2015. [PubMed:25870516 ]
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, due to 17-Hydroxylase-Deficiency
  1. Wong SL, Shu SG, Tsai CR: Seventeen alpha-hydroxylase deficiency. J Formos Med Assoc. 2006 Feb;105(2):177-81. doi: 10.1016/S0929-6646(09)60342-9. [PubMed:16477341 ]
  2. Kim SM, Rhee JH: A case of 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency. Clin Exp Reprod Med. 2015 Jun;42(2):72-6. doi: 10.5653/cerm.2015.42.2.72. Epub 2015 Jun 30. [PubMed:26161337 ]
Adrenal insufficiency, congenital, with 46,XY sex reversal, partial or complete
  1. Kim CJ, Lin L, Huang N, Quigley CA, AvRuskin TW, Achermann JC, Miller WL: Severe combined adrenal and gonadal deficiency caused by novel mutations in the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Mar;93(3):696-702. doi: 10.1210/jc.2007-2330. Epub 2008 Jan 8. [PubMed:18182448 ]
Antley-Bixler syndrome with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis
  1. Fukami M, Hasegawa T, Horikawa R, Ohashi T, Nishimura G, Homma K, Ogata T: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency in three patients initially regarded as having 21-hydroxylase deficiency and/or aromatase deficiency: diagnostic value of urine steroid hormone analysis. Pediatr Res. 2006 Feb;59(2):276-80. doi: 10.1203/01.pdr.0000195825.31504.28. [PubMed:16439592 ]
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess
  1. New MI, Levine LS, Biglieri EG, Pareira J, Ulick S: Evidence for an unidentified steroid in a child with apparent mineralocorticoid hypertension. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1977 May;44(5):924-33. doi: 10.1210/jcem-44-5-924. [PubMed:870517 ]
Aromatase deficiency
  1. Mullis PE, Yoshimura N, Kuhlmann B, Lippuner K, Jaeger P, Harada H: Aromatase deficiency in a female who is compound heterozygote for two new point mutations in the P450arom gene: impact of estrogens on hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, multicystic ovaries, and bone densitometry in childhood. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Jun;82(6):1739-45. doi: 10.1210/jcem.82.6.3994. [PubMed:9177373 ]
3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase Deficiency
  1. Morris AA, Lascelles CV, Olpin SE, Lake BD, Leonard JV, Quant PA: Hepatic mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a synthase deficiency. Pediatr Res. 1998 Sep;44(3):392-6. doi: 10.1203/00006450-199809000-00021. [PubMed:9727719 ]
3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
  1. Clayton PT, Eaton S, Aynsley-Green A, Edginton M, Hussain K, Krywawych S, Datta V, Malingre HE, Berger R, van den Berg IE: Hyperinsulinism in short-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency reveals the importance of beta-oxidation in insulin secretion. J Clin Invest. 2001 Aug;108(3):457-65. [PubMed:11489939 ]
Bartter Syndrome, Type 2, Antenatal
  1. Chan WK, To KF, Tong JH, Law CW: Paradoxical hypertension and salt wasting in Type II Bartter syndrome. Clin Kidney J. 2012 Jun;5(3):217-20. doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfs026. Epub 2012 Mar 29. [PubMed:26069767 ]
Glucocorticoid resistance
  1. Donner KM, Hiltunen TP, Janne OA, Sane T, Kontula K: Generalized glucocorticoid resistance caused by a novel two-nucleotide deletion in the hormone-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 Dec 10;168(1):K9-K18. doi: 10.1530/EJE-12-0532. Print 2013 Jan. [PubMed:23076843 ]
Leptin Deficiency or Dysfunction
  1. Farooqi IS, Jebb SA, Langmack G, Lawrence E, Cheetham CH, Prentice AM, Hughes IA, McCamish MA, O'Rahilly S: Effects of recombinant leptin therapy in a child with congenital leptin deficiency. N Engl J Med. 1999 Sep 16;341(12):879-84. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199909163411204. [PubMed:10486419 ]
Lipoid Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
  1. Fujieda K, Tajima T, Nakae J, Sageshima S, Tachibana K, Suwa S, Sugawara T, Strauss JF 3rd: Spontaneous puberty in 46,XX subjects with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia. Ovarian steroidogenesis is spared to some extent despite inactivating mutations in the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene. J Clin Invest. 1997 Mar 15;99(6):1265-71. doi: 10.1172/JCI119284. [PubMed:9077535 ]
Proprotein Convertase 1/3 Deficiency
  1. O'Rahilly S, Gray H, Humphreys PJ, Krook A, Polonsky KS, White A, Gibson S, Taylor K, Carr C: Brief report: impaired processing of prohormones associated with abnormalities of glucose homeostasis and adrenal function. N Engl J Med. 1995 Nov 23;333(21):1386-90. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199511233332104. [PubMed:7477119 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 125480 (Bipolar disorder)
  • 181500 (Schizophrenia)
  • 201400 (ACTH deficiency, isolated)
  • 218030 (Apparent mineralocorticoid excess)
  • 201810 (Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency)
  • 613546 (Aromatase deficiency)
  • 605911 (3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase Deficiency)
  • 231530 (3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency)
  • 201750 (Antley-Bixler syndrome with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis)
  • 202110 (Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, due to 17-Hydroxylase-Deficiency)
  • 613743 (Adrenal insufficiency, congenital, with 46,XY sex reversal, partial or complete)
  • 246450 (3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency)
  • 241200 (Bartter Syndrome, Type 2, Antenatal)
  • 615962 (Glucocorticoid resistance)
  • 600955 (Proprotein Convertase 1/3 Deficiency)
  • 201710 (Lipoid Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia)
  • 203400 (Corticosterone methyl oxidase I deficiency)
  • 606788 (Anorexia nervosa)
  • 180300 (Rheumatoid arthritis)
  • 614962 (Leptin Deficiency or Dysfunction)
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021888
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID571435
KEGG Compound IDC00735
BioCyc IDCORTISOL
BiGG ID35828
Wikipedia LinkCortisol
METLIN ID5124
PubChem Compound657311
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceHanson, Frederick R.; Mann, Kingsley M.; Nielson, Eldon D.; Anderson, Hugh V.; Brunner, Mari P.; Karnemaat, John N.; Colingsworth, Donald R.; Haines, Wm. J. Microbiological transformations of steroids. VIII. Preparation of 17a-hydroxycorticosterone. Journ
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Schwarz S, Pohl P: Steroid hormones and steroid hormone binding globulins in cerebrospinal fluid studied in individuals with intact and with disturbed blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Neuroendocrinology. 1992 Feb;55(2):174-82. [PubMed:1620285 ]
  2. Al-Damluji S, Iveson T, Thomas JM, Pendlebury DJ, Rees LH, Besser GM: Food-induced cortisol secretion is mediated by central alpha-1 adrenoceptor modulation of pituitary ACTH secretion. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1987 May;26(5):629-36. [PubMed:2822298 ]
  3. Krahwinkel T, Nastali S, Azrak B, Willershausen B: The effect of examination stress conditions on the cortisol content of saliva - a study of students from clinical semesters. Eur J Med Res. 2004 May 28;9(5):256-60. [PubMed:15257879 ]
  4. Rubin RT, Miller TH, Rhodes ME, Czambel RK: Adrenal cortical responses to low- and high-dose ACTH(1-24) administration in major depressives vs. matched controls. Psychiatry Res. 2006 Jun 30;143(1):43-50. Epub 2006 May 16. [PubMed:16707164 ]
  5. Morris JG, Nevill ME, Boobis LH, Macdonald IA, Williams C: Muscle metabolism, temperature, and function during prolonged, intermittent, high-intensity running in air temperatures of 33 degrees and 17 degrees C. Int J Sports Med. 2005 Dec;26(10):805-14. [PubMed:16320162 ]
  6. Deuschle M, Lecei O, Stalla GK, Landgraf R, Hamann B, Lederbogen F, Uhr M, Luppa P, Maras A, Colla M, Heuser I: Steroid synthesis inhibition with ketoconazole and its effect upon the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system in healthy humans. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Feb;28(2):379-83. Epub 2002 Aug 12. [PubMed:12589391 ]
  7. Clauss SB, Holmes KW, Hopkins P, Stein E, Cho M, Tate A, Johnson-Levonas AO, Kwiterovich PO: Efficacy and safety of lovastatin therapy in adolescent girls with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Pediatrics. 2005 Sep;116(3):682-8. [PubMed:16140708 ]
  8. Stark JG, Werner S, Homrighausen S, Tang Y, Krieg M, Derendorf H, Moellmann H, Hochhaus G: Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of total lymphocytes and selected subtypes after oral budesonide. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2006 Aug;33(4):441-59. Epub 2006 Apr 22. [PubMed:16633890 ]
  9. Makras P, Koukoulis GN, Bourikas G, Papatheodorou G, Bedevis K, Menounos P, Pappas D, Kartalis G: Effect of 4 weeks of basic military training on peripheral blood leucocytes and urinary excretion of catecholamines and cortisol. J Sports Sci. 2005 Aug;23(8):825-34. [PubMed:16195034 ]
  10. Costa A, Benedetto C, Fabris C, Giraudi GF, Testori O, Bertino E, Marozio L, Varvello G, Arisio R, Ariano M, Emanuel A: Cortisol in human tissues at different stages of life. J Endocrinol Invest. 1996 Jul-Aug;19(7):463-71. [PubMed:8884541 ]
  11. Targher G, Bertolini L, Zoppini G, Zenari L, Falezza G: Relationship of non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis to cortisol secretion in diet-controlled Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med. 2005 Sep;22(9):1146-50. [PubMed:16108840 ]
  12. Pruessner JC, Baldwin MW, Dedovic K, Renwick R, Mahani NK, Lord C, Meaney M, Lupien S: Self-esteem, locus of control, hippocampal volume, and cortisol regulation in young and old adulthood. Neuroimage. 2005 Dec;28(4):815-26. Epub 2005 Jul 14. [PubMed:16023372 ]
  13. Whorwood CB, Donovan SJ, Flanagan D, Phillips DI, Byrne CD: Increased glucocorticoid receptor expression in human skeletal muscle cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes. 2002 Apr;51(4):1066-75. [PubMed:11916927 ]
  14. Takahashi T, Ikeda K, Ishikawa M, Tsukasaki T, Nakama D, Tanida S, Kameda T: Social stress-induced cortisol elevation acutely impairs social memory in humans. Neurosci Lett. 2004 Jun 10;363(2):125-30. [PubMed:15172099 ]
  15. Chapman TE, Kraan GP, Nagel GT, Wolthers BG, Drayer NM: Measurement of the cortisol production rate in two sisters with 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency using [1,2,3,4-13C]cortisol and isotope dilution mass spectrometry. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1991 Apr;38(4):489-96. [PubMed:2031862 ]
  16. Heckmann M, Wudy SA, Haack D, Pohlandt F: Reference range for serum cortisol in well preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1999 Nov;81(3):F171-4. [PubMed:10525017 ]
  17. Turpeinen U, Markkanen H, Valimaki M, Stenman UH: Determination of urinary free cortisol by HPLC. Clin Chem. 1997 Aug;43(8 Pt 1):1386-91. [PubMed:9267318 ]
  18. Chrousos GP, Ghaly L, Shedden A, Iezzoni DG, Harris AG: Effects of mometasone furoate dry powder inhaler and beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane and chlorofluorocarbon on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in asthmatic subjects. Chest. 2005 Jul;128(1):70-7. [PubMed:16002918 ]
  19. Ritsner M, Gibel A, Maayan R, Ratner Y, Ram E, Biadsy H, Modai I, Weizman A: Cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone ratio and responses to antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Oct;30(10):1913-22. [PubMed:15870835 ]
  20. Seidegard J, Dahlstrom K, Kullberg A: Effect of grapefruit juice on urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol excretion. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1998 May;25(5):379-81. [PubMed:9612666 ]
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  22. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  23. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
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  25. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Has steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase activity. In addition to this activity, the 18 or 19-hydroxylation of steroids and the aromatization of androstendione to estrone have also been ascribed to cytochrome P450 XIB.
Gene Name:
CYP11B1
Uniprot ID:
P15538
Molecular weight:
57572.44
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Modulates intracellular glucocorticoid levels, thus protecting the nonselective mineralocorticoid receptor from occupation by glucocorticoids.
Gene Name:
HSD11B2
Uniprot ID:
P80365
Molecular weight:
44126.06
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of 7-ketocholesterol to 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol. In intact cells, the reaction runs only in one direction, from 7-ketocholesterol to 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HSD11B1
Uniprot ID:
P28845
Molecular weight:
32400.665
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Receptor for both mineralocorticoids (MC) such as aldosterone and glucocorticoids (GC) such as corticosterone or cortisol. Binds to mineralocorticoid response elements (MRE) and transactivates target genes. The effect of MC is to increase ion and water transport and thus raise extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure and lower potassium levels
Gene Name:
NR3C2
Uniprot ID:
P08235
Molecular weight:
107066.6
General function:
Involved in 3-beta-hydroxy-delta5-steroid dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
3-beta-HSD is a bifunctional enzyme, that catalyzes the oxidative conversion of Delta(5)-ene-3-beta-hydroxy steroid, and the oxidative conversion of ketosteroids. The 3-beta-HSD enzymatic system plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of all classes of hormonal steroids.
Gene Name:
HSD3B2
Uniprot ID:
P26439
Molecular weight:
42051.845
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
P450-CYP21B
Uniprot ID:
Q16874
Molecular weight:
56000.9
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP21A2
Uniprot ID:
Q08AG9
Molecular weight:
55972.9