Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (HMDB00112)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2005-11-16 08:48:42 -0700
Update Date 2013-02-08 17:07:54 -0700
HMDB ID HMDB00112
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Gamma-Aminobutyric acid
Description Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the nervous systems of widely divergent species. It is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system. In vertebrates, GABA acts at inhibitory synapses in the brain. GABA acts by binding to specific transmembrane receptors in the plasma membrane of both pre- and postsynaptic neurons. This binding causes the opening of ion channels to allow either the flow of negatively-charged chloride ions into the cell or positively-charged potassium ions out of the cell. This will typically result in a negative change in the transmembrane potential, usually causing hyperpolarization. Three general classes of GABA receptor are known. These include GABAA and GABAC ionotropic receptors, which are ion channels themselves, and GABAB metabotropic receptors, which are G protein-coupled receptors that open ion channels via intermediaries (G proteins). Neurons that produce GABA as their output are called GABAergic neurons, and have chiefly inhibitory action at receptors in the vertebrate. Medium Spiny Cells are a typical example of inhibitory CNS GABAergic cells. GABA exhibits excitatory actions in insects, mediating muscle activation at synapses between nerves and muscle cells and also the stimulation of certain glands. GABA has also been shown to have excitatory roles in the vertebrate, most notably in the developing cortex. Organisms synthesize GABA from glutamate using the enzyme L-glutamic acid decarboxylase and pyridoxal phosphate as a cofactor. It is worth noting that this involves converting the principal excitatory neurotransmitter (glutamate) into the principal inhibitory one (GABA). Drugs that act as agonists of GABA receptors (known as GABA analogues or GABAergic drugs) or increase the available amount of GABA typically have relaxing, anti-anxiety and anti-convulsive effects. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GABA) Doses of GABA 1 to 3 g orally also have been used effectively to raise the IQ of mentally retarded persons. GABA is found to be deficient in cerebrospinal fluid and brain in many studies of experimental and human epilepsy. Benzodiazepines (such as Valium) are useful in status epilepticus because they act on GABA receptors. GABA increases in the brain after administration of many seizure medications. Hence, GABA is clearly an antiepileptic nutrient. Inhibitors of GAM metabolism can also produce convulsions. Spasticity and involuntary movement syndromes, e.g., Parkinson's, Friedreich's ataxia, tardive dyskinesia, and Huntington's chorea are all marked by low GABA when amino acid levels are studied. Trials of 2 to 3 g of GABA given orally have been effective in various epilepsy and spasticity syndromes. Agents that elevate GABA also are useful in lowering hypertension. Three grams orally have been effective in control of blood pressure. GABA is decreased in various encephalopathies. GABA can reduce appetite and is decreased in hypoglycemics. GABA reduces blood sugar in diabetics. Chronic brain syndromes can also be marked by deficiency of GABA; GABA has many promising uses in therapy. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of GABA may be useful in diagnosing very serious diseases. Vitamin B6, manganese, taurine and lysine can increase both GABA synthesis and effects, while aspartic acid and glutamic acid probably inhibit GABA effects. (http://www.dcnutrition.com/AminoAcids/Detail.CFM)The brain's principal inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, along with serotonin and norepinephrine, is one of several neurotransmitters that appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety and mood disorders. There are two principal subtypes of postsynaptic GABA receptor complexes, the GABA-A and GABA-B receptor complexes. Activation of the GABA-B receptor by GABA causes neuronal membrane hyperpolarization and a resultant inhibition of neurotransmitter release. In addition to binding sites for GABA, the GABA-A receptor has binding sites for benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and neurosteroids. GABA-A receptors are coupled to chloride ion channels; activation of the receptor induces increased inward chloride ion flux, resulting in membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal inhibition. After release into the synapse, free GABA that does not bind to either the GABA-A or GABA-B receptor complexes can be taken up by neurons and glial cells. Four different membrane transporter proteins, known as GAT-1, GAT-2, GAT-3, and BGT-1, which differ in their distribution in the CNS, are believed to mediate the uptake of synaptic GABA into neurons and glial cells. The GABA-A receptor subtype regulates neuronal excitability and rapid changes in fear arousal, such as anxiety, panic, and the acute stress response. Drugs that stimulate GABA-A receptors, such as the benzodiazepines and barbiturates, have anxiolytic and anti-seizure effects via GABA-A-mediated reduction of neuronal excitability, which effectively raises the seizure threshold. In support of the anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effects of the GABA-A receptor are findings that GABA-A antagonists produce convulsions in animals and the demonstration that there is decreased GABA-A receptor binding in a positron emission tomography (PET) study of patients with panic disorder. Low plasma GABA has been reported in some depressed patients and, in fact, may be a useful trait marker for mood disorders. (The Role Of GABA In The Pathogenesis And Treatment Of Anxiety And Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders: http://www.vcu-cme.org/gaba/overview.html).
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. 3-Carboxypropylamine
  2. 4-Aminobutanoate
  3. 4-Aminobutanoic acid
  4. 4-Aminobutyrate
  5. 4-Aminobutyric acid
  6. Aminalon
  7. GABA
  8. Gaballon
  9. Gamarex
  10. gamma Aminobutyrate
  11. gamma Aminobutyric acid
  12. gamma-Aminobutyrate
  13. gamma-Aminobutyric acid
  14. Gammalon
  15. Gammalone
  16. Gammar
  17. Gammasol
  18. Mielogen
  19. Mielomade
  20. Omega-Aminobutyrate
  21. Omega-Aminobutyric acid
  22. Piperidate
  23. Piperidic acid
  24. Piperidinate
  25. Piperidinic acid
  26. w-Aminobutyrate
  27. w-Aminobutyric acid
Chemical Formula C4H9NO2
Average Molecular Weight 103.1198
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 103.063328537
IUPAC Name 4-aminobutanoic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name gamma(amino)-butyric acid
CAS Registry Number 56-12-2
SMILES NCCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/C4H9NO2/c5-3-1-2-4(6)7/h1-3,5H2,(H,6,7)
InChI Key BTCSSZJGUNDROE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Class Amino Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class Gamma Amino Acids and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Amino fatty acids(KEGG)
  • Amino fatty acids(Lipidmaps)
  • Biogenic amines(KEGG)
  • Other amino acids(KEGG)
  • amino acid zwitterion(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Primary Aliphatic Amine (Alkylamine)
Direct Parent Gamma Amino Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Alanine and aspartate metabolism
  • Component of Butanoate metabolism
  • Component of Glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Component of beta-Alanine metabolism
Application Not Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
Physical Properties
State Solid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point 203 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility 1300.0 mg/mL Not Available
LogP -3.17 HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
Water Solubility 365 g/L ALOGPS
LogP -2.99 ALOGPS
LogP -2.9 ChemAxon
LogS 0.55 ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic) 4.53 ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic) 10.22 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 3 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 2 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 63.32 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 3 ChemAxon
Refractivity 25.46 ChemAxon
Polarizability 10.62 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 0 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge 0 ChemAxon
Spectra
Gas-MS Spectrum
1H NMR Spectrum
13C NMR Spectrum
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 10
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 25
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 40
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Muscle
  • Fibroblasts
  • Neuron
  • Testes
  • Kidney
  • Epidermis
  • Brain
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Nerve Cells
  • Spleen
  • Hippocampus
Pathways
Name SMPDB Link KEGG Link
Glutamate Metabolism SMP00072 map00250 Link_out
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.110 +/- 0.023 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
1.0 (0.0-2.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.24 +/- 0.096 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.32 (0.2 -0.45) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.23 +/- 0.075 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.05 (0.00-0.10) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.093 (0.083-0.10) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Saliva Detected and Quantified
>10 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.09 +/- 0.10 umol/mmol creatinine Infant (0-1 year old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
<0.461 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.17 +/- 0.025 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.25 +/- 0.20 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
1.3 (0.0-2.8) umol/mmol creatinine Newborn (0-30 days old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.75 (0.00-1.50) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
103.89 (72.43 – 169.51) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Lorena Ivona...
Urine Detected and Quantified
2.9 (2.7-3.3) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.46 +/- 0.11 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Hepatic encephalopathy
Blood Detected and Quantified 1.45 (0.00-2.9) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both GABA transaminase deficiency
Blood Detected and Quantified 1.84 +/- 0.215 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Alzheimer's disease
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 0.13 +/- 0.043 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Spinocerebellar degeneration
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 1.5 +/- 1.1 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Epilepsy
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 0.1 (0.063 - 0.179) uM Children (1-13 year old) Not Specified Febrile convulsions
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 0.52 - 0.57 uM Children (1-13 year old) Not Specified Epilepsy
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 0.11 (0.067 - 0.176) uM Children (1-13 year old) Not Specified Epilepsy
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 2.4 (0.00-4.8) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both GABA transaminase deficiency
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 0.1 (0.061 - 0.171) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Comment Meningitis
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 0.016 uM Not Specified Not Specified Infant with typical pyridoxine-dependent seizures
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 4.0 +/- 4.2 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Epilepsy
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 0.0002 +/- 0.000013 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Tuberculous meningitis
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 0.00013 +/- 0.00002 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Meningitis
Urine Detected and Quantified 3.0 (1.5-4.5) umol/mmol creatinine Children (1-13 year old) Both Hyper beta-alaninemia
Urine Detected and Quantified 118.51 (63.24 – 247.72) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Type 1 diabetes Mellitus
  • Lorena Ivona...
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Tuberculous meningitis
  • Qureshi GA, Baig SM, Bednar I, Halawa A, Parvez SH: The neurochemical markers in cerebrospinal fluid to differentiate between aseptic and tuberculous meningitis. Neurochem Int. 1998 Feb;32(2):197-203. Pubmed: 9542731 Link_out
      Meningitis
      • Qureshi GA, Baig SM, Bednar I, Halawa A, Parvez SH: The neurochemical markers in cerebrospinal fluid to differentiate between aseptic and tuberculous meningitis. Neurochem Int. 1998 Feb;32(2):197-203. Pubmed: 9542731 Link_out
      • Rating D, Siemes H, Loscher W: Low CSF GABA concentration in children with febrile convulsions, untreated epilepsy, and meningitis. J Neurol. 1983;230(4):217-25. Pubmed: 6198481 Link_out
          Epilepsy
          • Spanaki MV, Siegel H, Kopylev L, Fazilat S, Dean A, Liow K, Ben-Menachem E, Gaillard WD, Theodore WH: The effect of vigabatrin (gamma-vinyl GABA) on cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Neurology. 1999 Oct 22;53(7):1518-22. Pubmed: 10534261 Link_out
          • Rating D, Siemes H, Loscher W: Low CSF GABA concentration in children with febrile convulsions, untreated epilepsy, and meningitis. J Neurol. 1983;230(4):217-25. Pubmed: 6198481 Link_out
              Febrile seizures
              • Rating D, Siemes H, Loscher W: Low CSF GABA concentration in children with febrile convulsions, untreated epilepsy, and meningitis. J Neurol. 1983;230(4):217-25. Pubmed: 6198481 Link_out
                  Alzheimer's disease
                  • Fonteh AN, Harrington RJ, Tsai A, Liao P, Harrington MG: Free amino acid and dipeptide changes in the body fluids from Alzheimer's disease subjects. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):213-24. Epub 2006 Oct 10. Pubmed: 17031479 Link_out
                      Hepatic encephalopathy
                      • Campollo O, MacGillivray BB, McIntyre N: [Association of plasma ammonia and GABA levels and the degree of hepatic encephalopathy] Rev Invest Clin. 1992 Oct-Dec;44(4):483-90. Pubmed: 1485027 Link_out
                          Gaba-transaminase deficiency
                              Hyper beta-alaninemia
                                  Associated OMIM IDs
                                  DrugBank ID DB02530 Link_out
                                  DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
                                  Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
                                  Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
                                  FoodDB ID FDB008937
                                  KNApSAcK ID C00001337 Link_out
                                  Chemspider ID 116 Link_out
                                  KEGG Compound ID C00334 Link_out
                                  BioCyc ID 4-AMINO-BUTYRATE Link_out
                                  BiGG ID 34652 Link_out
                                  Wikipedia Link GABA Link_out
                                  NuGOwiki Link HMDB00112 Link_out
                                  Metagene Link HMDB00112 Link_out
                                  METLIN ID Not Available
                                  PubChem Compound 119 Link_out
                                  PDB ID ABU Link_out
                                  ChEBI ID 16865 Link_out
                                  References
                                  Synthesis Reference Minoshima, Ryoichi. Preparation of gamma-aminobutyric acid with unripened beans. PCT Int. Appl. (2007), 25pp.
                                  Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Not Available
                                  General References
                                  1. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436 Link_out
                                  2. Zarnowska ED, Pearce RA, Saad AA, Perouansky M: The gamma-subunit governs the susceptibility of recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors to block by the nonimmobilizer 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane (F6, 2N). Anesth Analg. 2005 Aug;101(2):401-6, table of contents. Pubmed: 16037152 Link_out
                                  3. Levy LM, Levy-Reis I, Fujii M, Dalakas MC: Brain gamma-aminobutyric acid changes in stiff-person syndrome. Arch Neurol. 2005 Jun;62(6):970-4. Pubmed: 15956168 Link_out
                                  4. Hasler G, Neumeister A, van der Veen JW, Tumonis T, Bain EE, Shen J, Drevets WC, Charney DS: Normal prefrontal gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in remitted depressed subjects determined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Dec 15;58(12):969-73. Epub 2005 Jul 25. Pubmed: 16043137 Link_out
                                  5. Denda M, Inoue K, Inomata S, Denda S: gamma-Aminobutyric acid (A) receptor agonists accelerate cutaneous barrier recovery and prevent epidermal hyperplasia induced by barrier disruption. J Invest Dermatol. 2002 Nov;119(5):1041-7. Pubmed: 12445190 Link_out
                                  6. Wiens SC, Trudeau VL: Thyroid hormone and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interactions in neuroendocrine systems. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2006 Jul;144(3):332-44. Epub 2006 Mar 9. Pubmed: 16527506 Link_out
                                  7. Choi C, Coupland NJ, Hanstock CC, Ogilvie CJ, Higgins AC, Gheorghiu D, Allen PS: Brain gamma-aminobutyric acid measurement by proton double-quantum filtering with selective J rewinding. Magn Reson Med. 2005 Aug;54(2):272-9. Pubmed: 16032672 Link_out
                                  8. Metzeler K, Agoston A, Gratzl M: An Intrinsic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system in the adrenal cortex: findings from human and rat adrenal glands and the NCI-H295R cell line. Endocrinology. 2004 May;145(5):2402-11. Epub 2004 Jan 15. Pubmed: 14726441 Link_out
                                  9. Naini AB, Vontzalidou E, Cote LJ: Isocratic HPLC assay with electrochemical detection of free gamma-aminobutyric acid in cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem. 1993 Feb;39(2):247-50. Pubmed: 8432013 Link_out
                                  10. Levy LM, Henkin RI: Brain gamma-aminobutyric acid levels are decreased in patients with phantageusia and phantosmia demonstrated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2004 Nov-Dec;28(6):721-7. Pubmed: 15538143 Link_out
                                  11. Rating D, Siemes H, Loscher W: Low CSF GABA concentration in children with febrile convulsions, untreated epilepsy, and meningitis. J Neurol. 1983;230(4):217-25. Pubmed: 6198481 Link_out
                                  12. Spanaki MV, Siegel H, Kopylev L, Fazilat S, Dean A, Liow K, Ben-Menachem E, Gaillard WD, Theodore WH: The effect of vigabatrin (gamma-vinyl GABA) on cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Neurology. 1999 Oct 22;53(7):1518-22. Pubmed: 10534261 Link_out
                                  13. Campollo O, MacGillivray BB, McIntyre N: [Association of plasma ammonia and GABA levels and the degree of hepatic encephalopathy] Rev Invest Clin. 1992 Oct-Dec;44(4):483-90. Pubmed: 1485027 Link_out
                                  14. Nicholson-Guthrie CS, Guthrie GD, Sutton GP, Baenziger JC: Urine GABA levels in ovarian cancer patients: elevated GABA in malignancy. Cancer Lett. 2001 Jan 10;162(1):27-30. Pubmed: 11121859 Link_out
                                  15. Nisijima K, Ishiguro T: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of monoamine metabolites and gamma-aminobutyric acid in neuroleptic malignant syndrome. J Psychiatr Res. 1995 May-Jun;29(3):233-44. Pubmed: 7473299 Link_out

                                  Enzymes
                                  Name: 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
                                  Reactions:
                                  Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Succinic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamic acid details
                                  Gene Name: ABAT
                                  Uniprot ID: P80404 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: 4-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase
                                  Reactions:
                                  4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADH details
                                  4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NADP + Water unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
                                  4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
                                  Gene Name: ALDH9A1
                                  Uniprot ID: P49189 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase
                                  Reactions:
                                  4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NADP + Water unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
                                  4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
                                  Gene Name: ALDH7A1
                                  Uniprot ID: P49419 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: ALDH1A3
                                  Uniprot ID: P47895 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Aldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
                                  Reactions:
                                  4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NADP + Water unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
                                  4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
                                  Gene Name: ALDH2
                                  Uniprot ID: P05091 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase
                                  Reactions:
                                  4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NADP + Water unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
                                  4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
                                  Gene Name: ALDH3A2
                                  Uniprot ID: P51648 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Aldehyde dehydrogenase X, mitochondrial
                                  Reactions:
                                  4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NADP + Water unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
                                  4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
                                  Gene Name: ALDH1B1
                                  Uniprot ID: P30837 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Glycine amidinotransferase, mitochondrial
                                  Reactions:
                                  L-Arginine + Gamma-Aminobutyric acid unknown Ornithine + 4-Guanidinobutanoic acid details
                                  Gene Name: GATM
                                  Uniprot ID: P50440 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Glutamine synthetase
                                  Reactions:
                                  L-Glutamic acid unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + CO(2) details
                                  Gene Name: GLUL
                                  Uniprot ID: P15104 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Glutamate decarboxylase 2
                                  Reactions:
                                  L-Glutamic acid unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + CO(2) details
                                  L-Glutamic acid unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxide details
                                  Gene Name: GAD2
                                  Uniprot ID: Q05329 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Glutamate decarboxylase 1
                                  Reactions:
                                  L-Glutamic acid unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + CO(2) details
                                  L-Glutamic acid unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxide details
                                  Gene Name: GAD1
                                  Uniprot ID: Q99259 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Arginine decarboxylase
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: ADC
                                  Uniprot ID: Q96A70 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABRG2
                                  Uniprot ID: P18507 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABBR1
                                  Uniprot ID: Q9UBS5 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Probable glutamate--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: EARS2
                                  Uniprot ID: Q5JPH6 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 2
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABBR2
                                  Uniprot ID: O75899 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABRA1
                                  Uniprot ID: P14867 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABRA2
                                  Uniprot ID: P47869 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABRA3
                                  Uniprot ID: P34903 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABRA4
                                  Uniprot ID: P48169 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABRA5
                                  Uniprot ID: P31644 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABRA6
                                  Uniprot ID: Q16445 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABRB1
                                  Uniprot ID: P18505 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABRB2
                                  Uniprot ID: P47870 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABRB3
                                  Uniprot ID: P28472 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABRD
                                  Uniprot ID: O14764 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABRE
                                  Uniprot ID: P78334 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABRG1
                                  Uniprot ID: Q8N1C3 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABRG3
                                  Uniprot ID: Q99928 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABRP
                                  Uniprot ID: O00591 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABRR1
                                  Uniprot ID: P24046 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABRR2
                                  Uniprot ID: P28476 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABRR3
                                  Uniprot ID: A8MPY1 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABRQ
                                  Uniprot ID: Q9UN88 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Carnosine synthase 1
                                  Reactions:
                                  Adenosine triphosphate + L-Histidine + Gamma-Aminobutyric acid unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Homocarnosine details
                                  Gene Name: CARNS1
                                  Uniprot ID: A5YM72 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein-like 2
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABARAPL2
                                  Uniprot ID: P60520 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABARAP
                                  Uniprot ID: O95166 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                  Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein-like 1
                                  Reactions: Not Available
                                  Gene Name: GABARAPL1
                                  Uniprot ID: Q9H0R8 Link_out
                                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                  Gene Sequence: FASTA