You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-08-17 21:43:26 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00132
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGuanine
DescriptionGuanine is one of the five main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. Guanine is a derivative of purine, consisting of a fused pyrimidine-imidazole ring system with conjugated double bonds. Being unsaturated, the bicyclic molecule is planar. The guanine nucleoside is called guanosine. The first isolation of guanine was reported in 1844 from the excreta of sea birds, known as guano, which was used as a source of fertilizer. High affinity binding of guanine nucleotides and the ability to hydrolyze bound GTP to GDP are characteristics of an extended family of intracellular proteins. Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins may be involved in the activation of phospholipases C and A2 by hormones and other ligands. The binding of hormones to receptors that activate phospholipase C is decreased by guanine nucleotides and these hormones also stimulate a high-affinity GTPase activity in cell membranes. Effects of hormones on phospholipase C activity in cell-free preparations are dependent on the presence of guanine nucleotides. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT, EC 2.4.2.8) is a purine salvage enzyme that catalyses the conversion of hypoxanthine and guanine to their respective mononucleotides. Partial deficiency of this enzyme can result in the overproduction of uric acid leading to a severe form of gout, whilst a virtual absence of HPRT activity causes the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome which is characterised by hyperuricaemia, mental retardation, choreoathetosis and compulsive self-mutilation. Peroxynitrite induces DNA base damage predominantly at guanine (G) and 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) nucleobases via oxidation reactions. G and 8-oxoG are the most reactive bases toward Peroxynitrite and possibly the major contributors to peroxynitrite-derived genotoxic and mutagenic lesions. The neutral G radical, reacts with NO2 to yield 8-nitroguanine and 5-nitro-4-guanidinohydantoin. (PMID: 16352449 , 2435586 , 2838362 , 1487231 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-amino-6-HydroxypurineChEBI
2-amino-6-OxopurineChEBI
GChEBI
GuaChEBI
2-amino-1,7-dihydro-6H-Purin-6-oneHMDB
2-amino-1,9-dihydro-6H-Purin-6-oneHMDB
2-amino-1,9-dihydro-Purin-6-oneHMDB
2-amino-3,7-dihydro-6H-Purin-6-oneHMDB
2-amino-6-Hydroxy-1H-purineHMDB
2-amino-6-PurinolHMDB
2-amino-HypoxanthineHMDB
2-AminohypoxanthineHMDB
6-Hydroxy-2-aminopurineHMDB
C.I. natural white 1HMDB
CI natural white 1HMDB
Dew pearlHMDB
GuaninHMDB
Guanine enolHMDB
GUNHMDB
MearlmaidHMDB
Mearlmaid aaHMDB
Natural pearl essenceHMDB
Natural white 1HMDB
NaturonHMDB
PathocidinHMDB
Pearl essenceHMDB
Stella polarisHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H5N5O
Average Molecular Weight151.1261
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight151.049409807
IUPAC Name2-amino-6,7-dihydro-3H-purin-6-one
Traditional Name2-aminohypoxanthine
CAS Registry Number73-40-5
SMILES
NC1=NC(=O)C2=C(N1)N=CN2
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H5N5O/c6-5-9-3-2(4(11)10-5)7-1-8-3/h1H,(H4,6,7,8,9,10,11)
InChI KeyInChIKey=UYTPUPDQBNUYGX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hypoxanthines. These are compounds containing the purine derivative 1H-purin-6(9H)-one. Purine is a bicyclic aromatic compound made up of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassImidazopyrimidines
Sub ClassPurines and purine derivatives
Direct ParentHypoxanthines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hypoxanthine
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrimidine
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Lactam
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point360 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility2.08 mg/mL at 37 °CNot Available
LogP-0.91HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.31 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.92ALOGPS
logP-0.59ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.95ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.22ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area96.16 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity38.9 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability13.34 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0udi-1938000000-e15e09f2007f35659bb9View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0udi-3739000000-66a080b08ba9b9f82e20View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0901000000-2864e73c83444d566e9aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-2900000000-4229d3d01623054b4cebView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-d5ae84fefadd84f988b4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-7d48b2e8db6967e98407View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0uxr-0900000000-67a7784963ec75cecaa0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-4569516f23d8a712b434View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-d928cac1226f19b8edc3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-34059351f2cbd94a8accView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udj-0903100000-deb9c022884d7c98782eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-45d9db80ce4657ef1773View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-1900000000-86b7ee5755cbb8236f5bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-ba534850b64f39d81fa0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-422f992621ab9626d1b2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0f89-0900000000-64e388178db73f06cb20View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-e74c005384d71f4787e5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-de4a4c4479ea93d742b5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a5i-9800000000-da506476184e5c2313a4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-03d17084c3cb072c0237View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-2900000000-c372e3ba919cba4f561fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00kf-9200000000-8ac435f998deda6437e1View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0udi-8900000000-699c510cfaf838ab1922View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Neuron
  • Prostate
  • Spleen
  • Testes
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)SMP00535Not Available
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencySMP00144Not Available
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencySMP00167Not Available
AICA-RibosiduriaSMP00168Not Available
Azathioprine PathwaySMP00427Not Available
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeSMP00365Not Available
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)SMP00364Not Available
Mercaptopurine PathwaySMP00428Not Available
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeSMP00536Not Available
Molybdenum Cofactor DeficiencySMP00203Not Available
Myoadenylate deaminase deficiencySMP00537Not Available
Purine MetabolismSMP00050map00230
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencySMP00210Not Available
Thioguanine PathwaySMP00430Not Available
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)SMP00220Not Available
Xanthinuria type ISMP00512Not Available
Xanthinuria type IISMP00513Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified97 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableInfant (0-1 year old)Not AvailableNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.29 +/- 0.68 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.769 +/- 0.404 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.51 +/- 1.37 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.20 (0.085-0.26) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0-4 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.37 (0.18-0.57) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.36 +/- 0.14 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.20 +/- 0.33 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.93 +/- 0.35 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.92 (0.99-2.86) umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedBothLesch-Nyhan syndrome details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
  1. Ohdoi C, Nyhan WL, Kuhara T: Chemical diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jul 15;792(1):123-30. [12829005 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB02377
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB004222
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID744
KEGG Compound IDC00242
BioCyc IDGUANINE
BiGG ID34363
Wikipedia LinkGuanine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00132
Metagene LinkHMDB00132
METLIN ID315
PubChem Compound764
PDB IDGUN
ChEBI ID16235
References
Synthesis ReferenceXiao, Xuhua; Ma, Weiyong. One-pot synthesis of guanine. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2007), 10pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sculley DG, Dawson PA, Emmerson BT, Gordon RB: A review of the molecular basis of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency. Hum Genet. 1992 Nov;90(3):195-207. [1487231 ]
  2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
  3. Ohdoi C, Nyhan WL, Kuhara T: Chemical diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jul 15;792(1):123-30. [12829005 ]
  4. Boulias C, Moscarello MA: Guanine nucleotides stimulate hydrolysis of phosphatidyl inositol bis phosphate in human myelin membranes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989 Jul 14;162(1):282-7. [2546548 ]
  5. Harkness RA: Hypoxanthine, xanthine and uridine in body fluids, indicators of ATP depletion. J Chromatogr. 1988 Jul 29;429:255-78. [3062020 ]
  6. Castro-Gago M, Cid E, Trabazo S, Pavon P, Camina F, Rodriguez-Segade S, Einis Punal J, Rodriguez-Nunez A: Cerebrospinal fluid purine metabolites and pyrimidine bases after brief febrile convulsions. Epilepsia. 1995 May;36(5):471-4. [7614924 ]
  7. Steyn LM, Harley EH: Intracellular activity of HPRT Cape Town: purine uptake and growth of cultured cells in selective media. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1985;8(4):198-203. [3939543 ]
  8. Yafe A, Etzioni S, Weisman-Shomer P, Fry M: Formation and properties of hairpin and tetraplex structures of guanine-rich regulatory sequences of muscle-specific genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005 May 20;33(9):2887-900. Print 2005. [15908587 ]
  9. Russo TA, Jodush ST, Brown JJ, Johnson JR: Identification of two previously unrecognized genes (guaA and argC) important for uropathogenesis. Mol Microbiol. 1996 Oct;22(2):217-29. [8930907 ]
  10. Liu Z, Li T, Wang E: Simultaneous determination of guanine, uric acid, hypoxanthine and xanthine in human plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric detection. Analyst. 1995 Aug;120(8):2181-4. [7677251 ]
  11. Parkinson SJ, Waldman SA: An intracellular adenine nucleotide binding site inhibits guanyly cyclase C by a guanine nucleotide-dependent mechanism. Biochemistry. 1996 Mar 12;35(10):3213-21. [8605156 ]
  12. Rodriguez-Nunez A, Camina F, Lojo S, Rodriguez-Segade S, Castro-Gago M: Concentrations of nucleotides, nucleosides, purine bases and urate in cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis. Acta Paediatr. 1993 Oct;82(10):849-52. [8241644 ]
  13. Groopman JD, Zhu JQ, Donahue PR, Pikul A, Zhang LS, Chen JS, Wogan GN: Molecular dosimetry of urinary aflatoxin-DNA adducts in people living in Guangxi Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China. Cancer Res. 1992 Jan 1;52(1):45-52. [1727385 ]
  14. Shioya M, Wakabayashi K, Yamashita K, Nagao M, Sugimura T: Formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in DNA treated with fecapentaene-12 and -14. Mutat Res. 1989 Mar;225(3):91-4. [2927433 ]
  15. Allgayer H, Kolb M, Stuber V, Kruis W: Effects of bile acids on base hydroxylation in a model of human colonic mucosal DNA. Cancer Detect Prev. 2002;26(1):85-9. [12088208 ]
  16. Schei MA, Hessen JO, Lund E: House-dust mites and mattresses. Allergy. 2002 Jun;57(6):538-42. [12028120 ]
  17. Weimann A, Belling D, Poulsen HE: Quantification of 8-oxo-guanine and guanine as the nucleobase, nucleoside and deoxynucleoside forms in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 15;30(2):E7. [11788733 ]
  18. Niles JC, Wishnok JS, Tannenbaum SR: Peroxynitrite-induced oxidation and nitration products of guanine and 8-oxoguanine: structures and mechanisms of product formation. Nitric Oxide. 2006 Mar;14(2):109-21. Epub 2005 Dec 13. [16352449 ]
  19. Spiegel AM: Signal transduction by guanine nucleotide binding proteins. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1987 Jan;49(1):1-16. [2435586 ]
  20. Fain JN, Wallace MA, Wojcikiewicz RJ: Evidence for involvement of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins in the activation of phospholipases by hormones. FASEB J. 1988 Jul;2(10):2569-74. [2838362 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes a salvage reaction resulting in the formation of AMP, that is energically less costly than de novo synthesis.
Gene Name:
APRT
Uniprot ID:
P07741
Molecular weight:
19607.535
Reactions
Guanosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate → Guanine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Converts guanine to guanosine monophosphate, and hypoxanthine to inosine monophosphate. Transfers the 5-phosphoribosyl group from 5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate onto the purine. Plays a central role in the generation of purine nucleotides through the purine salvage pathway.
Gene Name:
HPRT1
Uniprot ID:
P00492
Molecular weight:
24579.155
Reactions
Guanosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate → Guanine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of guanine, producing xanthine and ammonia (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GDA
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2T3
Molecular weight:
52836.65
Reactions
Guanine + Water → Xanthine + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Involved in queuine tRNA-ribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Interacts with QTRTD1 to form an active queuine tRNA-ribosyltransferase. This enzyme exchanges queuine for the guanine at the wobble position of tRNAs with GU(N) anticodons (tRNA-Asp, -Asn, -His and -Tyr), thereby forming the hypermodified nucleoside queuosine (Q) (7-(((4,5-cis-dihydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-yl)amino)methyl)-7-deazaguanosine) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
QTRT1
Uniprot ID:
Q9BXR0
Molecular weight:
44047.3
Reactions
Guanine(34) in tRNA + Queuine → queuosine(34) in tRNA + Guaninedetails
tRNA guanine + Queuine → tRNA queuine + Guaninedetails
tRNA guanine + 7-Aminomethyl-7-carbaguanine → tRNA 7-aminomethyl-7-carbaguanine + Guaninedetails
General function:
Involved in GTP cyclohydrolase I activity
Specific function:
Positively regulates nitric oxide synthesis in umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). May be involved in dopamine synthesis. May modify pain sensitivity and persistence. Isoform GCH-1 is the functional enzyme, the potential function of the enzymatically inactive isoforms remains unknown.
Gene Name:
GCH1
Uniprot ID:
P30793
Molecular weight:
27902.855
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in signal transducer activity
Specific function:
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems. The G(s) protein is involved in hormonal regulation of adenylate cyclase:it activates the cyclase in response to beta-adrenergic stimuli
Gene Name:
GNAS
Uniprot ID:
P63092
Molecular weight:
45664.2
General function:
Involved in signal transducer activity
Specific function:
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems
Gene Name:
GNAQ
Uniprot ID:
P50148
Molecular weight:
42141.7
General function:
Involved in purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity
Specific function:
The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and pentose-1-phosphate.
Gene Name:
PNP
Uniprot ID:
P00491
Molecular weight:
32117.69
Reactions
Deoxyguanosine + Phosphoric acid → Guanine + Deoxyribose 1-phosphatedetails
Guanosine + Phosphoric acid → Guanine + Ribose 1-phosphatedetails
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in queuine tRNA-ribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Interacts with QTRT1 to form an active queuine tRNA-ribosyltransferase. This enzyme exchanges queuine for the guanine at the wobble position of tRNAs with GU(N) anticodons (tRNA-Asp, -Asn, -His and -Tyr), thereby forming the hypermodified nucleoside queuosine (Q) (7-(((4,5-cis-dihydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-yl)amino)methyl)-7-deazaguanosine) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
QTRTD1
Uniprot ID:
Q9H974
Molecular weight:
48203.07
Reactions
Guanine(34) in tRNA + Queuine → queuosine(34) in tRNA + Guaninedetails
tRNA guanine + Queuine → tRNA queuine + Guaninedetails
tRNA guanine + 7-Aminomethyl-7-carbaguanine → tRNA 7-aminomethyl-7-carbaguanine + Guaninedetails
General function:
Involved in signal transducer activity
Specific function:
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems. The G(i) proteins are involved in hormonal regulation of adenylate cyclase:they inhibit the cyclase in response to beta-adrenergic stimuli
Gene Name:
GNAI1
Uniprot ID:
P63096
Molecular weight:
40360.7