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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:49 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 05:59:41 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0014344
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB14344
Metabolite Identification
Common NameErythromycin
DescriptionErythromycin, also known as adrenaline or epifrin, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as catechols. Catechols are compounds containing a 1,2-benzenediol moiety. Erythromycin is a drug. Erythromycin is a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa). Orally administered erythromycin base and its salts are readily absorbed in the microbiologically active form. Erythromycin exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. Translocation of peptides from the “A” or acceptor site to the “P” or donor site is prevented, and subsequent protein synthesis is inhibited. In humans, erythromycin is involved in erythromycin action pathway. Erythromycin is a potentially toxic compound. Topical application of the ophthalmic ointment to the eye may result in absorption into the cornea and aqueous humor. Erythromycin is partially metabolized by CYP3A4 resulting in numerous drug interactions. Extensively metabolized - after oral administration, less than 5% of the administered dose can be recovered in the active form in the urine. The exact mechanism by which erythmromycin reduces lesions of acne vulgaris is not fully known: however, the effect appears to be due in part to the antibacterial activity of the drug. Erythromycin acts by penetrating the bacterial cell membrane and reversibly binding to the 50 S subunit of bacterial ribosomes or near the “P” or donor site so that binding of tRNA (transfer RNA) to the donor site is blocked.
Structure
Data?1563861581
Synonyms
ValueSource
Epinephrine hydrochlorideChEBI
L-Adrenaline hydrochlorideChEBI
L-Epinephrine hydrochlorideChEBI
Adrenalin chlorideKegg
AdrenalineHMDB
Adrenaline bitartrateHMDB
Adrenaline hydrochlorideHMDB
EpifrinHMDB
Epinephrine bitartrateHMDB
LyophrinHMDB
4-(1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl)-1,2-benzenediolHMDB
EpinephrineHMDB
Epinephrine acetateHMDB
Acetate, epinephrineHMDB
Adrenaline acid tartrateHMDB
Epinephrine hydrogen tartrateHMDB
EpitrateHMDB
Medihaler-epiHMDB
Allergan brand OF adrenaline hydrochlorideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC37H67NO13
Average Molecular Weight733.9268
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight733.461241235
IUPAC Name4-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]benzene-1,2-diol hydrochloride
Traditional Nameepinephrine hydrochloride
CAS Registry Number114-07-8
SMILES
CC[C@H]1OC(=O)[C@H](C)[C@@H](O[C@H]2C[C@@](C)(OC)[C@@H](O)[C@H](C)O2)[C@H](C)[C@@H](O[C@@H]2O[C@H](C)C[C@@H]([C@H]2O)N(C)C)[C@](C)(O)C[C@@H](C)C(=O)[C@H](C)[C@@H](O)[C@]1(C)O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C37H67NO13/c1-14-25-37(10,45)30(41)20(4)27(39)18(2)16-35(8,44)32(51-34-28(40)24(38(11)12)15-19(3)47-34)21(5)29(22(6)33(43)49-25)50-26-17-36(9,46-13)31(42)23(7)48-26/h18-26,28-32,34,40-42,44-45H,14-17H2,1-13H3/t18-,19-,20+,21+,22-,23+,24+,25-,26+,28-,29+,30-,31+,32-,34+,35-,36-,37-/m1/s1
InChI KeyULGZDMOVFRHVEP-RWJQBGPGSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as catechols. Catechols are compounds containing a 1,2-benzenediol moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassPhenols
Sub ClassBenzenediols
Direct ParentCatechols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Catechol
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Aralkylamine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Secondary amine
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic alcohol
  • Hydrochloride
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Source:

Route of exposure:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Environmental role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point191 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.46 g/LNot Available
LogP3.06MCFARLAND,JW ET AL. (1997)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.46 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.43ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.69ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.91ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area72.72 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity49.23 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability18.83 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - DI-ESI-Ion Trap , Positivesplash10-00di-2901000023-e1b4c2a4d54a44d851b1Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - DI-ESI-Hybrid FT , Positivesplash10-00di-2901000023-e1b4c2a4d54a44d851b1Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0a7i-0900070700-45f1a3bf3aac26069507Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0a4i-0900020000-c282d6a703a3a812c91aSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-b11e26802dca28ea88f0Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-5ea1e94063a49c0d6ddbSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0000090000-f0fcdc5ed4d00170f2a3Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-001i-0200000900-439b7d31b57ea93dff40Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0a59-4900000000-1cb488a53f50cba638cfSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-001i-9700000000-239fd7095409362c75bcSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-37757a9a6c61ec2bac1bSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-2d04ae69b21d82ee0763Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-2d04ae69b21d82ee0763Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-053r-0500000900-20a1c46dfdef404c9d3eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0a59-5900000000-c7e9166d7e79e23023a5Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-053r-9800000000-07e4c66bcd0be93f7c09Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-001i-9200000000-553fb27002eceacb9270Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-9725c29b26f7cbbef576Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-2d04ae69b21d82ee0763Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-0090000000-4c8f943d869f13c9bb1cSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-0090000000-4c8f943d869f13c9bb1cSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-0090000000-4c8f943d869f13c9bb1cSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0090000000-1a30917d4f392e75cfd3Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-0090000000-1a30917d4f392e75cfd3Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-014i-0090000000-1a30917d4f392e75cfd3Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00199 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00199 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiospecimenValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0.000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0.000 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDBSALT001484
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkErythromycin
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound441411
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID6213
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Kanazawa S, Ohkubo T, Sugawara K: The effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of erythromycin. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2001 Jan-Feb;56(11):799-803. [PubMed:11294369 ]
  2. Ogwal S, Xide TU: Bioavailability and stability of erythromycin delayed release tablets. Afr Health Sci. 2001 Dec;1(2):90-6. [PubMed:12789122 ]
  3. Okudaira T, Kotegawa T, Imai H, Tsutsumi K, Nakano S, Ohashi K: Effect of the treatment period with erythromycin on cytochrome P450 3A activity in humans. J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Jul;47(7):871-6. [PubMed:17585116 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Ekins S, Bravi G, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship analysis of cytochrome P-450 3A4 substrates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):424-33. [PubMed:10490933 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular weight:
57108.065
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular weight:
57525.03
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o- glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular weight:
171589.5
References
  1. Terashi K, Oka M, Soda H, Fukuda M, Kawabata S, Nakatomi K, Shiozawa K, Nakamura T, Tsukamoto K, Noguchi Y, Suenaga M, Tei C, Kohno S: Interactions of ofloxacin and erythromycin with the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) in MRP-overexpressing human leukemia cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000 Jun;44(6):1697-700. [PubMed:10817732 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Schuetz EG, Beck WT, Schuetz JD: Modulators and substrates of P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P4503A coordinately up-regulate these proteins in human colon carcinoma cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1996 Feb;49(2):311-8. [PubMed:8632764 ]
  2. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. [PubMed:11602674 ]
  3. Ekins S, Kim RB, Leake BF, Dantzig AH, Schuetz EG, Lan LB, Yasuda K, Shepard RL, Winter MA, Schuetz JD, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships of inhibitors of P-glycoprotein. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 May;61(5):964-73. [PubMed:11961113 ]
  4. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [PubMed:12699389 ]
  5. Takano M, Hasegawa R, Fukuda T, Yumoto R, Nagai J, Murakami T: Interaction with P-glycoprotein and transport of erythromycin, midazolam and ketoconazole in Caco-2 cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 1998 Oct 9;358(3):289-94. [PubMed:9822896 ]
  6. Kim RB, Wandel C, Leake B, Cvetkovic M, Fromm MF, Dempsey PJ, Roden MM, Belas F, Chaudhary AK, Roden DM, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR: Interrelationship between substrates and inhibitors of human CYP3A and P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 1999 Mar;16(3):408-14. [PubMed:10213372 ]
  7. Asakura E, Nakayama H, Sugie M, Zhao YL, Nadai M, Kitaichi K, Shimizu A, Miyoshi M, Takagi K, Takagi K, Hasegawa T: Azithromycin reverses anticancer drug resistance and modifies hepatobiliary excretion of doxorubicin in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Jan 26;484(2-3):333-9. [PubMed:14744620 ]
  8. Yasuda K, Lan LB, Sanglard D, Furuya K, Schuetz JD, Schuetz EG: Interaction of cytochrome P450 3A inhibitors with P-glycoprotein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Oct;303(1):323-32. [PubMed:12235267 ]
  9. Dahan A, Sabit H, Amidon GL: The H2 receptor antagonist nizatidine is a P-glycoprotein substrate: characterization of its intestinal epithelial cell efflux transport. AAPS J. 2009 Jun;11(2):205-13. doi: 10.1208/s12248-009-9092-5. Epub 2009 Mar 25. [PubMed:19319690 ]
  10. Sun H, Huang Y, Frassetto L, Benet LZ: Effects of uremic toxins on hepatic uptake and metabolism of erythromycin. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Nov;32(11):1239-46. Epub 2004 Jul 30. [PubMed:15286055 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular weight:
74144.1
References
  1. Cvetkovic M, Leake B, Fromm MF, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: OATP and P-glycoprotein transporters mediate the cellular uptake and excretion of fexofenadine. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Aug;27(8):866-71. [PubMed:10421612 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, allopurinol, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, L-ascorbic acid, salicylate, ethotrexate, and alpha- ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y694
Molecular weight:
60025.0
References
  1. Kobayashi Y, Sakai R, Ohshiro N, Ohbayashi M, Kohyama N, Yamamoto T: Possible involvement of organic anion transporter 2 on the interaction of theophylline with erythromycin in the human liver. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 May;33(5):619-22. Epub 2005 Feb 11. [PubMed:15708966 ]
  2. Kobayashi Y, Ohshiro N, Shibusawa A, Sasaki T, Tokuyama S, Sekine T, Endou H, Yamamoto T: Isolation, characterization and differential gene expression of multispecific organic anion transporter 2 in mice. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;62(1):7-14. [PubMed:12065749 ]