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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:02:07 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00150
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGluconolactone
DescriptionGluconolactone is a lactone or oxidized derivative of glucose. Gluconolactone is a polyhydroxy acid (PHA) that is capable of chelating metals and may also function by scavenging free radicals, thereby protecting skin from some of the damaging effects of UV radiation. Also used as a pheromone by the oriental cockroach.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-Trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-oneChEBI
1,5-D-GluconolactoneChEBI
1,5-GluconolactoneChEBI
D-AldonolactoneChEBI
D-Gluconic acid delta-lactoneChEBI
D-Gluconic acid lactoneChEBI
D-GluconolactoneChEBI
D-threo-aldono-1,5-LactoneChEBI
delta-D-GluconolactoneChEBI
delta-GluconolactoneChEBI
GlucarolactoneChEBI
Gluconic acid lactoneChEBI
Gluconic delta-lactoneChEBI
Gluconic lactoneChEBI
GluconolactoneChEBI
D-Gluconate delta-lactoneGenerator
D-Gluconate δ-lactoneGenerator
D-Gluconic acid δ-lactoneGenerator
D-Gluconate lactoneGenerator
δ-D-gluconolactoneGenerator
δ-gluconolactoneGenerator
Gluconate lactoneGenerator
Gluconic δ-lactoneGenerator
1,5-delta-GluconolactoneHMDB
3,4,5-Trihydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydro-pyran-2-oneHMDB
beta-glucono-1,5-LactoneHMDB
D(+)-Gluconic acid gamma-lactoneHMDB
D-(+)-Gluconic acid D-lactoneHMDB
D-(+)-Gluconic acid-delta lactoneHMDB
D-delta-GluconolactoneHMDB
D-Gluconic acid 1,5-lactoneHMDB
D-Gluconic acid D-lactoneHMDB
D-Gluconic acid-1,5-lactoneHMDB
D-Gluconic acid-delta-lactoneHMDB
D-Gluconic delta-lactoneHMDB
D-glucono-1,5-LactoneHMDB
D-glucono-D-LactoneHMDB
delta-(+)-Gluconic acid D-lactoneHMDB
delta-(+)-Gluconic acid-delta lactoneHMDB
delta-AldonolactoneHMDB
delta-delta-GluconolactoneHMDB
delta-Gluconic acid 1,5-lactoneHMDB
delta-Gluconic acid D-lactoneHMDB
delta-Gluconic acid delta-lactoneHMDB
delta-Gluconic acid lactoneHMDB
delta-Gluconic acid-1,5-lactoneHMDB
delta-Gluconic acid-delta-lactoneHMDB
delta-Gluconic delta-lactoneHMDB
delta-glucono-1,5-LactoneHMDB
delta-glucono-delta-LactoneHMDB
FujigluconHMDB
gamma-GluconolactoneHMDB
Gluconate, lactoneHMDB
glucono 1,5-LactoneHMDB
glucono delta LactoneHMDB
glucono delta-LactoneHMDB
glucono gamma-LactoneHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H10O6
Average Molecular Weight178.14
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight178.047738052
IUPAC Name(3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-one
Traditional Namegluconolactone
CAS Registry Number90-80-2
SMILES
OC[C@H]1OC(=O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H10O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-5,7-10H,1H2/t2-,3-,4+,5-/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=PHOQVHQSTUBQQK-SQOUGZDYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as gluconolactones. These are polyhydroxy acids containing a gluconolactone molecule, which is characterized by a tetrahydropyran substituted by three hydroxyl groups, one ketone group, and one hydroxymethyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Sub ClassMonosaccharides
Direct ParentGluconolactones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Gluconolactone
  • Delta_valerolactone
  • Delta valerolactone
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Lactone
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • 1,2-diol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point151 - 155 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility590.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility586.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.2ALOGPS
logP-2.7ChemAxon
logS0.52ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.62ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area107.22 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity34.78 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability15.63 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0002-0932000000-0b9d34fd1930d30adac9View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-005a-0920000000-48470ef74f46934597a0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-014j-0950000000-483acf515b56ae5dc886View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-0fvi-1952000000-f92fb779cdb5daa45f09View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-001i-5900000000-443ab6dcdad04641cb49View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0avl-9000000000-5aba2e27767b74e7e315View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-052f-9000000000-081648ead7bc8b21d941View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00518Not Available
Pentose Phosphate PathwaySMP00031map00030
Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiencySMP00519Not Available
Transaldolase deficiencySMP00520Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.5 (0.0-1.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Prostate Cancer
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Prostate cancer
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB001245
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID6760
KEGG Compound IDC00198
BioCyc IDGLC-D-LACTONE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGluconolactone
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00150
Metagene LinkHMDB00150
METLIN ID353
PubChem Compound7027
PDB IDLGC
ChEBI ID16217
References
Synthesis ReferenceChu, Lijia. Technology for industrial production of d-gluconolactone. Shipin Kexue (Beijing, China) (1985), 66 13-14.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Rakotomanga S, Baillet A, Pellerin F, Baylocq-Ferrier D: Simultaneous determination of gluconolactone, galactonolactone and galactitol in urine by reversed-phase liquid chromatography: application to galactosemia. J Chromatogr. 1991 Oct 4;570(2):277-84. [1797843 ]
  2. Harkness RA, Purkiss P, Duffy S, Chalmers RA, Jones M: The effects of fetal energy depletion on amniotic fluid concentrations of amino acids, organic acids and related metabolites. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1988;11(1):103-13. [3128683 ]
  3. Hunt MJ, Barnetson RS: A comparative study of gluconolactone versus benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of acne. Australas J Dermatol. 1992;33(3):131-4. [1303072 ]
  4. Steinberg KK, Needham LL: A comparison of two methods for quantifying D-glucaric acid. J Anal Toxicol. 1986 Jul-Aug;10(4):139-41. [3747452 ]
  5. Friedrich T, Strohdeicher M, Hofhaus G, Preis D, Sahm H, Weiss H: The same domain motif for ubiquinone reduction in mitochondrial or chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase and bacterial glucose dehydrogenase. FEBS Lett. 1990 Jun 4;265(1-2):37-40. [2142103 ]
  6. Puri RN, Zhou FX, Colman RF, Colman RW: Plasmin-induced platelet aggregation is accompanied by cleavage of aggregin and indirectly mediated by calpain. Am J Physiol. 1990 Dec;259(6 Pt 1):C862-8. [2148055 ]
  7. van Weely S, Brandsma M, Strijland A, Tager JM, Aerts JM: Demonstration of the existence of a second, non-lysosomal glucocerebrosidase that is not deficient in Gaucher disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Mar 24;1181(1):55-62. [8457606 ]
  8. MacNeil ML, Steinberg KK, Yeager PR, Smith SJ: A semiautomated procedure for urinary D-glucaric acid using a centrifugal analyzer. J Anal Toxicol. 1986 Jan-Feb;10(1):15-7. [3951202 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in 6-phosphogluconolactonase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolysis of 6-phosphogluconolactone to 6-phosphogluconate.
Gene Name:
PGLS
Uniprot ID:
O95336
Molecular weight:
27546.495
General function:
Involved in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Produces pentose sugars for nucleic acid synthesis and main producer of NADPH reducing power.
Gene Name:
G6PD
Uniprot ID:
P11413
Molecular weight:
62467.88
General function:
Involved in 6-phosphogluconolactonase activity
Specific function:
Oxidizes glucose-6-phosphate and glucose, as well as other hexose-6-phosphates.
Gene Name:
H6PD
Uniprot ID:
O95479
Molecular weight:
88891.99
Reactions
Beta-D-Glucose + NAD(P)(+) → Gluconolactone + NAD(P)Hdetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorylase activity
Specific function:
Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties.
Gene Name:
PYGL
Uniprot ID:
P06737
Molecular weight:
93133.25
General function:
Involved in phosphorylase activity
Specific function:
Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties.
Gene Name:
PYGM
Uniprot ID:
P11217
Molecular weight:
87316.355
General function:
Involved in phosphorylase activity
Specific function:
Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties.
Gene Name:
PYGB
Uniprot ID:
P11216
Molecular weight:
96695.18
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Gluconolactonase with low activity towards other sugar lactones, including gulonolactone and galactonolactone. Can also hydrolyze diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate and phenylacetate (in vitro). Calcium-binding protein. Modulates Ca(2+) signaling, and Ca(2+)-dependent cellular processes and enzyme activities (By similarity).
Gene Name:
RGN
Uniprot ID:
Q15493
Molecular weight:
33252.53
Reactions
Gluconolactone + Water → Gluconic aciddetails