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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:02:27 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00267
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePyroglutamic acid
DescriptionPyroglutamic acid is a cyclized derivative of L-glutamic acid. It is an uncommon amino acid derivative in which the free amino group of glutamic acid cyclizes to form a lactam. It is formed nonenzymatically from glutamate, glutamine, and gamma-glutamylated peptides, but it can also be produced by the action of gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase on an L-amino acid. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of glutamine or glutathione metabolism. This compound is found in substantial amounts in brain tissue and other tissue in bound form, especially skin. Also present in plant tissues. It is sold, over the counter, as a "smart drug" for improving blood circulation in the brain.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(-)-2-Pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acidChEBI
(S)-(-)-2-Pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acidChEBI
(S)-Pyroglutamic acidChEBI
5-Pyrrolidone-2-carboxylic acidChEBI
L-5-Pyrrolidone-2-carboxylic acidChEBI
L-Pyroglutamic acidChEBI
Pidolic acidChEBI
PyroglutamateChEBI
Pyroglutamic acidChEBI
(-)-2-Pyrrolidone-5-carboxylateGenerator
(2S)-5-Oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylateGenerator
(S)-(-)-2-Pyrrolidone-5-carboxylateGenerator
(S)-PyroglutamateGenerator
5-Pyrrolidone-2-carboxylateGenerator
L-5-Pyrrolidone-2-carboxylateGenerator
L-PyroglutamateGenerator
PidolateGenerator
(-)-PyroglutamateHMDB
(-)-Pyroglutamic acidHMDB
(5S)-2-Oxopyrrolidine-5-carboxylateHMDB
(5S)-2-Oxopyrrolidine-5-carboxylic acidHMDB
(S)-(-)-g-Butyrolactam-g-carboxylateHMDB
(S)-(-)-g-Butyrolactam-g-carboxylic acidHMDB
(S)-(-)-gamma-Butyrolactam-gamma-carboxylateHMDB
(S)-(-)-gamma-Butyrolactam-gamma-carboxylic acidHMDB
(S)-2-Pyrrolidone-5-carboxylateHMDB
(S)-2-Pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acidHMDB
(S)-5-oxo-2-PyrrolidinecarboxylateHMDB
(S)-5-oxo-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acidHMDB
2-L-Pyrrolidone-5-carboxylateHMDB
2-L-Pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acidHMDB
2-Oxopyrrolidine-5(S)-carboxylateHMDB
2-Oxopyrrolidine-5(S)-carboxylic acidHMDB
2-Pyrrolidinone-5-carboxylateHMDB
2-Pyrrolidinone-5-carboxylic acidHMDB
5-Carboxy-2-pyrrolidinoneHMDB
5-L-OxoprolineHMDB
5-oxo-L-ProlineHMDB
5-OxoprolineHMDB
5-Pyrrolidinone-2-carboxylateHMDB
5-Pyrrolidinone-2-carboxylic acidHMDB
Ajidew a 100HMDB
GlutimateHMDB
Glutimic acidHMDB
GlutiminateHMDB
Glutiminic acidHMDB
L-2-Pyrrolidone-5-carboxylateHMDB
L-2-Pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acidHMDB
L-5-Carboxy-2-pyrrolidinoneHMDB
L-5-oxo-2-PyrrolidinecarboxylateHMDB
L-5-oxo-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acidHMDB
L-5-OxoprolineHMDB
L-Glutamic acid g-lactamHMDB
L-GlutimateHMDB
L-Glutimic acidHMDB
L-GlutiminateHMDB
L-Glutiminic acidHMDB
L-PyrrolidinonecarboxylateHMDB
L-Pyrrolidinonecarboxylic acidHMDB
L-PyrrolidonecarboxylateHMDB
L-Pyrrolidonecarboxylic acidHMDB
OxoprolineHMDB
OxopyrrolidinecarboxylateHMDB
Oxopyrrolidinecarboxylic acidHMDB
PidolidoneHMDB
PyrrolidinonecarboxylateHMDB
Pyrrolidinonecarboxylic acidHMDB
Pyrrolidone-5-carboxylateHMDB
Pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acidHMDB
Pyrrolidonecarboxylic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H7NO3
Average Molecular Weight129.114
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight129.042593095
IUPAC Name(2S)-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional Namepyroglutamic acid
CAS Registry Number98-79-3
SMILES
OC(=O)[C@@H]1CCC(=O)N1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H7NO3/c7-4-2-1-3(6-4)5(8)9/h3H,1-2H2,(H,6,7)(H,8,9)/t3-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=ODHCTXKNWHHXJC-VKHMYHEASA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon), or a derivative thereof.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentAlpha amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid
  • Oxoproline
  • 2-pyrrolidone
  • Pyrrolidone
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Lactam
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Glutathione metabolism
  • Essential amino acid
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility476.0 mg/mL at 13 °CNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility151.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1ALOGPS
logP-0.89ChemAxon
logS0.07ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.4 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity28.09 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.56 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0ab9-8900000000-f79dc90370ba38f587c9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9500000000-ebc64308ec5d5bdb303eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-053r-9000000000-7377cb17491942e9589cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-053u-9000000000-fcab1396867356ebd6aeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-5b0c6536e1b3217b8544View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-c30ac0bd264c8007ef92View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-004i-5900000000-ea3a164653e4235716aeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0f89-9000000000-f6620738e68f990d0594View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0udi-9000000000-7937bee2e9a6d6b29cbdView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-f20401903b234914b936View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-9446bb65e0edd72cfd59View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0059-7900000000-74eccdeb9f0d5fd17614View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0f8a-9000000000-8786a9cd5e488192f34dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0f6t-9000000000-ebcc1ac4acd525218e80View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-01q9-2900000000-754ae9b699ec1b22cd76View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-9300000000-eabb8c4dc0d1111e0431View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-00lr-9100000000-1dd17702aee7e5bce618View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-067i-9000000000-c9669794d3a8746be498View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-9e103abb0a6ed890051eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-03e9-3900000000-da8cf252285c1d616586View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-01q9-9400000000-96a7fe5a81188c49d1baView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-356215339a43217dea66View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-02vl-9000000000-ed47ec6e675eb338da19View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-f647da344adbdf7bfb1bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-001i-9200000000-0bddc68d58c6fb981d1aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-c70c79fa828bbf137ebcView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Prostate
  • Skin
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
5-oxoprolinase deficiencySMP00500Not Available
5-OxoprolinuriaSMP00143Not Available
Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase deficiencySMP00501Not Available
Gamma-Glutamyltransferase DeficiencySMP00183Not Available
Glutathione MetabolismSMP00015map00480
Glutathione Synthetase DeficiencySMP00337Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified19.5 +/- 3.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified47 +/- 30 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified41.0 +/- 31.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified30.19 +/- 31.32 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified47.641 +/- 19.524 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified40.428 +/- 19.331 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified20.7 (10.2-32.6) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified<79.14 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified14.0 +/- 7.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.3 (0.1-29.3) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified24.1 (3.4-54.2) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.3 (2.9-10.4) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.1 (1.9-11.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified18.6 (4.5-24.9) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified87.00 (13.00-161.00) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothGlutathione synthetase deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified3.5 (3.00-4.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothGlutathione synthetase deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2326.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothPyroglutamic aciduria details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Cryptosporidium infection
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
UrineDetected and Quantified28.8 (3.4-54.2) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both5-oxoprolinase deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified3500.0 (1000.0-6000.0) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both5-Oxoprolinase Deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified34.75 +/- 17.53 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) details
UrineDetected and Quantified17000.00 (4000.00-30000.00) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothGlutathione synthetase deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.9 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothPyroglutamic aciduria details
UrineDetected and Quantified47.522 +/- 35.017 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified80.794 +/- 83.738 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Glutathione synthetase deficiency
  1. Jellum E, Stokke O, Eldjarn L: Combined use of gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and computer in diagnosis and studies of metabolic disorders. Clin Chem. 1972 Aug;18(8):800-9. [4557757 ]
  2. Wevers RA, Engelke U, Heerschap A: High-resolution 1H-NMR spectroscopy of blood plasma for metabolic studies. Clin Chem. 1994 Jul;40(7 Pt 1):1245-50. [8013094 ]
  3. MetaGene [Link]
5-oxoprolinase deficiency
  1. MetaGene [Link]
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 266130 (Glutathione synthetase deficiency)
  • 260005 (5-oxoprolinase deficiency)
DrugBank IDDB03088
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB014506
KNApSAcK IDC00007403
Chemspider ID7127
KEGG Compound IDC01879
BioCyc IDCPD-589
BiGG ID1800372
Wikipedia LinkPyroglutamic acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00267
Metagene LinkHMDB00267
METLIN ID3251
PubChem Compound7405
PDB IDPCA
ChEBI ID18183
References
Synthesis ReferencePumpor, Ksenia; Boettcher, Christoph; Fehn, Susanna; Burger, Klaus. Hexafluoroacetone as protecting and activating reagent: an efficient strategy for activation of pyroglutamic acid and homologs.Heterocycles (2003), 61 259-269.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
  2. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. [8087979 ]
  3. Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(4):648-69. [8412012 ]
  4. Jellum E, Stokke O, Eldjarn L: Combined use of gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and computer in diagnosis and studies of metabolic disorders. Clin Chem. 1972 Aug;18(8):800-9. [4557757 ]
  5. Wevers RA, Engelke U, Heerschap A: High-resolution 1H-NMR spectroscopy of blood plasma for metabolic studies. Clin Chem. 1994 Jul;40(7 Pt 1):1245-50. [8013094 ]
  6. Manning NJ, Davies NP, Olpin SE, Carpenter KH, Smith MF, Pollitt RJ, Duncan SL, Larsson A, Carlsson B: Prenatal diagnosis of glutathione synthase deficiency. Prenat Diagn. 1994 Jun;14(6):475-8. [7937585 ]
  7. Caspers PJ, Lucassen GW, Carter EA, Bruining HA, Puppels GJ: In vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the skin: noninvasive determination of molecular concentration profiles. J Invest Dermatol. 2001 Mar;116(3):434-42. [11231318 ]
  8. Hussain Z, Lannigan R, Stoakes L: A new approach for presumptive identification of clinically important streptococci. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg [A]. 1984 Oct;258(1):74-9. [6441390 ]
  9. Creer MH, Lau BW, Jones JD, Chan KM: Pyroglutamic acidemia in an adult patient. Clin Chem. 1989 Apr;35(4):684-6. [2702756 ]
  10. Hammond JW, Potter M, Truscott R, Wilcken B: gamma-Glutamylglutamine identified in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid from hyperammonaemic patients. Clin Chim Acta. 1990 Dec 24;194(2-3):173-83. [2093471 ]
  11. Uhlhaas S, Lange H: Striatal deficiency of L-pyroglutamic acid in Huntington's disease is accompanied by increased plasma levels. Brain Res. 1988 Aug 2;457(1):196-9. [2971422 ]
  12. Croal BL, Glen AC, Kelly CJ, Logan RW: Transient 5-oxoprolinuria (pyroglutamic aciduria) with systemic acidosis in an adult receiving antibiotic therapy. Clin Chem. 1998 Feb;44(2):336-40. [9474033 ]
  13. Winslow JW, Shih A, Bourell JH, Weiss G, Reed B, Stults JT, Goldsmith LT: Human seminal relaxin is a product of the same gene as human luteal relaxin. Endocrinology. 1992 May;130(5):2660-8. [1572287 ]
  14. Erasmus E, Mienie LJ, de Vries WN, de Wet WJ, Carlsson B, Larsson A: Prenatal analysis in two suspected cases of glutathione synthetase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(5):837-43. [8295398 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in peptidase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the biosynthesis of pyroglutamyl peptides. Has a bias against acidic and tryptophan residues adjacent to the N-terminal glutaminyl residue and a lack of importance of chain length after the second residue. Also catalyzes N-terminal pyroglutamate formation. In vitro, catalyzes pyroglutamate formation of N-terminally truncated form of APP amyloid-beta peptides [Glu-3]-beta-amyloid. May be involved in the N-terminal pyroglutamate formation of several amyloid-related plaque-forming peptides.
Gene Name:
QPCT
Uniprot ID:
Q16769
Molecular weight:
40876.14
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the cleavage of 5-oxo-L-proline to form L-glutamate coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate.
Gene Name:
OPLAH
Uniprot ID:
O14841
Molecular weight:
137456.195
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Pyroglutamic acid + Water → ADP + Phosphoric acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in nucleic acid binding
Specific function:
May function as a tRNA-specific ribonuclease that binds to actin on the surface of endothelial cells; once bound, angiogenin is endocytosed and translocated to the nucleus, thereby promoting the endothelial invasiveness necessary for blood vessel formation. Angiogenin induces vascularization of normal and malignant tissues. Abolishes protein synthesis by specifically hydrolyzing cellular tRNAs
Gene Name:
ANG
Uniprot ID:
P03950
Molecular weight:
16549.9
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in antigen binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P01709
Molecular weight:
11557.5
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AMY1A
Uniprot ID:
P04745
Molecular weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AMY2A
Uniprot ID:
P04746
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in growth factor activity
Specific function:
Growth factor active in angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and endothelial cell growth. Induces endothelial cell proliferation, promotes cell migration, inhibits apoptosis and induces permeabilization of blood vessels. Binds to the FLT1/VEGFR1 and KDR/VEGFR2 receptors, heparan sulfate and heparin. NRP1/Neuropilin-1 binds isoforms VEGF-165 and VEGF-145. Isoform VEGF165B binds to KDR but does not activate downstream signaling pathways, does not activate angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth
Gene Name:
VEGFA
Uniprot ID:
P15692
Molecular weight:
27042.2
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AMY2B
Uniprot ID:
P19961
Molecular weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in neuropeptide signaling pathway
Specific function:
Neuropeptides that play a significant role in the regulation of food intake and sleep-wakefulness, possibly by coordinating the complex behavioral and physiologic responses of these complementary homeostatic functions. A broader role in the homeostatic regulation of energy metabolism, autonomic function, hormonal balance and the regulation of body fluids, is also suggested. Orexin-A binds to both OX1R and OX2R with a high affinity, whereas orexin-B binds only to OX2R with a similar high affinity
Gene Name:
HCRT
Uniprot ID:
O43612
Molecular weight:
13362.5
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of 5-oxoproline from gamma-glutamyl dipeptides and may play a significant role in glutathione homeostasis. Induces release of cytochrome c from mitochondria with resultant induction of apoptosis.
Gene Name:
GGCT
Uniprot ID:
O75223
Molecular weight:
19091.635
Reactions
Gamma-Glutamylcysteine → Pyroglutamic acid + L-Cysteinedetails
(5-L-Glutamyl)-L-amino acid → Pyroglutamic acid + L-Amino aciddetails
General function:
Involved in antigen binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IGLC1
Uniprot ID:
P0CG04
Molecular weight:
11347.6
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]