Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-08-16 11:03:30 UTC
Update Date2013-02-08 18:19:25 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00657
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCopper
DescriptionCopper is an essential nutrient to all higher plants and animals. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. In animals, it is found primarily in the bloodstream, as a cofactor in various enzymes, and in copper-based pigments. In the body, copper shifts between the cuprous (Cu1+) and cupric (Cu2+) forms, though the majority of the body's copper is in the Cu2+ form. The ability of copper to easily accept and donate electrons explains its important role in oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions and in scavenging free radicals. Copper is a critical functional component of a number of essential enzymes known as cuproenzymes. For instance, the copper-dependent enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase, plays a critical role in cellular energy production. By catalyzing the reduction of molecular oxygen (O2) to water (H2O), cytochrome c oxidase generates an electrical gradient used by the mitochondria to create the vital energy-storing molecule, ATP. Another cuproenzyme, lysyl oxidase, is required for the cross-linking of collagen and elastin, which are essential for the formation of strong and flexible connective tissue. Another cuproeznyme, Monoamine oxidase (MAO), plays a role in the metabolism of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. MAO also functions in the degradation of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which is the basis for the use of MAO inhibitors as antidepressants. One of the most important cuproenzymes is Superoxide dismutase (SOD). SOD functions as an antioxidant by catalyzing the conversion of superoxide radicals (free radicals or ROS) to hydrogen peroxide, which can subsequently be reduced to water by other antioxidant enzymes. Two forms of SOD contain copper: 1) copper/zinc SOD is found within most cells of the body, including red blood cells, and 2) extracellular SOD is a copper-containing enzyme found at high levels in the lungs and low levels in blood plasma. In sufficient amounts, copper can be poisonous or even fatal to organisms. Copper is normally bound to cuproenzymes (such as SOD, MOA) and is thus only toxic when unsequestered and unmediated. It is believed that zinc and copper compete for absorption in the digestive tract so that a diet that is excessive in one of these minerals may result in a deficiency in the other. An imbalance of zinc and copper status might be involved in human hypertension.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Copper
  2. Cu
Chemical FormulaCu
Average Molecular Weight63.546
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight62.929601079
IUPAC Namecopper(2+) ion
Traditional IUPAC Namecopper(2+)
CAS Registry Number7440-50-8
SMILES
[Cu++]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/Cu/q+2
InChI KeyJPVYNHNXODAKFH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Metal Compounds
ClassHomogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • a cation(Cyc)
  • copper cation(ChEBI)
  • divalent metal cation(ChEBI)
  • monoatomic dication(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentHomogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Food
  • Plant
  • Toxin/Pollutant
Biofunction
  • Enzyme co-factor
  • Essential minerals
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point1083 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.16ChemAxon
physiological charge2ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count0ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area0ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity0ChemAxon
polarizability1.78ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Erythrocyte
  • Hair
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
BloodDetected and Quantified14.71645(14.20635-15.22336) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Report on Hu...
BloodDetected and Quantified22.01 (14.16-29.89) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified14.5 +/- 3.1 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified4.56 +/- 1.83 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified20.3 (13.1 - 27.4) uMChildren (1-13 year old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified17.0 (10.2 - 29.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified23.7 (11.3 - 27.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified17.2 (12.7 - 21.6) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified37.6 (23.6 - 49.9) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified11.8 (7.5 - 16.1) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified15.06127(14.09512-15.95434) uMNot AvailableBothNormal
  • Report on Hu...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.7 +/- 1.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.69 +/- 1.54 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.253 +/- 3.118 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.26 (0.24-0.28) uMChildren (1-13 year old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
UrineDetected and Quantified0.01994(0.01940-0.05192) umol/mmol creatinineNot AvailableBothNormal
  • Report on Hu...
UrineDetected and Quantified0.02174 (0.01815-0.02551) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Report on Hu...
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0163 (0.0006-0.1099) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified0.02 (0.00-0.04) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified0.025 (0.013-0.044) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
UrineDetected and Quantified0.019 (0.0092-0.038) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
BloodDetected and Quantified7.0 (1.5-12.7) uMChildren (1-13 year old)BothMenkes syndrome
BloodDetected and Quantified22.96 +/- 7.64 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMultiple sclerosis
BloodDetected and Quantified15.70 +/- 3.80 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothParkinson's disease
BloodDetected and Quantified7.87 (3.15-12.58) uMChildren (1-13 year old)BothWIlson disease
BloodDetected and Quantified15.4 +/- 3.9 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.39 +/- 1.02 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease
UrineDetected and Quantified0.57 (0.10-1.14) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 year old)BothWilson disease
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  • Molina JA, Jimenez-Jimenez FJ, Aguilar MV, Meseguer I, Mateos-Vega CJ, Gonzalez-Munoz MJ, de Bustos F, Porta J, Orti-Pareja M, Zurdo M, Barrios E, Martinez-Para MC: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of transition metals in patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Neural Transm. 1998;105(4-5):479-88. Pubmed: 9720975
  • Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. Pubmed: 16244393
Menkes disease
Multiple sclerosis
  • Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. Pubmed: 16244395
Parkinson's disease
  • Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. Pubmed: 16244392
Wilson's disease
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003582
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID25221
KEGG Compound IDC00070
BioCyc IDCUCL2
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCopper
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00657
Metagene LinkHMDB00657
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound27099
PDB IDCU
ChEBI ID29036
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Kedzierska E: [Concentrations of selected bioelements and toxic metals and their influence on health status of children and youth residing in Szczecin] Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2003;49:131-43. Pubmed: 15552844
  2. Koury JC, de Olilveria AV Jr, Portella ES, de Olilveria CF, Lopes GC, Donangelo CM: Zinc and copper biochemical indices of antioxidant status in elite athletes of different modalities. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004 Jun;14(3):358-72. Pubmed: 15256695
  3. Hoogenraad TU: Paradigm shift in treatment of Wilson's disease: zinc therapy now treatment of choice. Brain Dev. 2006 Apr;28(3):141-6. Epub 2006 Feb 7. Pubmed: 16466879
  4. Dib N, Valsesia E, Malinge MC, Mauras Y, Misrahi M, Cales P: Late onset of Wilson's disease in a family with genetic haemochromatosis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Jan;18(1):43-7. Pubmed: 16357618
  5. Kodama H, Sato E, Gu YH, Shiga K, Fujisawa C, Kozuma T: Effect of copper and diethyldithiocarbamate combination therapy on the macular mouse, an animal model of Menkes disease. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005;28(6):971-8. Pubmed: 16435190
  6. Cengiz B, Soylemez F, Ozturk E, Cavdar AO: Serum zinc, selenium, copper, and lead levels in women with second-trimester induced abortion resulting from neural tube defects: a preliminary study. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2004 Mar;97(3):225-35. Pubmed: 14997023
  7. Langner C, Denk H: Wilson disease. Virchows Arch. 2004 Aug;445(2):111-8. Epub 2004 Jun 17. Pubmed: 15205951
  8. Kitzberger R, Madl C, Ferenci P: Wilson disease. Metab Brain Dis. 2005 Dec;20(4):295-302. Pubmed: 16382340
  9. Chen D, Cui QC, Yang H, Dou QP: Disulfiram, a clinically used anti-alcoholism drug and copper-binding agent, induces apoptotic cell death in breast cancer cultures and xenografts via inhibition of the proteasome activity. Cancer Res. 2006 Nov 1;66(21):10425-33. Pubmed: 17079463
  10. Briviba K, Schnabele K, Rechkemmer G, Bub A: Supplementation of a diet low in carotenoids with tomato or carrot juice does not affect lipid peroxidation in plasma and feces of healthy men. J Nutr. 2004 May;134(5):1081-3. Pubmed: 15113949
  11. Pizent A, Jurasovic J, Telisman S: Serum calcium, zinc, and copper in relation to biomarkers of lead and cadmium in men. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2003;17(3):199-205. Pubmed: 14968933
  12. Squitti R, Barbati G, Rossi L, Ventriglia M, Dal Forno G, Cesaretti S, Moffa F, Caridi I, Cassetta E, Pasqualetti P, Calabrese L, Lupoi D, Rossini PM: Excess of nonceruloplasmin serum copper in AD correlates with MMSE, CSF [beta]-amyloid, and h-tau. Neurology. 2006 Jul 11;67(1):76-82. Pubmed: 16832081
  13. Odland JO, Nieboer E, Romanova N, Thomassen Y: Elements in placenta and pregnancy outcome in arctic and subarctic areas. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2004 May;63(2):169-87. Pubmed: 15253483
  14. Venelinov TI, Davies IM, Beattie JH: Dialysis-Chelex method for determination of exchangeable copper in human plasma. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2004 Jul;379(5-6):777-80. Epub 2004 Feb 26. Pubmed: 14991216
  15. Attri S, Sharma N, Jahagirdar S, Thapa BR, Prasad R: Erythrocyte metabolism and antioxidant status of patients with Wilson disease with hemolytic anemia. Pediatr Res. 2006 Apr;59(4 Pt 1):593-7. Pubmed: 16549536
  16. Jablonska-Kaszewska I, Dabrowska E, Drobinska Jurowiecka A, Falkiewicz B: Treatment of Wilson's disease. Med Sci Monit. 2003 Aug;9 Suppl 3:5-8. Pubmed: 15156602
  17. Daniel KG, Harbach RH, Guida WC, Dou QP: Copper storage diseases: Menkes, Wilsons, and cancer. Front Biosci. 2004 Sep 1;9:2652-62. Pubmed: 15358588
  18. Aoki T: [Genetic disorders of copper transport--diagnosis and new treatment for the patients of Wilson's disease] No To Hattatsu. 2005 Mar;37(2):99-109. Pubmed: 15773321
  19. Meng Y, Miyoshi I, Hirabayashi M, Su M, Mototani Y, Okamura T, Terada K, Ueda M, Enomoto K, Sugiyama T, Kasai N: Restoration of copper metabolism and rescue of hepatic abnormalities in LEC rats, an animal model of Wilson disease, by expression of human ATP7B gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004 Nov 5;1690(3):208-19. Pubmed: 15511628
  20. Gorter RW, Butorac M, Cobian EP: Examination of the cutaneous absorption of copper after the use of copper-containing ointments. Am J Ther. 2004 Nov-Dec;11(6):453-8. Pubmed: 15543084

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 51 proteins in total.

Enzymes

Gene Name:
TYR
Uniprot ID:
P14679
Gene Name:
DBH
Uniprot ID:
P09172
Gene Name:
AOC3
Uniprot ID:
Q16853
Gene Name:
FTMT
Uniprot ID:
Q8N4E7
Gene Name:
CP
Uniprot ID:
P00450
Gene Name:
LOX
Uniprot ID:
P28300
Gene Name:
MT-CO1
Uniprot ID:
P00395
Gene Name:
ENOX2
Uniprot ID:
Q16206
Gene Name:
APP
Uniprot ID:
P05067
Gene Name:
SOD1
Uniprot ID:
P00441
15. SPARC
Gene Name:
SPARC
Uniprot ID:
P09486
Gene Name:
F5
Uniprot ID:
P12259
Gene Name:
AFP
Uniprot ID:
P02771
Gene Name:
ATOX1
Uniprot ID:
O00244
Gene Name:
GPHN
Uniprot ID:
Q9NQX3
Gene Name:
MOXD1
Uniprot ID:
Q6UVY6
Gene Name:
MT-CO2
Uniprot ID:
P00403
Gene Name:
APLP1
Uniprot ID:
P51693
Gene Name:
COMMD1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N668
Gene Name:
COX17
Uniprot ID:
Q14061
Gene Name:
ENOX1
Uniprot ID:
Q8TC92
Gene Name:
HEPH
Uniprot ID:
Q9BQS7
Gene Name:
HEPHL1
Uniprot ID:
Q6MZM0
Gene Name:
LOXL1
Uniprot ID:
Q08397
Gene Name:
LOXL2
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y4K0
Gene Name:
LOXL3
Uniprot ID:
P58215
Gene Name:
LOXL4
Uniprot ID:
Q96JB6
Gene Name:
MT3
Uniprot ID:
P25713
Gene Name:
MT4
Uniprot ID:
P47944
Gene Name:
SCO1
Uniprot ID:
O75880
Gene Name:
SCO2
Uniprot ID:
O43819
Gene Name:
STEAP3
Uniprot ID:
Q658P3
Gene Name:
FTH1
Uniprot ID:
P02794
Gene Name:
CP
Uniprot ID:
A5PL27

Transporters

Gene Name:
ATP7B
Uniprot ID:
P35670
Gene Name:
ATP7A
Uniprot ID:
Q04656
Gene Name:
SLC31A1
Uniprot ID:
O15431

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 51 proteins in total.