Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Copper (HMDB00657)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2006-08-16 05:03:30 -0600
Update Date 2013-02-08 11:19:25 -0700
HMDB ID HMDB00657
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Copper
Description Copper is an essential nutrient to all higher plants and animals. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. In animals, it is found primarily in the bloodstream, as a cofactor in various enzymes, and in copper-based pigments. In the body, copper shifts between the cuprous (Cu1+) and cupric (Cu2+) forms, though the majority of the body's copper is in the Cu2+ form. The ability of copper to easily accept and donate electrons explains its important role in oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions and in scavenging free radicals. Copper is a critical functional component of a number of essential enzymes known as cuproenzymes. For instance, the copper-dependent enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase, plays a critical role in cellular energy production. By catalyzing the reduction of molecular oxygen (O2) to water (H2O), cytochrome c oxidase generates an electrical gradient used by the mitochondria to create the vital energy-storing molecule, ATP. Another cuproenzyme, lysyl oxidase, is required for the cross-linking of collagen and elastin, which are essential for the formation of strong and flexible connective tissue. Another cuproeznyme, Monoamine oxidase (MAO), plays a role in the metabolism of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. MAO also functions in the degradation of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which is the basis for the use of MAO inhibitors as antidepressants. One of the most important cuproenzymes is Superoxide dismutase (SOD). SOD functions as an antioxidant by catalyzing the conversion of superoxide radicals (free radicals or ROS) to hydrogen peroxide, which can subsequently be reduced to water by other antioxidant enzymes. Two forms of SOD contain copper: 1) copper/zinc SOD is found within most cells of the body, including red blood cells, and 2) extracellular SOD is a copper-containing enzyme found at high levels in the lungs and low levels in blood plasma. In sufficient amounts, copper can be poisonous or even fatal to organisms. Copper is normally bound to cuproenzymes (such as SOD, MOA) and is thus only toxic when unsequestered and unmediated. It is believed that zinc and copper compete for absorption in the digestive tract so that a diet that is excessive in one of these minerals may result in a deficiency in the other. An imbalance of zinc and copper status might be involved in human hypertension.
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. Copper
  2. Cu
Chemical Formula Cu
Average Molecular Weight 63.546
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 62.929601079
IUPAC Name copper(2+) ion
Traditional IUPAC Name copper(2+)
CAS Registry Number 7440-50-8
SMILES [Cu++]
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/Cu/q+2
InChI Key JPVYNHNXODAKFH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Inorganic Compounds
Super Class Homogeneous Metal Compounds
Class Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Sub Class N/A
Other Descriptors
  • a cation(Cyc)
  • copper cation(ChEBI)
  • divalent metal cation(ChEBI)
  • monoatomic dication(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct Parent Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Food
  • Plant
  • Toxin/Pollutant
Biofunction
  • Enzyme co-factor
  • Essential minerals
Application Not Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
State Solid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point 1083 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility Not Available Not Available
LogP Not Available Not Available
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
LogP 0.16 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 0 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 0 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 0 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 0 ChemAxon
Refractivity 0 ChemAxon
Polarizability 1.78 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 2 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge 2 ChemAxon
Spectra
Not Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Intestine
  • Erythrocyte
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Brain
  • Hair
Pathways Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
14.71645(14.20635-15.22336) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Report on Hu...
Blood Detected and Quantified
22.01 (14.16-29.89) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
14.5 +/- 3.1 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
4.56 +/- 1.83 uM Newborn (0-30 days old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
20.3 (13.1 - 27.4) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
17.0 (10.2 - 29.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
23.7 (11.3 - 27.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
17.2 (12.7 - 21.6) uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
37.6 (23.6 - 49.9) uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
11.8 (7.5 - 16.1) uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
15.06127(14.09512-15.95434) uM Not Available Both Normal
  • Report on Hu...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
1.7 +/- 1.4 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
1.69 +/- 1.54 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
2.253 +/- 3.118 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.26 (0.24-0.28) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.01994(0.01940-0.05192) umol/mmol creatinine Not Available Both Normal
  • Report on Hu...
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.02174 (0.01815-0.02551) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Report on Hu...
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.0163 (0.0006-0.1099) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.02 (0.00-0.04) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.025 (0.013-0.044) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.019 (0.0092-0.038) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 7.0 (1.5-12.7) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Menkes syndrome
Blood Detected and Quantified 22.96 +/- 7.64 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Multiple sclerosis
Blood Detected and Quantified 15.70 +/- 3.80 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Parkinson's disease
Blood Detected and Quantified 7.87 (3.15-12.58) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both WIlson disease
Blood Detected and Quantified 15.4 +/- 3.9 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Alzheimer's disease
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 1.39 +/- 1.02 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Alzheimer's disease
Urine Detected and Quantified 0.57 (0.10-1.14) umol/mmol creatinine Children (1-13 year old) Both Wilson disease
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  • Molina JA, Jimenez-Jimenez FJ, Aguilar MV, Meseguer I, Mateos-Vega CJ, Gonzalez-Munoz MJ, de Bustos F, Porta J, Orti-Pareja M, Zurdo M, Barrios E, Martinez-Para MC: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of transition metals in patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Neural Transm. 1998;105(4-5):479-88. Pubmed: 9720975 Link_out
  • Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. Pubmed: 16244393 Link_out
      Multiple sclerosis
      • Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. Pubmed: 16244395 Link_out
          Parkinson's disease
          • Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. Pubmed: 16244392 Link_out
              Menkes disease
                  Wilson's disease
                      Associated OMIM IDs
                      DrugBank ID Not Available
                      DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
                      Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
                      Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
                      FoodDB ID FDB003582
                      KNApSAcK ID Not Available
                      Chemspider ID 25221 Link_out
                      KEGG Compound ID C00070 Link_out
                      BioCyc ID CUCL2 Link_out
                      BiGG ID Not Available
                      Wikipedia Link Copper Link_out
                      NuGOwiki Link HMDB00657 Link_out
                      Metagene Link HMDB00657 Link_out
                      METLIN ID Not Available
                      PubChem Compound 27099 Link_out
                      PDB ID CU Link_out
                      ChEBI ID 29036 Link_out
                      References
                      Synthesis Reference Not Available
                      Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
                      General References
                      1. Koury JC, de Olilveria AV Jr, Portella ES, de Olilveria CF, Lopes GC, Donangelo CM: Zinc and copper biochemical indices of antioxidant status in elite athletes of different modalities. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004 Jun;14(3):358-72. Pubmed: 15256695 Link_out
                      2. Hoogenraad TU: Paradigm shift in treatment of Wilson's disease: zinc therapy now treatment of choice. Brain Dev. 2006 Apr;28(3):141-6. Epub 2006 Feb 7. Pubmed: 16466879 Link_out
                      3. Kedzierska E: [Concentrations of selected bioelements and toxic metals and their influence on health status of children and youth residing in Szczecin] Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2003;49:131-43. Pubmed: 15552844 Link_out
                      4. Dib N, Valsesia E, Malinge MC, Mauras Y, Misrahi M, Cales P: Late onset of Wilson's disease in a family with genetic haemochromatosis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Jan;18(1):43-7. Pubmed: 16357618 Link_out
                      5. Kodama H, Sato E, Gu YH, Shiga K, Fujisawa C, Kozuma T: Effect of copper and diethyldithiocarbamate combination therapy on the macular mouse, an animal model of Menkes disease. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005;28(6):971-8. Pubmed: 16435190 Link_out
                      6. Cengiz B, Soylemez F, Ozturk E, Cavdar AO: Serum zinc, selenium, copper, and lead levels in women with second-trimester induced abortion resulting from neural tube defects: a preliminary study. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2004 Mar;97(3):225-35. Pubmed: 14997023 Link_out
                      7. Langner C, Denk H: Wilson disease. Virchows Arch. 2004 Aug;445(2):111-8. Epub 2004 Jun 17. Pubmed: 15205951 Link_out
                      8. Kitzberger R, Madl C, Ferenci P: Wilson disease. Metab Brain Dis. 2005 Dec;20(4):295-302. Pubmed: 16382340 Link_out
                      9. Chen D, Cui QC, Yang H, Dou QP: Disulfiram, a clinically used anti-alcoholism drug and copper-binding agent, induces apoptotic cell death in breast cancer cultures and xenografts via inhibition of the proteasome activity. Cancer Res. 2006 Nov 1;66(21):10425-33. Pubmed: 17079463 Link_out
                      10. Briviba K, Schnabele K, Rechkemmer G, Bub A: Supplementation of a diet low in carotenoids with tomato or carrot juice does not affect lipid peroxidation in plasma and feces of healthy men. J Nutr. 2004 May;134(5):1081-3. Pubmed: 15113949 Link_out
                      11. Pizent A, Jurasovic J, Telisman S: Serum calcium, zinc, and copper in relation to biomarkers of lead and cadmium in men. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2003;17(3):199-205. Pubmed: 14968933 Link_out
                      12. Squitti R, Barbati G, Rossi L, Ventriglia M, Dal Forno G, Cesaretti S, Moffa F, Caridi I, Cassetta E, Pasqualetti P, Calabrese L, Lupoi D, Rossini PM: Excess of nonceruloplasmin serum copper in AD correlates with MMSE, CSF [beta]-amyloid, and h-tau. Neurology. 2006 Jul 11;67(1):76-82. Pubmed: 16832081 Link_out
                      13. Odland JO, Nieboer E, Romanova N, Thomassen Y: Elements in placenta and pregnancy outcome in arctic and subarctic areas. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2004 May;63(2):169-87. Pubmed: 15253483 Link_out
                      14. Venelinov TI, Davies IM, Beattie JH: Dialysis-Chelex method for determination of exchangeable copper in human plasma. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2004 Jul;379(5-6):777-80. Epub 2004 Feb 26. Pubmed: 14991216 Link_out
                      15. Attri S, Sharma N, Jahagirdar S, Thapa BR, Prasad R: Erythrocyte metabolism and antioxidant status of patients with Wilson disease with hemolytic anemia. Pediatr Res. 2006 Apr;59(4 Pt 1):593-7. Pubmed: 16549536 Link_out
                      16. Jablonska-Kaszewska I, Dabrowska E, Drobinska Jurowiecka A, Falkiewicz B: Treatment of Wilson's disease. Med Sci Monit. 2003 Aug;9 Suppl 3:5-8. Pubmed: 15156602 Link_out
                      17. Daniel KG, Harbach RH, Guida WC, Dou QP: Copper storage diseases: Menkes, Wilsons, and cancer. Front Biosci. 2004 Sep 1;9:2652-62. Pubmed: 15358588 Link_out
                      18. Aoki T: [Genetic disorders of copper transport--diagnosis and new treatment for the patients of Wilson's disease] No To Hattatsu. 2005 Mar;37(2):99-109. Pubmed: 15773321 Link_out
                      19. Meng Y, Miyoshi I, Hirabayashi M, Su M, Mototani Y, Okamura T, Terada K, Ueda M, Enomoto K, Sugiyama T, Kasai N: Restoration of copper metabolism and rescue of hepatic abnormalities in LEC rats, an animal model of Wilson disease, by expression of human ATP7B gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004 Nov 5;1690(3):208-19. Pubmed: 15511628 Link_out
                      20. Gorter RW, Butorac M, Cobian EP: Examination of the cutaneous absorption of copper after the use of copper-containing ointments. Am J Ther. 2004 Nov-Dec;11(6):453-8. Pubmed: 15543084 Link_out

                      Enzymes
                      Name: Tyrosinase
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: TYR
                      Uniprot ID: P14679 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: PAM
                      Uniprot ID: P19021 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Dopamine beta-hydroxylase
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: DBH
                      Uniprot ID: P09172 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Amiloride-sensitive amine oxidase [copper-containing]
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: ABP1
                      Uniprot ID: P19801 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Membrane primary amine oxidase
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: AOC3
                      Uniprot ID: Q16853 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Retina-specific copper amine oxidase
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: AOC2
                      Uniprot ID: O75106 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Ferritin, mitochondrial
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: FTMT
                      Uniprot ID: Q8N4E7 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Ceruloplasmin
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: CP
                      Uniprot ID: P00450 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Protein-lysine 6-oxidase
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: LOX
                      Uniprot ID: P28300 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: MT-CO1
                      Uniprot ID: P00395 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Ecto-NOX disulfide-thiol exchanger 2
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: ENOX2
                      Uniprot ID: Q16206 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: SOD2
                      Uniprot ID: P04179 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Amyloid beta A4 protein
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: APP
                      Uniprot ID: P05067 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: SOD1
                      Uniprot ID: P00441 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: SPARC
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: SPARC
                      Uniprot ID: P09486 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Coagulation factor V
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: F5
                      Uniprot ID: P12259 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid oxidase
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: TYRP1
                      Uniprot ID: P17643 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Alpha-fetoprotein
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: AFP
                      Uniprot ID: P02771 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Copper transport protein ATOX1
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: ATOX1
                      Uniprot ID: O00244 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Membrane-bound transcription factor site-1 protease
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: MBTPS1
                      Uniprot ID: Q14703 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Gephyrin
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: GPHN
                      Uniprot ID: Q9NQX3 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Extracellular superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: SOD3
                      Uniprot ID: P08294 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: DBH-like monooxygenase protein 1
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: MOXD1
                      Uniprot ID: Q6UVY6 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: MT-CO2
                      Uniprot ID: P00403 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 7
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: PCSK7
                      Uniprot ID: Q16549 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Amyloid-like protein 1
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: APLP1
                      Uniprot ID: P51693 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: CCS
                      Uniprot ID: O14618 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: COMM domain-containing protein 1
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: COMMD1
                      Uniprot ID: Q8N668 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Cytochrome c oxidase assembly protein COX11, mitochondrial
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: COX11
                      Uniprot ID: Q9Y6N1 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Cytochrome c oxidase copper chaperone
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: COX17
                      Uniprot ID: Q14061 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: COX assembly mitochondrial protein homolog
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: CMC1
                      Uniprot ID: Q7Z7K0 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Copper homeostasis protein cutC homolog
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: CUTC
                      Uniprot ID: Q9NTM9 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Ecto-NOX disulfide-thiol exchanger 1
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: ENOX1
                      Uniprot ID: Q8TC92 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Hephaestin
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: HEPH
                      Uniprot ID: Q9BQS7 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Hephaestin-like protein 1
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: HEPHL1
                      Uniprot ID: Q6MZM0 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Lysyl oxidase homolog 1
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: LOXL1
                      Uniprot ID: Q08397 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Lysyl oxidase homolog 2
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: LOXL2
                      Uniprot ID: Q9Y4K0 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Lysyl oxidase homolog 3
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: LOXL3
                      Uniprot ID: P58215 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Lysyl oxidase homolog 4
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: LOXL4
                      Uniprot ID: Q96JB6 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Putative DBH-like monooxygenase protein 2
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: MOXD2
                      Uniprot ID: A6NHM9 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Metallothionein-3
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: MT3
                      Uniprot ID: P25713 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Metallothionein-4
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: MT4
                      Uniprot ID: P47944 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Protein SCO1 homolog, mitochondrial
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: SCO1
                      Uniprot ID: O75880 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Protein SCO2 homolog, mitochondrial
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: SCO2
                      Uniprot ID: O43819 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Metalloreductase STEAP3
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: STEAP3
                      Uniprot ID: Q658P3 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Ferritin heavy chain
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: FTH1
                      Uniprot ID: P02794 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: CP protein
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: CP
                      Uniprot ID: A5PL27 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Transporters
                      Name: Copper-transporting ATPase 2
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: ATP7B
                      Uniprot ID: P35670 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Copper-transporting ATPase 1
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: ATP7A
                      Uniprot ID: Q04656 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: High affinity copper uptake protein 1
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: SLC31A1
                      Uniprot ID: O15431 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Probable low affinity copper uptake protein 2
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: SLC31A2
                      Uniprot ID: O15432 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA