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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:03:10 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00661
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGlutaric acid
DescriptionGlutaric acid is a simple five-carbon linear dicarboxylic acid. The accumulation of glutaric acid ranging from slightly or intermittently elevated urinary glutaric acid to gross organic aciduria occurs in Glutaric aciduria. Glutaric aciduria type 1 is an autosomal-recessive disorder resulting from a deficiency of mitochondrial glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.99.7, GCDH) which is involved in the metabolism of lysine, hydroxylysine, and tryptophan. Glutaric aciduria type I lead to nonspecific developmental delay, hypotonia, and macrocephaly with cerebral atrophy of prenatal onset. Treatment is mainly based on restriction of lysine intake, supplementation of carnitine, and an intensification of therapy during intercurrent illnesses. The major principle of dietary treatment is to reduce the production of glutaric acid and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid by restriction of natural protein in general and of lysine in particular. (PMID: 17465389 , 15505398 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1,3-Propanedicarboxylic acidChEBI
1,5-Pentanedioic acidChEBI
GlutarsaeureChEBI
Pentanedioic acidChEBI
1,3-PropanedicarboxylateGenerator
Glutaric acidGenerator
1,5-PentanedioateGenerator
PentanedioateGenerator
PentandioateHMDB
Pentandioic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H8O4
Average Molecular Weight132.1146
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight132.042258744
IUPAC Namepentanedioic acid
Traditional Nameglutaric acid
CAS Registry Number110-94-1
SMILES
OC(=O)CCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H8O4/c6-4(7)2-1-3-5(8)9/h1-3H2,(H,6,7)(H,8,9)
InChI KeyInChIKey=JFCQEDHGNNZCLN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Microbial
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point95.8 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1600.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-0.29HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility56.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.25ALOGPS
logP0.046ChemAxon
logS-0.37ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.76ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.6 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity28.14 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability12.17 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0f6t-2940000000-9f099473c4a6eb94d4beView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0002-1920000000-4ade63738a1c00460a63View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0002-1910000000-743df9571fee7baa3417View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-00fs-9710000000-ba958e52b1424e5d4840View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0cgj-3930000000-298fe512c6b58220ee33View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0019-9500000000-9db56ca3a541f0ce07d1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-052r-9100000000-991f69d0892976558f85View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0536-9300000000-20fb2c8dd136e4924acaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (Unknown) , Positivesplash10-052o-9000000000-663deab1ce6413c4859dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-8eb90c15915f014713acView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9200000000-2ffdc08c49952e135a86View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-8884b857c9582288f35aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9000000000-7d2c0333bdce4dbabbc6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-9ab2a948083302641628View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-000i-9400000000-c5ec3115706f6041b868View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-052o-9000000000-f308daa4e82c16019e0dView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Prostate
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.8 (0.0-1.8) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.28 ( 0.18-0.63) uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.93 +/- 0.38 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified189.154 +/- 125.421 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0770 +/- 0.0431 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.501 +/- 1.36 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.546 +/- 0.712 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.0 +/- 1.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.5 (0.0-11.0) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.58 +/- 0.87 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.3 (0.6-2.6) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified<9.33 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.1 (0.7-3.6) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.906 +/- 7.265 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.08 +/- 1.24 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.4 (2.9 - 19.1) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.5 (0.1 - 14.7) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.4 (0.5-2.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.4 (0.1 - 4.8) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.5 (0.7 - 5.2) umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.599 +/- 5.212 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.9 (0.00-1.80) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothGlutaric aciduria type 1 details
BloodDetected and Quantified15.0 (10.0-20.0) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothGlutaric aciduria I details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified39.74 uMNot AvailableNot Specified
Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (GDHD)
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Cryptosporidium infection
details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.46 +/- 2.12 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothMalnutrition (type kwashiorkor and marasmus) details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.0 (0.00-2.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothGlutaric aciduria type 1 details
UrineDetected and Quantified6250.0 (500.0-12000.0) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothGlutaric aciduria I details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.4 +/- 1.9 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)FemaleAnorexia nervosa details
UrineDetected and Quantified15.232 +/- 15.988 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.375 +/- 2.82 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.162 +/- 2.373 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Anorexia nervosa
  1. Capo-chichi CD, Gueant JL, Lefebvre E, Bennani N, Lorentz E, Vidailhet C, Vidailhet M: Riboflavin and riboflavin-derived cofactors in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Apr;69(4):672-8. [10197568 ]
Glutaric aciduria type 1
  1. MetaGene [Link]
  2. MetaGene [Link]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB03553
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB001477
KNApSAcK IDC00001184
Chemspider ID723
KEGG Compound IDC00489
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGlutaric acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00661
Metagene LinkHMDB00661
METLIN ID3254
PubChem Compound743
PDB IDGUA
ChEBI ID17859
References
Synthesis ReferencePetrova, E. G.; Kasumova, N. M.; Kagramanova, N. A.; Dadasheva, A. D. Mechanism of glutaric acid synthesis. Issledovaniya v Oblasti Kinetiki, Modelirovaniya i Optimizatsii Khimicheskikh Protsessov (1974), 2 277-89.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Goodman SI, Stein DE, Schlesinger S, Christensen E, Schwartz M, Greenberg CR, Elpeleg ON: Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase mutations in glutaric acidemia (type I): review and report of thirty novel mutations. Hum Mutat. 1998;12(3):141-4. [9711871 ]
  2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
  3. Shoemaker JD, Elliott WH: Automated screening of urine samples for carbohydrates, organic and amino acids after treatment with urease. J Chromatogr. 1991 Jan 2;562(1-2):125-38. [2026685 ]
  4. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. [8087979 ]
  5. Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(4):648-69. [8412012 ]
  6. Baric I, Wagner L, Feyh P, Liesert M, Buckel W, Hoffmann GF: Sensitivity and specificity of free and total glutaric acid and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid measurements by stable-isotope dilution assays for the diagnosis of glutaric aciduria type I. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1999 Dec;22(8):867-81. [10604139 ]
  7. Jakobs C, Sweetman L, Wadman SK, Duran M, Saudubray JM, Nyhan WL: Prenatal diagnosis of glutaric aciduria type II by direct chemical analysis of dicarboxylic acids in amniotic fluid. Eur J Pediatr. 1984 Jan;141(3):153-7. [6698061 ]
  8. Hoffmann GF, Trefz FK, Barth PG, Bohles HJ, Biggemann B, Bremer HJ, Christensen E, Frosch M, Hanefeld F, Hunneman DH, et al.: Glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency: a distinct encephalopathy. Pediatrics. 1991 Dec;88(6):1194-203. [1956737 ]
  9. Goodman SI, Gallegos DA, Pullin CJ, Halpern B, Truscott RJ, Wise G, Wilcken B, Ryan ED, Whelen DT: Antenatal diagnosis of glutaric acidemia. Am J Hum Genet. 1980 Sep;32(5):695-9. [6893520 ]
  10. Whelan DT, Hill R, Ryan ED, Spate M: L-Glutaric acidemia: investigation of a patient and his family. Pediatrics. 1979 Jan;63(1):88-93. [440804 ]
  11. Singh I: Biochemistry of peroxisomes in health and disease. Mol Cell Biochem. 1997 Feb;167(1-2):1-29. [9059978 ]
  12. Bishop FS, Liu JK, McCall TD, Brockmeyer DL: Glutaric aciduria type 1 presenting as bilateral subdural hematomas mimicking nonaccidental trauma. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg. 2007 Mar;106(3 Suppl):222-6. [17465389 ]
  13. Muller E, Kolker S: Reduction of lysine intake while avoiding malnutrition--major goals and major problems in dietary treatment of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2004;27(6):903-10. [15505398 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates saturable uptake of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and related compounds
Gene Name:
SLC22A11
Uniprot ID:
Q9NSA0
Molecular weight:
59970.9
References
  1. Cha SH, Sekine T, Kusuhara H, Yu E, Kim JY, Kim DK, Sugiyama Y, Kanai Y, Endou H: Molecular cloning and characterization of multispecific organic anion transporter 4 expressed in the placenta. J Biol Chem. 2000 Feb 11;275(6):4507-12. [10660625 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of p- aminohippurate (PAH), ochratoxin (OTA), acyclovir (ACV), 3'-azido- 3-'deoxythymidine (AZT), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro- phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), hippurate (HA), indoleacetate (IA), indoxyl sulfate (IS) and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2- furanpropionate (CMPF), cidofovir, adefovir, 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) guanine (PMEG), 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) diaminopurine (PMEDAP) and edaravone sulfate. PAH uptake is inhibited by p- chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (PCMBS), diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), sulindac, diclofenac, carprofen, glutarate and okadaic acid. PAH uptake is inhibited by benzothiazolylcysteine (BTC), S-chlorotrifluoroethylcysteine (CTFC), cysteine S-conjugates S-dichlorovinylcysteine (DCVC), furosemide, steviol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore A23187, benzylpenicillin, furosemide, indomethacin, bumetamide, losartan, probenecid, phenol red, urate, and alpha-ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular weight:
61815.8
References
  1. Cihlar T, Ho ES: Fluorescence-based assay for the interaction of small molecules with the human renal organic anion transporter 1. Anal Biochem. 2000 Jul 15;283(1):49-55. [10929807 ]
  2. Lu R, Chan BS, Schuster VL: Cloning of the human kidney PAH transporter: narrow substrate specificity and regulation by protein kinase C. Am J Physiol. 1999 Feb;276(2 Pt 2):F295-303. [9950961 ]
  3. Uwai Y, Okuda M, Takami K, Hashimoto Y, Inui K: Functional characterization of the rat multispecific organic anion transporter OAT1 mediating basolateral uptake of anionic drugs in the kidney. FEBS Lett. 1998 Nov 6;438(3):321-4. [9827570 ]
  4. Aslamkhan A, Han YH, Walden R, Sweet DH, Pritchard JB: Stoichiometry of organic anion/dicarboxylate exchange in membrane vesicles from rat renal cortex and hOAT1-expressing cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003 Oct;285(4):F775-83. Epub 2003 Jul 1. [12837685 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, allopurinol, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, L-ascorbic acid, salicylate, ethotrexate, and alpha- ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y694
Molecular weight:
60025.0
References
  1. Kobayashi Y, Ohshiro N, Shibusawa A, Sasaki T, Tokuyama S, Sekine T, Endou H, Yamamoto T: Isolation, characterization and differential gene expression of multispecific organic anion transporter 2 in mice. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;62(1):7-14. [12065749 ]