You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:04:10 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01285
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01560
  • HMDB02239
  • HMDB06506
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGeranyl-PP
DescriptionGeranyl diphosphate is the precursor of monoterpenes, a large family of natural occurring C10 compounds predominately found in plants and animals. Geranyl diphosphate is regarded as a key intermediate in the steroid, isoprene and terpene biosynthesis pathways and is used by organisms in the biosynthesis of farnesyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, cholesterol, terpenes and terpenoids. (wikipedia). In humans, geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS) catalyzes the condensation of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to form geranyl diphosphate. Animals produce IPP through the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. Isoprenoid compounds have been implicated in several human disease states including coronary heart disease, blindness, infectious hepatitis and cancer. Geranyl pyrophosphate is an intermediate in the HMG-CoA reductase pathway used by organisms in the biosynthesis of terpenes and terpenoids. -- Wikipedia.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
PolyisopentenylpyrophosphateKegg
PolyisopentenyldiphosphateKegg
trans-PolyisopentenyldiphosphateKegg
Polyprenyl diphosphateKegg
Polyisopentenylpyrophosphoric acidGenerator
Polyisopentenyldiphosphoric acidGenerator
trans-Polyisopentenyldiphosphoric acidGenerator
Polyprenyl diphosphoric acidGenerator
(2E)-3,7-Dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-yl trihydrogen diphosphateHMDB
Geranyl diphosphateHMDB
Geranyl-diphosphateHMDB
Geranyl-pyrophosphateHMDB
Monoterpenyl diphosphateHMDB
Neryl diphosphateHMDB
trans-Geranyl pyrophosphateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC10H20O7P2
Average Molecular Weight314.2091
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight314.068426018
IUPAC Name[({[(2E)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-yl]oxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy]phosphonic acid
Traditional Namegeranyl diphosphate
CAS Registry Number763-10-0
SMILES
CC(C)=CCC\C(C)=C\COP(O)(=O)OP(O)(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H20O7P2/c1-9(2)5-4-6-10(3)7-8-16-19(14,15)17-18(11,12)13/h5,7H,4,6,8H2,1-3H3,(H,14,15)(H2,11,12,13)/b10-7+
InChI KeyInChIKey=GVVPGTZRZFNKDS-JXMROGBWSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as isoprenoid phosphates. These are prenol lipids containing a phosphate group linked to an isoprene (2-methylbuta-1,3-diene) unit.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassIsoprenoid phosphates
Direct ParentIsoprenoid phosphates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Organic pyrophosphate
  • Monoterpenoid
  • Isoprenoid phosphate
  • Acyclic monoterpenoid
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Organic phosphate
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Terpenoid biosynthesis
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.9 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.63ALOGPS
logP1.96ChemAxon
logS-2.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.77ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area113.29 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity72.93 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability28.52 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00kr-1953000000-e5ee3340554c9ecac23eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-5910000000-82bcd2195a53b847981cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0gc0-9400000000-f87d391f1b3c01743515View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0509000000-43083a162145718cd977View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-9500000000-053b6323e620a16328a8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-4faed4c921d605619cafView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Alendronate pathwaySMP00095Not Available
Atorvastatin PathwaySMP00131Not Available
Cerivastatin PathwaySMP00111Not Available
CHILD SyndromeSMP00387Not Available
Cholesteryl ester storage diseaseSMP00508Not Available
Chondrodysplasia Punctata II, X Linked Dominant (CDPX2)SMP00388Not Available
DesmosterolosisSMP00386Not Available
Fluvastatin PathwaySMP00119Not Available
Hyper-IgD syndromeSMP00509Not Available
HypercholesterolemiaSMP00209Not Available
Ibandronate PathwaySMP00079Not Available
Lovastatin PathwaySMP00099Not Available
Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency (Wolman Disease)SMP00319Not Available
Mevalonic aciduriaSMP00510Not Available
Pamidronate PathwaySMP00117Not Available
Pravastatin PathwaySMP00089Not Available
Risedronate PathwaySMP00112Not Available
Rosuvastatin PathwaySMP00092Not Available
Simvastatin Action PathwaySMP00082Not Available
Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS)SMP00389Not Available
Steroid BiosynthesisSMP00023map00100
Wolman diseaseSMP00511Not Available
Zoledronate PathwaySMP00107Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB02552
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB001463
KNApSAcK IDC00000846
Chemspider ID393471
KEGG Compound IDC00341
BioCyc IDGERANYL-PP
BiGG ID34712
Wikipedia LinkGeranyl pyrophosphate
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01285
Metagene LinkHMDB01285
METLIN ID6134
PubChem Compound445995
PDB IDGPP
ChEBI ID17211
References
Synthesis ReferenceRunquist M; Ericsson J; Thelin A; Chojnacki T; Dallner G Biosynthesis of trans,trans,trans-geranylgeranyl diphosphate by the cytosolic fraction from rat tissues. Biochemical and biophysical research communications (1992), 186(1), 157-65.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Kavanagh KL, Guo K, Dunford JE, Wu X, Knapp S, Ebetino FH, Rogers MJ, Russell RG, Oppermann U: The molecular mechanism of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates as antiosteoporosis drugs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 16;103(20):7829-34. Epub 2006 May 9. [16684881 ]
  2. Micali E, Chehade KA, Isaacs RJ, Andres DA, Spielmann HP: Protein farnesyltransferase isoprenoid substrate discrimination is dependent on isoprene double bonds and branched methyl groups. Biochemistry. 2001 Oct 16;40(41):12254-65. [11591144 ]
  3. Holstein SA, Hohl RJ: Isoprenoids: remarkable diversity of form and function. Lipids. 2004 Apr;39(4):293-309. [15357017 ]
  4. Gan X, Kaplan R, Menke JG, MacNaul K, Chen Y, Sparrow CP, Zhou G, Wright SD, Cai TQ: Dual mechanisms of ABCA1 regulation by geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. J Biol Chem. 2001 Dec 28;276(52):48702-8. Epub 2001 Oct 18. [11641412 ]
  5. Sagami H, Ogura K: [A new development in isoprenoid biochemistry brought by the discovery of prenylated proteins] Seikagaku. 1994 Dec;66(12):1488-501. [7884273 ]
  6. Loza-Tavera H: Monoterpenes in essential oils. Biosynthesis and properties. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;464:49-62. [10335385 ]
  7. Barnard GF, Popjak G: Human liver prenyltransferase and its characterization. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1981 Sep 15;661(1):87-99. [7295734 ]
  8. Pont F, Luciani B, Belmant C, Fournie JJ: Characterization of phosphoantigens by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography-electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry and nanoelectrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2001 Aug 1;73(15):3562-9. [11510819 ]
  9. Smit A, Mushegian A: Biosynthesis of isoprenoids via mevalonate in Archaea: the lost pathway. Genome Res. 2000 Oct;10(10):1468-84. [11042147 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in isoprenoid biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the trans-addition of the three molecules of IPP onto DMAPP to form geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, an important precursor of carotenoids and geranylated proteins.
Gene Name:
GGPS1
Uniprot ID:
O95749
Molecular weight:
34870.625
Reactions
Dimethylallylpyrophosphate + Isopentenyl pyrophosphate → Pyrophosphate + Geranyl-PPdetails
Geranyl-PP + Isopentenyl pyrophosphate → Pyrophosphate + Farnesyl pyrophosphatedetails
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in isoprenoid biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Key enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis which catalyzes the formation of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), a precursor for several classes of essential metabolites including sterols, dolichols, carotenoids, and ubiquinones. FPP also serves as substrate for protein farnesylation and geranylgeranylation. Catalyzes the sequential condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate with the allylic pyrophosphates, dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, and then with the resultant geranylpyrophosphate to the ultimate product farnesyl pyrophosphate.
Gene Name:
FDPS
Uniprot ID:
P14324
Molecular weight:
48275.03
Reactions
Dimethylallylpyrophosphate + Isopentenyl pyrophosphate → Pyrophosphate + Geranyl-PPdetails
Geranyl-PP + Isopentenyl pyrophosphate → Pyrophosphate + Farnesyl pyrophosphatedetails
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in prenyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the prenylation of para-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) with an all-trans polyprenyl group. Mediates the second step in the final reaction sequence of coenzyme Q (CoQ) biosynthesis, which is the condensation of the polyisoprenoid side chain with PHB.
Gene Name:
COQ2
Uniprot ID:
Q96H96
Molecular weight:
45593.67
Reactions
Geranyl-PP + 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid → 4-Hydroxy-3-polyprenylbenzoate + Pyrophosphatedetails