Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Oxygen (HMDB01377)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2006-08-16 08:07:20 -0600
Update Date 2013-05-29 13:31:21 -0600
HMDB ID HMDB01377
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Oxygen
Description Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe after hydrogen and helium and the most abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.9% of the volume of air. All major classes of structural molecules in living organisms, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, contain oxygen, as do the major inorganic compounds that comprise animal shells, teeth, and bone. Oxygen in the form of O2 is produced from water by cyanobacteria, algae and plants during photosynthesis and is used in cellular respiration for all living organisms. Green algae and cyanobacteria in marine environments provide about 70% of the free oxygen produced on earth and the rest is produced by terrestrial plants. Oxygen is used in mitochondria to help generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during oxidative phosphorylation. For animals, a constant supply of oxygen is indispensable for cardiac viability and function. To meet this demand, an adult human, at rest, inhales 1.8 to 2.4 grams of oxygen per minute. This amounts to more than 6 billion tonnes of oxygen inhaled by humanity per year. At a resting pulse rate, the heart consumes approximately 8-15 ml O2/min/100 g tissue. This is significantly more than that consumed by the brain (approximately 3 ml O2/min/100 g tissue) and can increase to more than 70 ml O2/min/100 g myocardial tissue during vigorous exercise. As a general rule, mammalian heart muscle cannot produce enough energy under anaerobic conditions to maintain essential cellular processes; thus, a constant supply of oxygen is indispensable to sustain cardiac function and viability. However, the role of oxygen and oxygen-associated processes in living systems is complex, and they and can be either beneficial or contribute to cardiac dysfunction and death (through reactive oxygen species). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a family of oxygen-derived free radicals that are produced in mammalian cells under normal and pathologic conditions. Many ROS, such as the superoxide anion (O2-)and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), act within blood vessels, altering mechanisms mediating mechanical signal transduction and autoregulation of cerebral blood flow. Reactive oxygen species are believed to be involved in cellular signaling in blood vessels in both normal and pathologic states. The major pathway for the production of ROS is by way of the one-electron reduction of molecular oxygen to form an oxygen radical, the superoxide anion (O2-). Within the vasculature there are several enzymatic sources of O2-, including xanthine oxidase, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and nitric oxide (NO) synthases. Studies in recent years, however, suggest that the major contributor to O2- levels in vascular cells is the membrane-bound enzyme NADPH-oxidase. Produced O2- can react with other radicals, such as NO, or spontaneously dismutate to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In cells, the latter reaction is an important pathway for normal O2- breakdown and is usually catalyzed by the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Once formed, H2O2 can undergo various reactions, both enzymatic and nonenzymatic. The antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase act to limit ROS accumulation within cells by breaking down H2O2 to H2O. Metabolism of H2O2 can also produce other, more damaging ROS. For example, the endogenous enzyme myeloperoxidase uses H2O2 as a substrate to form the highly reactive compound hypochlorous acid. Alternatively, H2O2 can undergo Fenton or Haber-Weiss chemistry, reacting with Fe2+/Fe3+ ions to form toxic hydroxyl radicals (-.OH). (PMID: 17027622 Link_out, 15765131 Link_out).
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. Dioxygen
  2. Molecular oxygen
  3. O2
  4. Oxygen
  5. Oxygen molecule
Chemical Formula O2
Average Molecular Weight 31.9988
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 31.989829244
IUPAC Name oxidanone
Traditional IUPAC Name oxygen
CAS Registry Number 7782-44-7
SMILES O=O
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/O2/c1-2
InChI Key MYMOFIZGZYHOMD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Inorganic Compounds
Super Class Homogeneous Non-metal Compounds
Class Other Non-metal Organides
Sub Class Other Non-metal Oxides
Other Descriptors
  • a non-metabolic compound(Cyc)
  • dioxygen(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct Parent Other Non-metal Oxides
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Respiration, oxidation, signaling
Application Not Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
State Liquid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point -218.4 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility 37.5 mg/mL at 21 °C Not Available
LogP 0.65 HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
LogP -0.28 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 2 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 0 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 34.14 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 0 ChemAxon
Refractivity 2.89 ChemAxon
Polarizability 1.53 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 0 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge 0 ChemAxon
Spectra
Not Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
Pathways
Name SMPDB Link KEGG Link
D-Arginine and D-Ornithine Metabolism SMP00036 map00472 Link_out
Riboflavin Metabolism SMP00070 map00740 Link_out
Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Metabolism SMP00008 map00360 Link_out
Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain SMP00355 map00190 Link_out
Ethanol Degradation SMP00449 Not Available
Vitamin K Metabolism SMP00464 Not Available
Carnitine Synthesis SMP00465 Not Available
Degradation of Superoxides SMP00468 Not Available
Catecholamine Biosynthesis SMP00012 map00350 Link_out
Plasmalogen Synthesis SMP00479 Not Available
Arachidonic Acid Metabolism SMP00075 map00590 Link_out
Glycine and Serine Metabolism SMP00004 map00260 Link_out
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
6960.0 +/- 410.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
5760.0 +/- 580.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
5490.0 (2780.0-7410.0) uM Newborn (0-30 days old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References None
Associated OMIM IDs None
DrugBank ID Not Available
DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
FoodDB ID FDB022589
KNApSAcK ID Not Available
Chemspider ID 952 Link_out
KEGG Compound ID C00007 Link_out
BioCyc ID CPD-6641 Link_out
BiGG ID 33493 Link_out
Wikipedia Link Oxygen Link_out
NuGOwiki Link HMDB01377 Link_out
Metagene Link HMDB01377 Link_out
METLIN ID 3195 Link_out
PubChem Compound 977 Link_out
PDB ID OXY Link_out
ChEBI ID 15379 Link_out
References
Synthesis Reference Wynn, Richard L. Production of hydrogen and oxygen by thermal disassociation of water. U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. (2007), 26pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Carrier M, Denault A, Lavoie J, Perrault LP: Randomized controlled trial of pericardial blood processing with a cell-saving device on neurologic markers in elderly patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006 Jul;82(1):51-5. Pubmed: 16798186 Link_out
  2. Valadka AB, Furuya Y, Hlatky R, Robertson CS: Global and regional techniques for monitoring cerebral oxidative metabolism after severe traumatic brain injury. Neurosurg Focus. 2000 Nov 15;9(5):e3. Pubmed: 16821755 Link_out
  3. Armonda RA, Vo AH, Bell R, Neal C, Campbell WW: Multimodal monitoring during emergency hemicraniectomy for vein of Labbe thrombosis. Neurocrit Care. 2006;4(3):241-4. Pubmed: 16757831 Link_out
  4. Sassaroli A, deB Frederick B, Tong Y, Renshaw PF, Fantini S: Spatially weighted BOLD signal for comparison of functional magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared imaging of the brain. Neuroimage. 2006 Nov 1;33(2):505-14. Epub 2006 Aug 30. Pubmed: 16945553 Link_out
  5. Zhang YT, Geng ZJ, Zhang Q, Li W, Zhang J: Auditory cortical responses evoked by pure tones in healthy and sensorineural hearing loss subjects: functional MRI and magnetoencephalography. Chin Med J (Engl). 2006 Sep 20;119(18):1548-54. Pubmed: 16996009 Link_out
  6. Ketcham EM, Cairns CB: Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers: development and clinical potential. Ann Emerg Med. 1999 Mar;33(3):326-37. Pubmed: 10036348 Link_out
  7. Capelli-Schellpfeffer M, Gerber GS: The use of hyperbaric oxygen in urology. J Urol. 1999 Sep;162(3 Pt 1):647-54. Pubmed: 10458334 Link_out
  8. Weaver LK, Howe S, Hopkins R, Chan KJ: Carboxyhemoglobin half-life in carbon monoxide-poisoned patients treated with 100% oxygen at atmospheric pressure. Chest. 2000 Mar;117(3):801-8. Pubmed: 10713010 Link_out
  9. Rooth G: Transcutaneous oxygen tension measurements in newborn infants. Pediatrics. 1975 Feb;55(2):232-5. Pubmed: 1090895 Link_out
  10. Nath KA, Norby SM: Reactive oxygen species and acute renal failure. Am J Med. 2000 Dec 1;109(8):665-78. Pubmed: 11099687 Link_out
  11. Kotecha S, Allen J: Oxygen therapy for infants with chronic lung disease. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2002 Jul;87(1):F11-4. Pubmed: 12091281 Link_out
  12. Van Heerebeek L, Meischl C, Stooker W, Meijer CJ, Niessen HW, Roos D: NADPH oxidase(s): new source(s) of reactive oxygen species in the vascular system? J Clin Pathol. 2002 Aug;55(8):561-8. Pubmed: 12147646 Link_out
  13. Forman HJ, Torres M: Reactive oxygen species and cell signaling: respiratory burst in macrophage signaling. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Dec 15;166(12 Pt 2):S4-8. Pubmed: 12471082 Link_out
  14. Kemp PJ, Lewis A, Hartness ME, Searle GJ, Miller P, O'Kelly I, Peers C: Airway chemotransduction: from oxygen sensor to cellular effector. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Dec 15;166(12 Pt 2):S17-24. Pubmed: 12471084 Link_out
  15. Frey B, Shann F: Oxygen administration in infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2003 Mar;88(2):F84-8. Pubmed: 12598492 Link_out
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  17. Ho AM, Lee A, Karmakar MK, Dion PW, Chung DC, Contardi LH: Heliox vs air-oxygen mixtures for the treatment of patients with acute asthma: a systematic overview. Chest. 2003 Mar;123(3):882-90. Pubmed: 12628892 Link_out
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  21. Gordillo GM, Sen CK: Revisiting the essential role of oxygen in wound healing. Am J Surg. 2003 Sep;186(3):259-63. Pubmed: 12946829 Link_out
  22. Deedwania PC, Carbajal EV: Role of myocardial oxygen demand in the pathogenesis of silent ischemia during daily life. Am J Cardiol. 1992 Nov 16;70(16):19F-24F. Pubmed: 1442597 Link_out
  23. Listello D, Glauser F: COPD: primary care management with drug and oxygen therapies. Geriatrics. 1992 Dec;47(12):28-30, 35-8. Pubmed: 1446842 Link_out
  24. McDonagh M, Helfand M, Carson S, Russman BS: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for traumatic brain injury: a systematic review of the evidence. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004 Jul;85(7):1198-204. Pubmed: 15241774 Link_out
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  30. Domachevsky L, Adir Y, Grupper M, Keynan Y, Bentur Y: Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2005;43(3):181-8. Pubmed: 15902792 Link_out
  31. Burkhoff D, Lefer DJ: Cardioprotection before revascularization in ischemic myocardial injury and the potential role of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. Am Heart J. 2005 Apr;149(4):573-9. Pubmed: 15990736 Link_out
  32. Glazier JJ: Attenuation of reperfusion microvascular ischemia by aqueous oxygen: experimental and clinical observations. Am Heart J. 2005 Apr;149(4):580-4. Pubmed: 15990737 Link_out
  33. Kevin LG, Novalija E, Stowe DF: Reactive oxygen species as mediators of cardiac injury and protection: the relevance to anesthesia practice. Anesth Analg. 2005 Nov;101(5):1275-87. Pubmed: 16243980 Link_out
  34. Bennett M, Kertesz T, Yeung P: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Laryngol Otol. 2005 Oct;119(10):791-8. Pubmed: 16259656 Link_out
  35. Levy MM: Pathophysiology of oxygen delivery in respiratory failure. Chest. 2005 Nov;128(5 Suppl 2):547S-553S. Pubmed: 16306052 Link_out
  36. Huang YC: Monitoring oxygen delivery in the critically ill. Chest. 2005 Nov;128(5 Suppl 2):554S-560S. Pubmed: 16306053 Link_out
  37. Liu Z, Xiong T, Meads C: Clinical effectiveness of treatment with hyperbaric oxygen for neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy: systematic review of Chinese literature. BMJ. 2006 Aug 19;333(7564):374. Epub 2006 May 11. Pubmed: 16690641 Link_out
  38. Friedman HI, Fitzmaurice M, Lefaivre JF, Vecchiolla T, Clarke D: An evidence-based appraisal of the use of hyperbaric oxygen on flaps and grafts. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006 Jun;117(7 Suppl):175S-190S; discussion 191S-192S. Pubmed: 16799386 Link_out
  39. Terashvili M, Pratt PF, Gebremedhin D, Narayanan J, Harder DR: Reactive oxygen species cerebral autoregulation in health and disease. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2006 Oct;53(5):1029-37, xi. Pubmed: 17027622 Link_out
  40. Colebourn CL, Barber V, Young JD: Use of helium-oxygen mixture in adult patients presenting with exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review. Anaesthesia. 2007 Jan;62(1):34-42. Pubmed: 17156225 Link_out
  41. Bradley JM, Lasserson T, Elborn S, Macmahon J, O'neill B: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials examining the short-term benefit of ambulatory oxygen in COPD. Chest. 2007 Jan;131(1):278-85. Pubmed: 17218587 Link_out
  42. Tin W, Gupta S: Optimum oxygen therapy in preterm babies. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2007 Mar;92(2):F143-7. Pubmed: 17337663 Link_out
  43. Higgins RD, Bancalari E, Willinger M, Raju TN: Executive summary of the workshop on oxygen in neonatal therapies: controversies and opportunities for research. Pediatrics. 2007 Apr;119(4):790-6. Pubmed: 17403851 Link_out
  44. Ness PM, Cushing MM: Oxygen therapeutics: pursuit of an alternative to the donor red blood cell. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007 May;131(5):734-41. Pubmed: 17488158 Link_out
  45. Shelley KH: Photoplethysmography: beyond the calculation of arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate. Anesth Analg. 2007 Dec;105(6 Suppl):S31-6, tables of contents. Pubmed: 18048895 Link_out
  46. Claure N: Automated regulation of inspired oxygen in preterm infants: oxygenation stability and clinician workload. Anesth Analg. 2007 Dec;105(6 Suppl):S37-41. Pubmed: 18048896 Link_out
  47. Toffaletti J, Zijlstra WG: Misconceptions in reporting oxygen saturation. Anesth Analg. 2007 Dec;105(6 Suppl):S5-9. Pubmed: 18048899 Link_out
  48. Ferrari R, Ceconi C, Curello S, Cargnoni A, Pasini E, De Giuli F, Albertini A: Role of oxygen free radicals in ischemic and reperfused myocardium. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Jan;53(1 Suppl):215S-222S. Pubmed: 1845919 Link_out
  49. Kindwall EP, Gottlieb LJ, Larson DL: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in plastic surgery: a review article. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1991 Nov;88(5):898-908. Pubmed: 1924583 Link_out
  50. Cain SM, Curtis SE: Experimental models of pathologic oxygen supply dependency. Crit Care Med. 1991 May;19(5):603-12. Pubmed: 2026022 Link_out
  51. Weg JG: Oxygen transport in adult respiratory distress syndrome and other acute circulatory problems: relationship of oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption. Crit Care Med. 1991 May;19(5):650-7. Pubmed: 2026027 Link_out
  52. Edwards JD: Oxygen transport in cardiogenic and septic shock. Crit Care Med. 1991 May;19(5):658-63. Pubmed: 2026028 Link_out
  53. Tuchschmidt J, Oblitas D, Fried JC: Oxygen consumption in sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med. 1991 May;19(5):664-71. Pubmed: 2026029 Link_out
  54. Reilly PM, Schiller HJ, Bulkley GB: Pharmacologic approach to tissue injury mediated by free radicals and other reactive oxygen metabolites. Am J Surg. 1991 Apr;161(4):488-503. Pubmed: 2035771 Link_out
  55. Burton GG, Wagshul FA, Henderson D, Kime SW: Fatal airway obstruction caused by a mucous ball from a transtracheal oxygen catheter. Chest. 1991 Jun;99(6):1520-3. Pubmed: 2036843 Link_out
  56. McCord JM, Fridovich I: The biology and pathology of oxygen radicals. Ann Intern Med. 1978 Jul;89(1):122-7. Pubmed: 208444 Link_out
  57. Ardehali A, Ports TA: Myocardial oxygen supply and demand. Chest. 1990 Sep;98(3):699-705. Pubmed: 2203620 Link_out
  58. Edwards JD: Practical application of oxygen transport principles. Crit Care Med. 1990 Jan;18(1 Pt 2):S45-8. Pubmed: 2403513 Link_out
  59. Kloner RA, Przyklenk K, Whittaker P: Deleterious effects of oxygen radicals in ischemia/reperfusion. Resolved and unresolved issues. Circulation. 1989 Nov;80(5):1115-27. Pubmed: 2553296 Link_out
  60. Dart RC, Sanders AB: Oxygen free radicals and myocardial reperfusion injury. Ann Emerg Med. 1988 Jan;17(1):53-8. Pubmed: 3276245 Link_out
  61. Cross CE, Halliwell B, Borish ET, Pryor WA, Ames BN, Saul RL, McCord JM, Harman D: Oxygen radicals and human disease. Ann Intern Med. 1987 Oct;107(4):526-45. Pubmed: 3307585 Link_out
  62. Gabb G, Robin ED: Hyperbaric oxygen. A therapy in search of diseases. Chest. 1987 Dec;92(6):1074-82. Pubmed: 3315479 Link_out
  63. Jackson RM: Pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Chest. 1985 Dec;88(6):900-5. Pubmed: 3905287 Link_out
  64. Vik-Mo H, Mjos OD: Influence of free fatty acids on myocardial oxygen consumption and ischemic injury. Am J Cardiol. 1981 Aug;48(2):361-5. Pubmed: 6115579 Link_out
  65. Klebanoff SJ: Oxygen metabolism and the toxic properties of phagocytes. Ann Intern Med. 1980 Sep;93(3):480-9. Pubmed: 6254418 Link_out
  66. Tinits P: Oxygen therapy and oxygen toxicity. Ann Emerg Med. 1983 May;12(5):321-8. Pubmed: 6414343 Link_out
  67. Lucey JF, Dangman B: A reexamination of the role of oxygen in retrolental fibroplasia. Pediatrics. 1984 Jan;73(1):82-96. Pubmed: 6419199 Link_out
  68. Riley DJ, Berg RA, Edelman NH, Prockop DJ: Prevention of collagen deposition following pulmonary oxygen toxicity in the rat by cis-4-hydroxy-L-proline. J Clin Invest. 1980 Mar;65(3):643-51. Pubmed: 6986411 Link_out
  69. DeVenuto F: Hemoglobin solutions as oxygen-delivering resuscitation fluids. Crit Care Med. 1982 Apr;10(4):238-45. Pubmed: 7039970 Link_out
  70. Vlessis AA, Goldman RK, Trunkey DD: New concepts in the pathophysiology of oxygen metabolism during sepsis. Br J Surg. 1995 Jul;82(7):870-6. Pubmed: 7648095 Link_out
  71. Seger D, Welch L: Carbon monoxide controversies: neuropsychologic testing, mechanism of toxicity, and hyperbaric oxygen. Ann Emerg Med. 1994 Aug;24(2):242-8. Pubmed: 8037390 Link_out
  72. Frei B: Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant vitamins: mechanisms of action. Am J Med. 1994 Sep 26;97(3A):5S-13S; discussion 22S-28S. Pubmed: 8085584 Link_out
  73. Jeroudi MO, Hartley CJ, Bolli R: Myocardial reperfusion injury: role of oxygen radicals and potential therapy with antioxidants. Am J Cardiol. 1994 Mar 10;73(6):2B-7B. Pubmed: 8141076 Link_out
  74. Spahn DR, Leone BJ, Reves JG, Pasch T: Cardiovascular and coronary physiology of acute isovolemic hemodilution: a review of nonoxygen-carrying and oxygen-carrying solutions. Anesth Analg. 1994 May;78(5):1000-21. Pubmed: 8160966 Link_out
  75. Helfman T, Falanga V: Gene expression in low oxygen tension. Am J Med Sci. 1993 Jul;306(1):37-41. Pubmed: 8328508 Link_out
  76. Rudge FW: Carbon monoxide poisoning in infants: treatment with hyperbaric oxygen. South Med J. 1993 Mar;86(3):334-7. Pubmed: 8451675 Link_out
  77. Ackerman WE 3rd, Molnar JM, Juneja MM: Beneficial effect of epidural anesthesia on oxygen consumption in a parturient with adult respiratory distress syndrome. South Med J. 1993 Mar;86(3):361-4. Pubmed: 8451680 Link_out
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  81. O'Donohue WJ Jr: Home oxygen therapy. Med Clin North Am. 1996 May;80(3):611-22. Pubmed: 8637306 Link_out
  82. Cornwell EE 3rd, Kennedy F, Rodriguez J: The critical care of the severely injured patient--I. Assessing and improving oxygen delivery. Surg Clin North Am. 1996 Aug;76(4):959-69. Pubmed: 8782482 Link_out
  83. Powell JF, Menon DK, Jones JG: The effects of hypoxaemia and recommendations for postoperative oxygen therapy. Anaesthesia. 1996 Aug;51(8):769-72. Pubmed: 8795322 Link_out
  84. Dean E: Oxygen transport deficits in systemic disease and implications for physical therapy. Phys Ther. 1997 Feb;77(2):187-202. Pubmed: 9037219 Link_out
  85. Feuerstein G, Yue TL, Ma X, Ruffolo RR: Novel mechanisms in the treatment of heart failure: inhibition of oxygen radicals and apoptosis by carvedilol. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1998 Jul-Aug;41(1 Suppl 1):17-24. Pubmed: 9715819 Link_out
  86. Naito Y, Yoshikawa T, Yoshida N, Kondo M: Role of oxygen radical and lipid peroxidation in indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal injury. Dig Dis Sci. 1998 Sep;43(9 Suppl):30S-34S. Pubmed: 9753223 Link_out
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Enzymes

Show all enzymes and transporters Important Only showing the first 50 enzymes. There are 203 enzymes in total.

Name: Tyrosinase
Reactions:
L-Dopa + Oxygen unknown Dopaquinone + Water details
L-Tyrosine + Oxygen unknown Dopaquinone + Water details
L-Tyrosine + Oxygen unknown L-Dopa + Water details
L-Dopa + L-Tyrosine + Oxygen unknown Dopaquinone + L-Dopa + Water details
Hydroquinone + Oxygen unknown Quinone + Water details
Tyramine + Oxygen + NADH + Hydrogen Ion unknown Dopamine + NAD + Water details
(S)-N-Methylcoclaurine + Oxygen + Reduced acceptor unknown (S)-3-Hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine + Water + Acceptor details
5,6-Dihydroxyindole + Oxygen unknown Indole-5,6-quinone + Water details
Gene Name: TYR
Uniprot ID: P14679 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Peroxisomal sarcosine oxidase
Reactions:
Sarcosine + Water + Oxygen unknown Glycine + Formaldehyde + Hydrogen peroxide details
L-Pipecolic acid + Oxygen unknown (S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine-2-carboxylate + Hydrogen peroxide details
Gene Name: PIPOX
Uniprot ID: Q9P0Z9 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Peroxisomal N(1)-acetyl-spermine/spermidine oxidase
Reactions:
N1-Acetylspermine + Oxygen + Water unknown Spermidine + Acetamidopropanal + Hydrogen peroxide details
N1-Acetylspermidine + Oxygen + Water unknown Putrescine + Acetamidopropanal + Hydrogen peroxide details
N1,N12-Diacetylspermine + Oxygen + Water unknown N1-Acetylspermidine + 3-Acetamidobutanal + Hydrogen peroxide details
Gene Name: PAOX
Uniprot ID: Q6QHF9 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Aldehyde oxidase
Reactions:
An aldehyde + Water + Oxygen unknown a carboxylate + Hydrogen peroxide details
Pyridoxal + Oxygen + Water unknown 4-Pyridoxic acid + Hydrogen peroxide details
Gentisic acid + Hydrogen peroxide unknown Gentisate aldehyde + Oxygen + Water details
Methylmalonic acid + Hydrogen peroxide unknown (S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + Oxygen + Water details
1-Methylnicotinamide + Oxygen + Water unknown N1-Methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide + Hydrogen peroxide + Hydrogen Ion details
5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + Oxygen + Water unknown 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid + Hydrogen peroxide details
Citalopram aldehyde + Water + Oxygen unknown Citalopram propionic acid + Hydrogen peroxide details
1-Methylnicotinamide + Oxygen + Water unknown N1-Methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide + Hydrogen peroxide + Hydrogen Ion details
Gene Name: AOX1
Uniprot ID: Q06278 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Lathosterol oxidase
Reactions:
Lathosterol + NAD(P)H + Oxygen unknown 7-Dehydrocholesterol + NAD(P)(+) + Water details
Lathosterol + NADH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen unknown 7-Dehydrocholesterol + NAD + Water details
Lathosterol + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen unknown 7-Dehydrocholesterol + NADP + Water details
Gene Name: SC5DL
Uniprot ID: O75845 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 5
Reactions:
N,N-Dimethylaniline + NADPH + Oxygen unknown Dimethylaniline-N-oxide + NADP + Water details
Trimethylamine + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen unknown Trimethylamine N-oxide + NADP + Water details
Tamoxifen + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion unknown Tamoxifen N-oxide + NADP + Water details
Gene Name: FMO5
Uniprot ID: P49326 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1
Reactions:
Acyl-CoA + Oxygen unknown trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + Hydrogen peroxide details
Gene Name: ACOX1
Uniprot ID: Q15067 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: D-aspartate oxidase
Reactions:
D-Aspartic acid + Water + Oxygen unknown Oxalacetic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Gene Name: DDO
Uniprot ID: Q99489 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Heme oxygenase 2
Reactions:
Heme + AH(2) + Oxygen unknown Biliverdin + Fe2+ + CO + A + Water details
Hemoglobin + FADH + Oxygen unknown Globin + Biliverdin + Carbon monoxide + Fe3+ + FAD + Water details
Gene Name: HMOX2
Uniprot ID: P30519 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Squalene monooxygenase
Reactions:
Squalene + NADPH + Oxygen unknown (3S)-2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene + NADP + Water details
Squalene + Reduced acceptor + Oxygen unknown (3S)-2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene + Acceptor + Water details
Squalene + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion unknown (3S)-2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene + NADP + Water details
Gene Name: SQLE
Uniprot ID: Q14534 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 2
Reactions:
N,N-Dimethylaniline + NADPH + Oxygen unknown Dimethylaniline-N-oxide + NADP + Water details
Trimethylamine + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen unknown Trimethylamine N-oxide + NADP + Water details
Tamoxifen + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion unknown Tamoxifen N-oxide + NADP + Water details
Gene Name: FMO2
Uniprot ID: Q99518 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Name: Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B
Reactions:
RCH(2)NHR' + Water + Oxygen unknown RCHO + R'NH(2) + Hydrogen peroxide details
Tryptamine + Water + Oxygen unknown Indoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Tyramine + Water + Oxygen unknown 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen unknown Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Norepinephrine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water unknown Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Serotonin + Water + Oxygen unknown 5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Epinephrine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxide details
N-Acetylputrescine + Water + Oxygen unknown N4-Acetylaminobutanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Dopamine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
1-Methylhistamine + Water + Oxygen unknown Methylimidazole acetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
3-Methoxytyramine + Water + Oxygen unknown Homovanillin + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammonia details
Normetanephrine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Metanephrine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + Hydrogen peroxide + Methylamine details
3-Hydroxykynurenamine + Oxygen unknown Quinoline-4,8-diol + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
5-Hydroxykynurenamine + Water + Oxygen unknown 4,6-Dihydroxyquinoline + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide + Water details
Citalopram + Oxygen + Water unknown Citalopram aldehyde + Dimethylamine + Hydrogen peroxide details
N-Desmethylcitalopram + Oxygen + Water unknown Citalopram aldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxide details
Didemethylcitalopram + Water + Oxygen unknown Citalopram aldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Gene Name: MAOB
Uniprot ID: P27338 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 4
Reactions:
N,N-Dimethylaniline + NADPH + Oxygen unknown Dimethylaniline-N-oxide + NADP + Water details
Trimethylamine + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen unknown Trimethylamine N-oxide + NADP + Water details
Tamoxifen + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion unknown Tamoxifen N-oxide + NADP + Water details
Gene Name: FMO4
Uniprot ID: P31512 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A
Reactions:
RCH(2)NHR' + Water + Oxygen unknown RCHO + R'NH(2) + Hydrogen peroxide details
Tryptamine + Water + Oxygen unknown Indoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Tyramine + Water + Oxygen unknown 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen unknown Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Norepinephrine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water unknown Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Serotonin + Water + Oxygen unknown 5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Epinephrine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxide details
N-Acetylputrescine + Water + Oxygen unknown N4-Acetylaminobutanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Dopamine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
1-Methylhistamine + Water + Oxygen unknown Methylimidazole acetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
3-Methoxytyramine + Water + Oxygen unknown Homovanillin + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammonia details
Normetanephrine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Metanephrine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + Hydrogen peroxide + Methylamine details
3-Hydroxykynurenamine + Oxygen unknown Quinoline-4,8-diol + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
5-Hydroxykynurenamine + Water + Oxygen unknown 4,6-Dihydroxyquinoline + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide + Water details
Citalopram + Oxygen + Water unknown Citalopram aldehyde + Dimethylamine + Hydrogen peroxide details
N-Desmethylcitalopram + Oxygen + Water unknown Citalopram aldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxide details
Didemethylcitalopram + Water + Oxygen unknown Citalopram aldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Gene Name: MAOA
Uniprot ID: P21397 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 3
Reactions:
N,N-Dimethylaniline + NADPH + Oxygen unknown Dimethylaniline-N-oxide + NADP + Water details
Trimethylamine + NADPH + Oxygen unknown Trimethylamine N-oxide + NADP + Water details
Trimethylamine + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen unknown Trimethylamine N-oxide + NADP + Water details
Tamoxifen + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion unknown Tamoxifen N-oxide + NADP + Water details
Gene Name: FMO3
Uniprot ID: P31513 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase
Reactions:
Xanthine + Water + Oxygen unknown Uric acid + Hydrogen peroxide details
Hypoxanthine + Oxygen + Water unknown Xanthine + Hydrogen peroxide details
1-Methylxanthine + Water + Oxygen unknown 1-Methyluric acid + Hydrogen peroxide details
Paraxanthine + Oxygen + Water unknown 1,7-Dimethyluric acid + Hydrogen peroxide details
Theobromine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3,7-Dimethyluric acid + Hydrogen peroxide details
7-Methylxanthine + Oxygen + Water unknown 7-Methyluric acid + Hydrogen peroxide details
Mercaptopurine + Water + Oxygen unknown 6-Thiourate + Hydrogen peroxide details
Gene Name: XDH
Uniprot ID: P47989 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (quinone), mitochondrial
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: DHODH
Uniprot ID: Q02127 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 1
Reactions:
N,N-Dimethylaniline + NADPH + Oxygen unknown Dimethylaniline-N-oxide + NADP + Water details
Trimethylamine + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen unknown Trimethylamine N-oxide + NADP + Water details
Tamoxifen + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion unknown Tamoxifen N-oxide + NADP + Water details
Gene Name: FMO1
Uniprot ID: Q01740 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 3
Reactions:
Acyl-CoA + Oxygen unknown trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + Hydrogen peroxide details
Gene Name: ACOX3
Uniprot ID: O15254 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Heme oxygenase 1
Reactions:
Heme + AH(2) + Oxygen unknown Biliverdin + Fe2+ + CO + A + Water details
Hemoglobin + FADH + Oxygen unknown Globin + Biliverdin + Carbon monoxide + Fe3+ + FAD + Water details
Gene Name: HMOX1
Uniprot ID: P09601 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: D-amino-acid oxidase
Reactions:
A D-amino acid + Water + Oxygen unknown a 2-oxo acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Glycine + Water + Oxygen unknown Glyoxylic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
D-Ornithine + Water + Oxygen unknown 5-Amino-2-oxopentanoic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
D-Proline + Oxygen unknown 1-Pyrroline-2-carboxylic acid + Hydrogen peroxide details
cis-4-Hydroxy-D-proline + Oxygen unknown 1-Pyrroline-4-hydroxy-2-carboxylate + Hydrogen peroxide details
Cephalosporin C + Water + Oxygen unknown (7R)-7-(5-Carboxy-5-oxopentanoyl)aminocephalosporinate + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Gene Name: DAO
Uniprot ID: P14920 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Coproporphyrinogen-III oxidase, mitochondrial
Reactions:
Coproporphyrinogen III + Oxygen + Hydrogen Ion unknown Protoporphyrinogen IX + CO(2) + Water details
Coproporphyrinogen III + Oxygen unknown Protoporphyrinogen IX + Carbon dioxide + Water details
Gene Name: CPOX
Uniprot ID: P36551 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase
Reactions:
Peptidylglycine + Ascorbic acid + Oxygen unknown peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) + Dehydroascorbic acid + Water details
Gene Name: PAM
Uniprot ID: P19021 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Dopamine beta-hydroxylase
Reactions:
Dopamine + Ascorbic acid + Oxygen unknown xi-Norepinephrine + Dehydroascorbic acid + Water details
Dopamine + Ascorbic acid + Oxygen unknown Norepinephrine + Dehydroascorbic acid + Water details
Gene Name: DBH
Uniprot ID: P09172 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Methylsterol monooxygenase 1
Reactions:
4,4-Dimethyl-5-alpha-cholest-7-en-3-beta-ol + NAD(P)H + Oxygen unknown 4-beta-Hydroxymethyl-4-alpha-methyl-5-alpha-cholest-7-en-3-beta-ol + NAD(P)(+) + Water details
4-beta-Hydroxymethyl-4-alpha-methyl-5-alpha-cholest-7-en-3-beta-ol + NAD(P)H + Oxygen unknown 3-beta-Hydroxy-4-beta-methyl-5-alpha-cholest-7-ene-4-alpha-carbaldehyde + NAD(P)(+) + Water details
3-beta-Hydroxy-4-beta-methyl-5-alpha-cholest-7-ene-4-alpha-carbaldehyde + NAD(P)H + Oxygen unknown 3-beta-Hydroxy-4-beta-methyl-5-alpha-cholest-7-ene-4-alpha-carboxylate + NAD(P)(+) + Water details
4,4-Dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-b-ol + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen unknown 4a-Carboxy-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol + NADP + Water details
4,4-Dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-b-ol + NADH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen unknown 3-beta-Hydroxy-4-beta-methyl-5-alpha-cholest-7-ene-4-alpha-carboxylate + NAD + Water details
4,4-Dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-b-ol + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen unknown 3-beta-Hydroxy-4-beta-methyl-5-alpha-cholest-7-ene-4-alpha-carboxylate + NADP + Water details
Gene Name: MSMO1
Uniprot ID: Q15800 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase, decarboxylating
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: NSDHL
Uniprot ID: Q15738 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase
Reactions:
Obtusifoliol + Oxygen + NADPH unknown Delta 8,14 -Sterol + Formic acid + NADP + Water details
Lanosterin + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion unknown 4,4-Dimethylcholesta-8,14,24-trienol + Formic acid + NADP + Water details
Obtusifoliol + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion unknown Delta 8,14 -Sterol + Formic acid + NADP + Water details
Gene Name: CYP51A1
Uniprot ID: Q16850 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Phytanoyl-CoA dioxygenase, peroxisomal
Reactions:
Phytanoyl-CoA + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown 2-Hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA + Succinic acid + CO(2) details
Gene Name: PHYH
Uniprot ID: O14832 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase
Reactions:
L-Tyrosine + L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + Oxygen unknown L-Dopa + 4a-Hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin details
L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + L-Tyrosine + Oxygen unknown L-Dopa + 4a-Carbinolamine tetrahydrobiopterin + Water details
Gene Name: TH
Uniprot ID: P07101 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase
Reactions:
L-Phenylalanine + L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + Oxygen unknown L-Tyrosine + 4a-Hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin details
L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + L-Phenylalanine + Oxygen unknown 4a-Carbinolamine tetrahydrobiopterin + L-Tyrosine + Water details
Gene Name: PAH
Uniprot ID: P00439 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Peroxiredoxin-6
Reactions:
L-Phenylalanine + Oxygen unknown 2-Phenylacetamide + Carbon dioxide details
Gene Name: PRDX6
Uniprot ID: P30041 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-2
Reactions:
L-proline-[procollagen] + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline-[procollagen] + Succinic acid + CO(2) details
L-Proline + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown 4-Hydroxyproline + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide details
Gene Name: P4HA2
Uniprot ID: O15460 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1
Reactions:
L-proline-[procollagen] + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline-[procollagen] + Succinic acid + CO(2) details
L-Proline + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown 4-Hydroxyproline + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide details
Gene Name: P4HA1
Uniprot ID: P13674 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Acyl-CoA desaturase
Reactions:
Stearoyl-CoA + ferrocytochrome b5 + Oxygen + Hydrogen Ion unknown Oleoyl-CoA + ferricytochrome b5 + Water details
Gene Name: SCD
Uniprot ID: O00767 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase
Reactions:
4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown L-Carnitine + Succinic acid + CO(2) details
4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown L-Carnitine + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide details
Gene Name: BBOX1
Uniprot ID: O75936 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Amiloride-sensitive amine oxidase [copper-containing]
Reactions:
Histamine + Water + Oxygen unknown Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Putrescine + Oxygen + Water unknown 4-Aminobutyraldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Tryptamine + Water + Oxygen unknown Indoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Gene Name: ABP1
Uniprot ID: P19801 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Membrane primary amine oxidase
Reactions:
RCH(2)NH(2) + Water + Oxygen unknown RCHO + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Tyramine + Water + Oxygen unknown 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen unknown Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water unknown Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
1,3-Diaminopropane + Oxygen + Water unknown 3-Aminopropionaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
N-Methylputrescine + Oxygen + Hydrogen Ion unknown 1-Methylpyrrolinium + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammonia details
Dopamine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Methylamine + Oxygen + Water unknown Formaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Cadaverine + Water + Oxygen unknown 5-Aminopentanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Gene Name: AOC3
Uniprot ID: Q16853 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Retina-specific copper amine oxidase
Reactions:
RCH(2)NH(2) + Water + Oxygen unknown RCHO + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Tyramine + Water + Oxygen unknown 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen unknown Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water unknown Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
1,3-Diaminopropane + Oxygen + Water unknown 3-Aminopropionaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
N-Methylputrescine + Oxygen + Hydrogen Ion unknown 1-Methylpyrrolinium + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammonia details
Dopamine + Water + Oxygen unknown 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Methylamine + Oxygen + Water unknown Formaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Cadaverine + Water + Oxygen unknown 5-Aminopentanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Gene Name: AOC2
Uniprot ID: O75106 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 4A11
Reactions:
Octane + reduced rubredoxin + Oxygen unknown Octanol + oxidized rubredoxin + Water details
Fatty acid + Oxygen + Reduced flavoprotein unknown Glycolic acid + Oxidized flavoprotein + Water details
Arachidonic acid + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion unknown 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid + NADP + Water details
Arachidonic acid + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion unknown 11,12-EpETrE + NADP + Water details
All-trans-retinoic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen unknown all-trans-18-Hydroxyretinoic acid + NADP + Water details
Gene Name: CYP4A11
Uniprot ID: Q02928 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1
Reactions:
D-Tryptophan + Oxygen unknown N'-Formylkynurenine details
L-Tryptophan + Oxygen unknown L-Formylkynurenine details
Oxitriptan + Oxygen unknown 5-Hydroxy-N-formylkynurenine details
Serotonin + Oxygen unknown Formyl-5-hydroxykynurenamine details
Melatonin + Oxygen unknown Acetyl-N-formyl-5-methoxykynurenamine details
Gene Name: IDO1
Uniprot ID: P14902 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrial
Reactions:
A steroid + reduced adrenal ferredoxin + Oxygen unknown an 11-beta-hydroxysteroid + oxidized adrenal ferredoxin + Water details
Progesterone + Reduced ferredoxin + Oxygen unknown 11b-Hydroxyprogesterone + Oxidized ferredoxin + Water details
Reduced adrenal ferredoxin + Androstenedione + Oxygen unknown 11b-Hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione + Oxidized adrenal ferredoxin + Water details
Cortexolone + Reduced ferredoxin + Oxygen unknown Hydrocortisone + Oxidized ferredoxin + Water details
17-Hydroxyprogesterone + Reduced ferredoxin + Oxygen unknown 21-Deoxycortisol + Oxidized ferredoxin + Water details
Deoxycorticosterone + Reduced ferredoxin + Oxygen unknown Corticosterone + Oxidized ferredoxin + Water details
17a,21-Dihydroxypreg-nenolone + Reduced ferredoxin + Oxygen unknown 11b,17a,21-Trihydroxypreg-nenolone + Oxidized ferredoxin + Water details
Deoxycorticosterone + Reduced adrenal ferredoxin + Oxygen unknown Aldosterone + Oxidized adrenal ferredoxin + Water details
Gene Name: CYP11B1
Uniprot ID: P15538 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1
Reactions:
L-lysine-[procollagen] + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown (2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + Succinic acid + CO(2) details
Protein lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown Procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide + Water details
Gene Name: PLOD1
Uniprot ID: Q02809 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2
Reactions:
L-lysine-[procollagen] + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown (2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + Succinic acid + CO(2) details
Protein lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown Procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide + Water details
Gene Name: PLOD2
Uniprot ID: O00469 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3
Reactions:
L-lysine-[procollagen] + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown (2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + Succinic acid + CO(2) details
Protein lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown Procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide + Water details
Gene Name: PLOD3
Uniprot ID: O60568 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Tryptophan 5-hydroxylase 1
Reactions:
L-Tryptophan + L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + Oxygen unknown Oxitriptan + 4a-Hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin details
L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + L-Tryptophan + Oxygen unknown Oxitriptan + 4a-Carbinolamine tetrahydrobiopterin + Water details
Gene Name: TPH1
Uniprot ID: P17752 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Ferritin, mitochondrial
Reactions:
Fe2+ + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen unknown Fe3+ + Water details
Gene Name: FTMT
Uniprot ID: Q8N4E7 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Tryptophan 5-hydroxylase 2
Reactions:
L-Tryptophan + L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + Oxygen unknown Oxitriptan + 4a-Hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin details
L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + L-Tryptophan + Oxygen unknown Oxitriptan + 4a-Carbinolamine tetrahydrobiopterin + Water details
Gene Name: TPH2
Uniprot ID: Q8IWU9 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Ceruloplasmin
Reactions:
Fe2+ + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen unknown Fe3+ + Water details
Gene Name: CP
Uniprot ID: P00450 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase
Reactions:
Cholesterol + NADPH + Oxygen unknown 7a-Hydroxycholesterol + NADP + Water details
Cholesterol + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion unknown 7a-Hydroxycholesterol + NADP + Water details
27-Hydroxycholesterol + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen unknown 7-a,27-Dihydroxycholesterol + NADP + Water details
Dehydroepiandrosterone + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion unknown 7a-Hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone + NADP + Water details
Gene Name: CYP7A1
Uniprot ID: P22680 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase
Reactions:
Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate + Water + Oxygen unknown Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate + Oxygen unknown Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + Hydrogen peroxide details
Pyridoxamine + Water + Oxygen unknown Pyridoxal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Pyridoxine + Oxygen unknown Pyridoxal + Hydrogen peroxide details
Gene Name: PNPO
Uniprot ID: Q9NVS9 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA