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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-20 22:13:31 UTC
Update Date2016-05-16 17:44:22 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01842
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGuanidine
DescriptionGuanidine is a polyamine that can function as a strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. With a pKa of 12.5, guanidine is protonated, with a charge of +1 in physiological conditions. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed). Guanidine is a crystalline compound of strong alkalinity formed by the oxidation of guanine. It is used in the manufacture of plastics and explosives. -- Wikipedia.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
AminomethanamidineChEBI
GuChEBI
GuanidinChEBI
H2N-C(=nh)-NH2ChEBI
IminoureaChEBI
(4-Aminobutyl) guanidineHMDB
AminoformamidineHMDB
CarbamamidineHMDB
CarbamidineHMDB
ImidoureaHMDB
Chemical FormulaCH5N3
Average Molecular Weight59.0705
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight59.048347175
IUPAC Nameguanidine
Traditional Nameguanidine
CAS Registry Number50-01-1
SMILES
NC(N)=N
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/CH5N3/c2-1(3)4/h(H5,2,3,4)
InChI KeyInChIKey=ZRALSGWEFCBTJO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as guanidines. These are compounds containing a guanidine moiety, with the general structure (R1R2N)(R3R4N)C=N-R5.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
ClassGuanidines
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentGuanidines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Guanidine
  • Carboximidamide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Imine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Arginine and proline metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point182.3 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility829 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility11.5 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.9ALOGPS
logP-1.2ChemAxon
logS-0.71ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)12.55ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.89 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity25.86 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability5.57 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-00dj-0920000000-b2c19a9125b059b573fdView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-9000000000-4df2949d18a754b6aa19View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-18b92fabd8878a75412fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-6675e99565dbe0735311View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-0bf566c21de369198214View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-b4670d41c5cfae856086View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03dl-9000000000-9431377731da436c5aa7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-2280b2044ac4a1f8b7fbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-8278836749ed05b02fb3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-154d1302bda42480ad7bView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Brain
  • Cartilage
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Spleen
  • Testes
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.13 (0.06-0.2) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.24 +/- 0.08 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified<0.20 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.5 (0.20-0.78) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0 - 0.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.42 +/- 0.24 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.85-22.02 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified3.1 +/- 1.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothChronic renal failure details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.4 (0.06-0.35) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCirrhosis details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.63 +/- 0.17 uMAdult (>18 years old)Bothuremia details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Chronic renal failure
  1. Kikuchi T, Orita Y, Ando A, Mikami H, Fujii M, Okada A, Abe H: Liquid-chromatographic determination of guanidino compounds in plasma and erythrocyte of normal persons and uremic patients. Clin Chem. 1981 Nov;27(11):1899-902. [7296840 ]
Cirrhosis
  1. Marescau B, De Deyn PP, Holvoet J, Possemiers I, Nagels G, Saxena V, Mahler C: Guanidino compounds in serum and urine of cirrhotic patients. Metabolism. 1995 May;44(5):584-8. [7752905 ]
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00536
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB005416
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID3400
KEGG Compound IDC17349
BioCyc IDCPD-13517
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGuanidine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01842
Metagene LinkHMDB01842
METLIN ID6342
PubChem Compound3520
PDB IDGAI
ChEBI ID42820
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Leitersdorf E, Reshef A, Meiner V, Levitzki R, Schwartz SP, Dann EJ, Berkman N, Cali JJ, Klapholz L, Berginer VM: Frameshift and splice-junction mutations in the sterol 27-hydroxylase gene cause cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis in Jews or Moroccan origin. J Clin Invest. 1993 Jun;91(6):2488-96. [8514861 ]
  2. Lorenzo P, Bayliss MT, Heinegard D: A novel cartilage protein (CILP) present in the mid-zone of human articular cartilage increases with age. J Biol Chem. 1998 Sep 4;273(36):23463-8. [9722583 ]
  3. Grundemann D, Liebich G, Kiefer N, Koster S, Schomig E: Selective substrates for non-neuronal monoamine transporters. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 Jul;56(1):1-10. [10385678 ]
  4. Mizutani N, Hayakawa C, Ohya Y, Watanabe K, Watanabe Y, Mori A: Guanidino compounds in hyperargininemia. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1987 Nov;153(3):197-205. [3433275 ]
  5. Atlas D: Molecular and physiological properties of clonidine-displacing substance. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 Jul 12;763:314-24. [7677341 ]
  6. De Deyn PP, Marescau B, D'Hooge R, Possemiers I, Nagler J, Mahler C: Guanidino compound levels in brain regions of non-dialyzed uremic patients. Neurochem Int. 1995 Sep;27(3):227-37. [8520461 ]
  7. Bullough A, Karadia S, Watters M: Phaeochromocytoma: an unusual cause of hypertension in pregnancy. Anaesthesia. 2001 Jan;56(1):43-6. [11167434 ]
  8. Mannik M, Person RE: Deep penetration of antibodies into the articular cartilage of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int. 1994;14(3):95-102. [7839077 ]
  9. Eropkin MIu, Smirnova TD, Eropkina EM, Mamaeva EG: [The study of the Ca2+ role in cytotoxic response of human cells in culture to the action of xenobiotics] Tsitologiia. 2000;42(2):154-9. [10752119 ]
  10. Rufanova VA, Sorokin A: CrkII associates with BCAR3 in response to endothelin-1 in human glomerular mesangial cells. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006 Jun;231(6):752-6. [16740993 ]
  11. Bjornsson S: Size-dependent separation of proteoglycans by electrophoresis in gels of pure agarose. Anal Biochem. 1993 May 1;210(2):292-8. [8512064 ]
  12. Sakamoto N, Toge T, Nishiyama M: Tumor-specific synergistic therapy of mitomycin C: modulation of bioreductive activation. Hiroshima J Med Sci. 1997 Jun;46(2):67-73. [9232934 ]
  13. Dabaghian RH, Barnard G, McConnell I, Clewley JP: An immunoassay for the pathological form of the prion protein based on denaturation and time resolved fluorometry. J Virol Methods. 2006 Mar;132(1-2):85-91. Epub 2005 Oct 10. [16219367 ]
  14. Gothert M, Bruss M, Bonisch H, Molderings GJ: Presynaptic imidazoline receptors. New developments in characterization and classification. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999 Jun 21;881:171-84. [10415912 ]
  15. Okumi M, Ueda T, Ichimaru N, Fujimoto N, Itoh K: [A case of composite pheochromocytoma-ganglioneuroblastoma in the adrenal gland with primary hyperparathyroidism] Hinyokika Kiyo. 2003 May;49(5):269-72. [12822455 ]
  16. Rubello D, Bui C, Casara D, Gross MD, Fig LM, Shapiro B: Functional scintigraphy of the adrenal gland. Eur J Endocrinol. 2002 Jul;147(1):13-28. [12088915 ]
  17. Wang JG, Lemon SM: Hepatitis delta virus antigen forms dimers and multimeric complexes in vivo. J Virol. 1993 Jan;67(1):446-54. [7677957 ]
  18. Maruta K, Sonoda Y, Saigo R, Yoshioka T, Fukunaga H: [A patient with von Recklinghausen's disease associated with polymyositis, asymptomatic pheochromocytoma, and primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma] Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. 2004 May;41(3):339-43. [15237755 ]
  19. Noyori K, Koshino T, Takagi T, Okamoto R, Jasin HE: Binding characteristics of antitype II collagen antibody to the surface of diseased human cartilage as a probe for tissue damage. J Rheumatol. 1994 Feb;21(2):293-6. [8182639 ]
  20. Tapiero H, Mathe G, Couvreur P, Tew KD: I. Arginine. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002 Nov;56(9):439-45. [12481980 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH2
Uniprot ID:
P05091
Molecular weight:
56380.93
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GAMT
Uniprot ID:
Q14353
Molecular weight:
26317.925
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Komoto J, Yamada T, Takata Y, Konishi K, Ogawa H, Gomi T, Fujioka M, Takusagawa F: Catalytic mechanism of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase: crystal structures of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase ternary complexes. Biochemistry. 2004 Nov 16;43(45):14385-94. [15533043 ]
  4. Karelin AA, Mardashev SR: [The stimulating effect of cyclic AMP, glucagon and insulin on guanidine acetate-N-methyltransferase activity in rat liver and pancreas]. Biokhimiia. 1976 Feb;41(2):316-23. [179611 ]
  5. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in nucleic acid binding
Specific function:
Endonuclease that catalyzes the cleavage of RNA on the 3' side of pyrimidine nucleotides. Acts on single stranded and double stranded RNA
Gene Name:
RNASE1
Uniprot ID:
P07998
Molecular weight:
17644.1
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Dodge RW, Laity JH, Rothwarf DM, Shimotakahara S, Scheraga HA: Folding pathway of guanidine-denatured disulfide-intact wild-type and mutant bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A. J Protein Chem. 1994 May;13(4):409-21. [7986344 ]
  4. Nasiri H, Forouzandeh M, Rasaee MJ, Rahbarizadeh F: Modified salting-out method: high-yield, high-quality genomic DNA extraction from whole blood using laundry detergent. J Clin Lab Anal. 2005;19(6):229-32. [16302208 ]
  5. Loh SN, Rohl CA, Kiefhaber T, Baldwin RL: A general two-process model describes the hydrogen exchange behavior of RNase A in unfolding conditions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Mar 5;93(5):1982-7. [8700871 ]
  6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Interacts with the cytoplasmic tail of NMDA receptor subunits and shaker-type potassium channels. Required for synaptic plasticity associated with NMDA receptor signaling. Overexpression or depletion of DLG4 changes the ratio of excitatory to inhibitory synapses in hippocampal neurons. May reduce the amplitude of ACCN3 acid-evoked currents by retaining the channel intracellularly. May regulate the intracellular trafficking of ADR1B
Gene Name:
DLG4
Uniprot ID:
P78352
Molecular weight:
80494.6
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Decarboxylates L-arginine to agmatine. Truncated splice isoforms probably lack activity.
Gene Name:
ADC
Uniprot ID:
Q96A70
Molecular weight:
49979.185
General function:
Involved in agmatinase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AGMAT
Uniprot ID:
Q9BSE5
Molecular weight:
37660.065

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular weight:
62751.1
References
  1. Wu X, Prasad PD, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: cDNA sequence, transport function, and genomic organization of human OCTN2, a new member of the organic cation transporter family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 May 29;246(3):589-95. [9618255 ]
  2. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [10525100 ]
  3. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. [11160873 ]
  4. Wu X, Huang W, Prasad PD, Seth P, Rajan DP, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1482-92. [10454528 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 1.78. A key substrate of this transporter seems to be ergothioneine (ET)
Gene Name:
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H015
Molecular weight:
62154.5
References
  1. Yabuuchi H, Tamai I, Nezu J, Sakamoto K, Oku A, Shimane M, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):768-73. [10215651 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)- N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine, and metformin. The transport of organic cations is inhibited by a broad array of compounds like tetramethylammonium (TMA), cocaine, lidocaine, NMDA receptor antagonists, atropine, prazosin, cimetidine, TEA and NMN, guanidine, cimetidine, choline, procainamide, quinine, tetrabutylammonium, and tetrapentylammonium. Translocates organic cations in an electrogenic and pH-independent manner. Translocates organic cations across the plasma membrane in both directions. Transports the polyamines spermine and spermidine. Transports pramipexole across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. The choline transport is activated by MMTS. Regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways including inhibition by protein kinase A activation, and endogenously activation by the calmodulin complex, the calmodulin- dependent kinase II and LCK tyrosine kinase
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular weight:
61187.4
References
  1. Zhang L, Dresser MJ, Chun JK, Babbitt PC, Giacomini KM: Cloning and functional characterization of a rat renal organic cation transporter isoform (rOCT1A). J Biol Chem. 1997 Jun 27;272(26):16548-54. [9195965 ]
  2. Arndt P, Volk C, Gorboulev V, Budiman T, Popp C, Ulzheimer-Teuber I, Akhoundova A, Koppatz S, Bamberg E, Nagel G, Koepsell H: Interaction of cations, anions, and weak base quinine with rat renal cation transporter rOCT2 compared with rOCT1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 Sep;281(3):F454-68. [11502595 ]
  3. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Saito H, Inui KI: Functional characteristics and membrane localization of rat multispecific organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, mediating tubular secretion of cationic drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Nov;287(2):800-5. [9808712 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, cisplatin and oxaliplatin. Cisplatin may develop a nephrotoxic action. Transport of creatinine is inhibited by fluoroquinolones such as DX-619 and LVFX. This transporter is a major determinant of the anticancer activity of oxaliplatin and may contribute to antitumor specificity
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular weight:
62564.0
References
  1. Urakami Y, Akazawa M, Saito H, Okuda M, Inui K: cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of an alternatively spliced variant of organic cation transporter hOCT2 predominantly expressed in the human kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jul;13(7):1703-10. [12089365 ]
  2. Arndt P, Volk C, Gorboulev V, Budiman T, Popp C, Ulzheimer-Teuber I, Akhoundova A, Koppatz S, Bamberg E, Nagel G, Koepsell H: Interaction of cations, anions, and weak base quinine with rat renal cation transporter rOCT2 compared with rOCT1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 Sep;281(3):F454-68. [11502595 ]
  3. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Saito H, Inui KI: Functional characteristics and membrane localization of rat multispecific organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, mediating tubular secretion of cationic drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Nov;287(2):800-5. [9808712 ]
  4. Grundemann D, Liebich G, Kiefer N, Koster S, Schomig E: Selective substrates for non-neuronal monoamine transporters. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 Jul;56(1):1-10. [10385678 ]
  5. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain
Gene Name:
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID:
O75751
Molecular weight:
61279.5
References
  1. Wu X, Huang W, Ganapathy ME, Wang H, Kekuda R, Conway SJ, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Structure, function, and regional distribution of the organic cation transporter OCT3 in the kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2000 Sep;279(3):F449-58. [10966924 ]
  2. Kekuda R, Prasad PD, Wu X, Wang H, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Cloning and functional characterization of a potential-sensitive, polyspecific organic cation transporter (OCT3) most abundantly expressed in placenta. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jun 26;273(26):15971-9. [9632645 ]