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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:29 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:05:10 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01967
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCarbon dioxide
DescriptionCarbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals. Carbon dioxide is produced during respiration by all animals, fungi and microorganisms that depend on living and decaying plants for food, either directly or indirectly. It is, therefore, a major component of the carbon cycle. Additionally, carbon dioxide is used by plants during photosynthesis to make sugars which may either be consumed again in respiration or used as the raw material to produce polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose, proteins and the wide variety of other organic compounds required for plant growth and development. When inhaled at concentrations much higher than usual atmospheric levels, it can produce a sour taste in the mouth and a stinging sensation in the nose and throat. These effects result from the gas dissolving in the mucous membranes and saliva, forming a weak solution of carbonic acid. Carbon dioxide is used by the food industry, the oil industry, and the chemical industry. Carbon dioxide is used to produce carbonated soft drinks and soda water. Traditionally, the carbonation in beer and sparkling wine comes about through natural fermentation, but some manufacturers carbonate these drinks artificially.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
[CO2]ChEBI
Carbonic anhydrideChEBI
CO2ChEBI
e 290ChEBI
e-290ChEBI
e290ChEBI
R-744ChEBI
Carbon oxideHMDB
Carbon-12 dioxideHMDB
Carbonic acid anhydrideHMDB
Carbonic acid gasHMDB
Chemical FormulaCO2
Average Molecular Weight44.0095
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight43.989829244
IUPAC Namemethanedione
Traditional Namecarbon dioxide
CAS Registry Number124-38-9
SMILES
O=C=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/CO2/c2-1-3
InChI KeyInChIKey=CURLTUGMZLYLDI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organooxygen compounds. These are organic compounds containing a bond between a carbon atom and an oxygen atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
ClassNot Available
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentOrganooxygen compounds
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, signalling
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-56.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.48 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP0.83HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility186.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.63ALOGPS
logP-0.28ChemAxon
logS0.63ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area34.14 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity6.38 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability2.57 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-eb2207f7400e9144fff7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-eb2207f7400e9144fff7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-eb2207f7400e9144fff7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-b7e6c1e22f1f90c5a8e0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-b7e6c1e22f1f90c5a8e0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-b7e6c1e22f1f90c5a8e0View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9000000000-e1cf88df1066f206d01fView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Liver
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
2-aminoadipic 2-oxoadipic aciduriaSMP00719Not Available
2-Hydroxyglutric Aciduria (D And L Form)SMP00136Not Available
2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiencySMP00549Not Available
2-Methyl-3-Hydroxybutryl CoA Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00137Not Available
3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase DeficiencySMP00138Not Available
3-hydroxyisobutyric acid dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00521Not Available
3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduriaSMP00522Not Available
3-Methylcrotonyl Coa Carboxylase Deficiency Type ISMP00237Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type ISMP00139Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IIISMP00140Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IVSMP00141Not Available
3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00721Not Available
4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00243Not Available
Acute Intermittent PorphyriaSMP00344Not Available
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)SMP00535Not Available
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencySMP00144Not Available
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencySMP00167Not Available
AICA-RibosiduriaSMP00168Not Available
Alendronate pathwaySMP00095Not Available
AlkaptonuriaSMP00169Not Available
Ammonia RecyclingSMP00009map00910
Arginine and Proline MetabolismSMP00020map00330
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)SMP00362Not Available
ArgininemiaSMP00357Not Available
Argininosuccinic AciduriaSMP00003Not Available
Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencySMP00170Not Available
Aspartate MetabolismSMP00067map00250
Atorvastatin PathwaySMP00131Not Available
Azathioprine PathwaySMP00427Not Available
Beta Ureidopropionase DeficiencySMP00172Not Available
Beta-Alanine MetabolismSMP00007map00410
Beta-Ketothiolase DeficiencySMP00173Not Available
Betazole Action PathwaySMP00736Not Available
Canavan DiseaseSMP00175Not Available
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase DeficiencySMP00002Not Available
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency (I)SMP00538Not Available
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency (II)SMP00541Not Available
Carnitine SynthesisSMP00465Not Available
Carnosinuria, carnosinemiaSMP00493Not Available
Catecholamine BiosynthesisSMP00012map00350
Cerivastatin PathwaySMP00111Not Available
CHILD SyndromeSMP00387Not Available
Cholesteryl ester storage diseaseSMP00508Not Available
Chondrodysplasia Punctata II, X Linked Dominant (CDPX2)SMP00388Not Available
Cimetidine PathwaySMP00232Not Available
Citric Acid CycleSMP00057map00020
Citrullinemia Type ISMP00001Not Available
Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria (CEP) or Gunther DiseaseSMP00345Not Available
Congenital lactic acidosisSMP00546Not Available
Creatine deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencySMP00504Not Available
Cystathionine Beta-Synthase DeficiencySMP00177Not Available
DesmosterolosisSMP00386Not Available
Dihydropyrimidinase DeficiencySMP00178Not Available
Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (DHPD)SMP00179Not Available
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00242Not Available
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00484Not Available
Disulfiram PathwaySMP00429Not Available
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencySMP00498Not Available
Esomeprazole PathwaySMP00225Not Available
Ethylmalonic EncephalopathySMP00181Not Available
Fabry diseaseSMP00525Not Available
Famotidine PathwaySMP00231Not Available
Fatty acid MetabolismSMP00051map00071
Fluvastatin PathwaySMP00119Not Available
Folate malabsorption, hereditarySMP00724Not Available
Folate MetabolismSMP00053map00670
Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiencySMP00562Not Available
Fumarase deficiencySMP00547Not Available
GABA-Transaminase DeficiencySMP00351Not Available
Galactosemia II (GALK)SMP00495Not Available
Galactosemia IIISMP00496Not Available
Gastric Acid ProductionSMP00589Not Available
Gaucher DiseaseSMP00349Not Available
Globoid Cell LeukodystrophySMP00348Not Available
GluconeogenesisSMP00128map00010
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00518Not Available
Glutamate MetabolismSMP00072map00250
Glutaminolysis and CancerSMP02298Not Available
Glutaric Aciduria Type ISMP00185Not Available
Glutaric Aciduria Type ISMP00186Not Available
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004map00260
Glycine N-methyltransferase DeficiencySMP00222Not Available
Glycogen Storage Disease Type 1A (GSD1A) or Von Gierke DiseaseSMP00374Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type IA. Von gierke diseaseSMP00581Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type IBSMP00573Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type ICSMP00574Not Available
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeSMP00365Not Available
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)SMP00188Not Available
HawkinsinuriaSMP00190Not Available
Hereditary Coproporphyria (HCP)SMP00342Not Available
Histidine MetabolismSMP00044map00340
HistidinemiaSMP00191Not Available
HomocarnosinosisSMP00385Not Available
Homocystinuria-megaloblastic anemia due to defect in cobalamin metabolism, cblG complementation typeSMP00570Not Available
Hyper-IgD syndromeSMP00509Not Available
HypercholesterolemiaSMP00209Not Available
Hyperglycinemia, non-ketoticSMP00485Not Available
Hyperinsulinism-Hyperammonemia SyndromeSMP00339Not Available
Hyperlysinemia I, FamilialSMP00527Not Available
Hyperlysinemia II or SaccharopinuriaSMP00528Not Available
HypermethioninemiaSMP00341Not Available
Hyperornithinemia with gyrate atrophy (HOGA)SMP00505Not Available
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria [HHH-syndrome]SMP00506Not Available
Hyperprolinemia Type ISMP00361Not Available
Hyperprolinemia Type IISMP00360Not Available
HypoacetylaspartiaSMP00192Not Available
Ibandronate PathwaySMP00079Not Available
Isobutyryl-coa dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00523Not Available
Isovaleric acidemiaSMP00524Not Available
Isovaleric AciduriaSMP00238Not Available
Ketone Body MetabolismSMP00071map00072
Krabbe diseaseSMP00526Not Available
L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiencySMP00507Not Available
Lansoprazole PathwaySMP00227Not Available
Leigh SyndromeSMP00196Not Available
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)SMP00364Not Available
Long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCAD)SMP00539Not Available
Lovastatin PathwaySMP00099Not Available
Lysine DegradationSMP00037map00310
Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency (Wolman Disease)SMP00319Not Available
Malonic AciduriaSMP00198Not Available
Malonyl-coa decarboxylase deficiencySMP00502Not Available
Maple Syrup Urine DiseaseSMP00199Not Available
Medium chain acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD)SMP00542Not Available
Mercaptopurine PathwaySMP00428Not Available
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD)SMP00347Not Available
Methionine Adenosyltransferase DeficiencySMP00221Not Available
Methionine MetabolismSMP00033map00270
Methotrexate PathwaySMP00432Not Available
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)SMP00543Not Available
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)SMP00340Not Available
Methylmalonate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00384Not Available
Methylmalonic AciduriaSMP00200Not Available
Methylmalonic Aciduria Due to Cobalamin-Related DisordersSMP00201Not Available
Metiamide Action PathwaySMP00735Not Available
Mevalonic aciduriaSMP00510Not Available
Mitochondrial complex II deficiencySMP00548Not Available
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeSMP00536Not Available
MNGIE (Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalopathy)SMP00202Not Available
Molybdenum Cofactor DeficiencySMP00203Not Available
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)SMP00533Not Available
Myoadenylate deaminase deficiencySMP00537Not Available
Nicotinate and Nicotinamide MetabolismSMP00048map00760
Nizatidine PathwaySMP00233Not Available
Non Ketotic HyperglycinemiaSMP00223Not Available
Nucleotide Sugars MetabolismSMP00010map00520
Omeprazole PathwaySMP00226Not Available
Ornithine Aminotransferase Deficiency (OAT Deficiency)SMP00363Not Available
Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency (OTC Deficiency)SMP00205Not Available
Oxidation of Branched Chain Fatty AcidsSMP00030Not Available
Pamidronate PathwaySMP00117Not Available
Pantoprazole PathwaySMP00228Not Available
Pantothenate and CoA BiosynthesisSMP00027map00770
Pentose Phosphate PathwaySMP00031map00030
Phenylalanine and Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00008map00360
PhenylketonuriaSMP00206Not Available
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deficiency 1 (PEPCK1)SMP00560Not Available
Phytanic Acid Peroxisomal OxidationSMP00450Not Available
Pirenzepine PathwaySMP00246Not Available
Porphyria Variegata (PV)SMP00346Not Available
Porphyrin MetabolismSMP00024map00860
Pravastatin PathwaySMP00089Not Available
Primary hyperoxaluria II, PH2SMP00558Not Available
Prolidase Deficiency (PD)SMP00207Not Available
Prolinemia Type IISMP00208Not Available
Propanoate MetabolismSMP00016map00640
Propionic AcidemiaSMP00236Not Available
Purine MetabolismSMP00050map00230
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencySMP00210Not Available
Pyridoxine dependency with seizuresSMP00571Not Available
Pyrimidine MetabolismSMP00046map00240
Pyruvate Decarboxylase E1 Component Deficiency (PDHE1 Deficiency)SMP00334Not Available
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex DeficiencySMP00212Not Available
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (E2)SMP00551Not Available
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (E3)SMP00550Not Available
Pyruvate kinase deficiencySMP00559Not Available
Pyruvate MetabolismSMP00060map00620
Rabeprazole PathwaySMP00229Not Available
Ranitidine PathwaySMP00230Not Available
Refsum DiseaseSMP00451Not Available
Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiencySMP00519Not Available
Risedronate PathwaySMP00112Not Available
Rosuvastatin PathwaySMP00092Not Available
Roxatidine acetate Action PathwaySMP00734Not Available
S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) Hydrolase DeficiencySMP00214Not Available
Saccharopinuria/Hyperlysinemia IISMP00239Not Available
SarcosinemiaSMP00244Not Available
Short Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (SCAD Deficiency)SMP00235Not Available
Simvastatin Action PathwaySMP00082Not Available
Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS)SMP00389Not Available
Spermidine and Spermine BiosynthesisSMP00445Not Available
Sphingolipid MetabolismSMP00034map00500
Steroid BiosynthesisSMP00023map00100
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00567Not Available
Succinyl CoA: 3-ketoacid CoA transferase deficiencySMP00569Not Available
Taurine and Hypotaurine MetabolismSMP00021map00430
The oncogenic action of 2-hydroxyglutarateSMP02291Not Available
The oncogenic action of D-2-hydroxyglutarate in Hydroxygluaricaciduria SMP02359Not Available
The oncogenic action of FumarateSMP02295Not Available
The oncogenic action of L-2-hydroxyglutarate in HydroxygluaricaciduriaSMP02358Not Available
The oncogenic action of SuccinateSMP02292Not Available
Thioguanine PathwaySMP00430Not Available
Threonine and 2-Oxobutanoate DegradationSMP00452Not Available
Transaldolase deficiencySMP00520Not Available
Transfer of Acetyl Groups into MitochondriaSMP00466Not Available
Trifunctional protein deficiencySMP00545Not Available
Triosephosphate isomeraseSMP00563Not Available
Tryptophan MetabolismSMP00063map00380
Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiencySMP00497Not Available
Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00006map00350
Tyrosinemia Type 2 (or Richner-Hanhart syndrome)SMP00369Not Available
Tyrosinemia Type 3 (TYRO3)SMP00370Not Available
Tyrosinemia Type ISMP00218Not Available
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornSMP00494Not Available
UMP Synthase Deiciency (Orotic Aciduria)SMP00219Not Available
Urea CycleSMP00059map00330
Ureidopropionase deficiencySMP00492Not Available
Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine DegradationSMP00032map00280
Very-long-chain acyl coa dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD)SMP00540Not Available
Vitamin K MetabolismSMP00464Not Available
Warburg EffectSMP00654Not Available
Wolman diseaseSMP00511Not Available
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)SMP00220Not Available
Xanthinuria type ISMP00512Not Available
Xanthinuria type IISMP00513Not Available
Zoledronate PathwaySMP00107Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified25600.0 +/- 1430.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified17000.00 (11100.0-21200.0) uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified5000-20000 uMNewborn (0 - <14 days old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified10000-24000 uMInfant (15 days - <1 year old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified14000-24000 uMChildren (1 - <5 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified17000-26000 uMChildren (5 - 15 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified17000-26000 uMAdolescent (15 - 19 years old)Female
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified18000-28000 uMAdolescent (15 - 19 years old)Male
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified20900.0 +/- 1100.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified21600.0 +/- 600.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00423
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB014084
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID274
KEGG Compound IDC00011
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID33506
Wikipedia LinkCarbon Dioxide
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01967
Metagene LinkHMDB01967
METLIN ID3199
PubChem Compound280
PDB IDCO2
ChEBI ID16526
References
Synthesis ReferenceCallahan, Richard A. Process and apparatus for producing liquid carbon dioxide. U.S. (1993), 11 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General ReferencesNot Available

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 107 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHB
Uniprot ID:
P11177
Molecular weight:
39233.1
Reactions
Pyruvic acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 2-(a-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate + Carbon dioxidedetails
Pyruvic acid + Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine → [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in malonyl-CoA decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA. In the fatty acid biosynthesis MCD selectively removes malonyl-CoA and thus assures that methyl-malonyl-CoA is the only chain elongating substrate for fatty acid synthase and that fatty acids with multiple methyl side chains are produced. In peroxisomes it may be involved in degrading intraperoxisomal malonyl-CoA, which is generated by the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of odd chain-length dicarboxylic fatty acids.
Gene Name:
MLYCD
Uniprot ID:
O95822
Molecular weight:
55002.94
Reactions
Malonyl-CoA → Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in 5-aminolevulinate synthase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALAS2
Uniprot ID:
P22557
Molecular weight:
64632.86
Reactions
Succinyl-CoA + Glycine → 5-Aminolevulinic acid + Coenzyme A + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in 5-aminolevulinate synthase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALAS1
Uniprot ID:
P13196
Molecular weight:
70580.325
Reactions
Succinyl-CoA + Glycine → 5-Aminolevulinic acid + Coenzyme A + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
Fatty acid synthetase catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. This multifunctional protein has 7 catalytic activities and an acyl carrier protein.
Gene Name:
FASN
Uniprot ID:
P49327
Molecular weight:
273424.06
Reactions
Acetyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] → Acetoacetyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
Dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] → 3-Oxotetradecanoyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
Butyryl-[acp] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] → 3-Oxohexanoyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
Hexanoyl-[acp] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] → 3-Oxooctanoyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
Octanoyl-[acp] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] → 3-Oxodecanoyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
Decanoyl-[acp] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] → 3-Oxododecanoyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
Tetradecanoyl-[acp] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] → 3-Oxohexadecanoyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHA1
Uniprot ID:
P08559
Molecular weight:
43295.255
Reactions
Pyruvic acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 2-(a-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate + Carbon dioxidedetails
Pyruvic acid + Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine → [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHA2
Uniprot ID:
P29803
Molecular weight:
42932.855
Reactions
Pyruvic acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 2-(a-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate + Carbon dioxidedetails
Pyruvic acid + Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine → [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Plays a role in valine and pyrimidine metabolism. Binds fatty acyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
ALDH6A1
Uniprot ID:
Q02252
Molecular weight:
57839.31
Reactions
Malonic semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD → Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Malonic semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NADP → Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD → Propionyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Lipoamide dehydrogenase is a component of the glycine cleavage system as well as of the alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes. Involved in the hyperactivation of spermatazoa during capacitation and in the spermatazoal acrosome reaction.
Gene Name:
DLD
Uniprot ID:
P09622
Molecular weight:
54176.91
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
DLAT
Uniprot ID:
P10515
Molecular weight:
68996.03
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA to DOPA-quinone and possibly 5,6-dihydroxyindole to indole-5,6 quinone.
Gene Name:
TYR
Uniprot ID:
P14679
Molecular weight:
60392.69
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of glutaryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA and CO(2) in the degradative pathway of L-lysine, L-hydroxylysine, and L-tryptophan metabolism. It uses electron transfer flavoprotein as its electron acceptor. Isoform Short is inactive.
Gene Name:
GCDH
Uniprot ID:
Q92947
Molecular weight:
48126.715
Reactions
Glutaryl-CoA + FAD → FADH + (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA + Carbon dioxidedetails
Glutaryl-CoA + Electron-transferring flavoprotein → (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA + Reduced electron-transferring flavoprotein + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in lipid metabolic process
Specific function:
Crucial for the intracellular hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides that have been internalized via receptor-mediated endocytosis of lipoprotein particles. Important in mediating the effect of LDL (low density lipoprotein) uptake on suppression of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase and activation of endogenous cellular cholesteryl ester formation.
Gene Name:
LIPA
Uniprot ID:
P38571
Molecular weight:
45418.71
General function:
Involved in uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of four acetate groups of uroporphyrinogen-III to yield coproporphyrinogen-III.
Gene Name:
UROD
Uniprot ID:
P06132
Molecular weight:
40786.58
Reactions
Uroporphyrinogen III → Coproporphyrinogen III + Carbon dioxidedetails
Uroporphyrinogen I → Coproporphyrinogen I + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in heme biosynthesis. Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of propionic acid side chains of rings A and B of coproporphyrinogen III.
Gene Name:
CPOX
Uniprot ID:
P36551
Molecular weight:
50151.605
Reactions
Coproporphyrinogen III + Oxygen → Protoporphyrinogen IX + Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Converts alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconate-epsilon-semialdehyde (ACMS) to alpha-aminomuconate semialdehyde (AMS). ACMS can be converted non-enzymatically to quinolate (QA), a key precursor of NAD, and a potent endogenous excitotoxin of neuronal cells which is implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders. In the presence of ACMSD, ACMS is converted to AMS, a benign catabolite. ACMSD ultimately controls the metabolic fate of tryptophan catabolism along the kynurenine pathway.
Gene Name:
ACMSD
Uniprot ID:
Q8TDX5
Molecular weight:
38035.045
Reactions
2-Amino-3-carboxymuconic acid semialdehyde → 2-Aminomuconic acid semialdehyde + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MSMO1
Uniprot ID:
Q15800
Molecular weight:
19470.325
General function:
Involved in 3-beta-hydroxy-delta5-steroid dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
NSDHL
Uniprot ID:
Q15738
Molecular weight:
41899.99
Reactions
4a-Carboxy-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol + NADP → 3-Keto-4-methylzymosterol + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Converts phytanoyl-CoA to 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
PHYH
Uniprot ID:
O14832
Molecular weight:
38538.065
General function:
Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
Gene Name:
DDC
Uniprot ID:
P20711
Molecular weight:
53893.755
Reactions
L-Tryptophan → Tryptamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
L-Phenylalanine → Phenylethylamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
L-Tyrosine → Tyramine + Carbon dioxidedetails
L-Histidine → Histamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
L-Dopa → Dopamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
Oxitriptan → Serotonin + Carbon dioxidedetails
5-Hydroxykynurenamine + Carbon dioxide → 5-Hydroxykynureninedetails
General function:
Involved in antioxidant activity
Specific function:
Involved in redox regulation of the cell. Can reduce H(2)O(2) and short chain organic, fatty acid, and phospholipid hydroperoxides. May play a role in the regulation of phospholipid turnover as well as in protection against oxidative injury.
Gene Name:
PRDX6
Uniprot ID:
P30041
Molecular weight:
25034.715
Reactions
L-Phenylalanine + Oxygen → 2-Phenylacetamide + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
The branched-chain alpha-keto dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of alpha-keto acids to acyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: branched-chain alpha-keto acid decarboxylase (E1), lipoamide acyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3).
Gene Name:
BCKDHB
Uniprot ID:
P21953
Molecular weight:
43122.065
Reactions
Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 2-Methyl-1-hydroxypropyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
Ketoleucine + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 3-Methyl-1-hydroxybutyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 2-Methyl-1-hydroxybutyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor
Specific function:
The branched-chain alpha-keto dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of alpha-keto acids to acyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: branched-chain alpha-keto acid decarboxylase (E1), lipoamide acyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3).
Gene Name:
BCKDHA
Uniprot ID:
P12694
Molecular weight:
50470.58
Reactions
Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 2-Methyl-1-hydroxypropyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
Ketoleucine + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 3-Methyl-1-hydroxybutyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 2-Methyl-1-hydroxybutyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name:
P4HA2
Uniprot ID:
O15460
Molecular weight:
60632.19
Reactions
L-Proline + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → 4-Hydroxyproline + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name:
P4HA1
Uniprot ID:
P13674
Molecular weight:
60966.645
Reactions
L-Proline + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → 4-Hydroxyproline + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Involved in the catabolism of quinolinic acid (QA).
Gene Name:
QPRT
Uniprot ID:
Q15274
Molecular weight:
30815.28
Reactions
nicotinate beta-D-ribonucleotide + Pyrophosphate + Carbon dioxide → Quinolinic acid + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Involved in the urea cycle of ureotelic animals where the enzyme plays an important role in removing excess ammonia from the cell.
Gene Name:
CPS1
Uniprot ID:
P31327
Molecular weight:
165649.075
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Ammonia + Carbon dioxide + Water → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Carbamoyl phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of L-carnitine from gamma-butyrobetaine.
Gene Name:
BBOX1
Uniprot ID:
O75936
Molecular weight:
44714.6
Reactions
4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → L-Carnitine + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AMD1
Uniprot ID:
P17707
Molecular weight:
21301.015
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + Hydrogen Ion → S-Adenosylmethioninamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (succinyl-transferring) activity
Specific function:
The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3).
Gene Name:
OGDH
Uniprot ID:
Q02218
Molecular weight:
48179.59
Reactions
Oxoglutaric acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 3-Carboxy-1-hydroxypropylthiamine diphosphate + Carbon dioxidedetails
Oxoadipic acid + Coenzyme A + NAD → Glutaryl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Oxoadipic acid + Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine → [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue succinyltransferase] S-glutaryldihydrolipoyllysine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecular collagen cross-links.
Gene Name:
PLOD1
Uniprot ID:
Q02809
Molecular weight:
83549.55
Reactions
Protein lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → Procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecular collagen cross-links.
Gene Name:
PLOD2
Uniprot ID:
O00469
Molecular weight:
84685.07
Reactions
Protein lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → Procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecular collagen cross-links.
Gene Name:
PLOD3
Uniprot ID:
O60568
Molecular weight:
84784.505
Reactions
Protein lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → Procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Hydrolyzes aromatic and aliphatic esters, but has no catalytic activity toward amides or a fatty acyl-CoA ester. Hydrolyzes the methyl ester group of cocaine to form benzoylecgonine. Catalyzes the transesterification of cocaine to form cocaethylene. Displays fatty acid ethyl ester synthase activity, catalyzing the ethyl esterification of oleic acid to ethyloleate.
Gene Name:
CES1
Uniprot ID:
P23141
Molecular weight:
62520.62
Reactions
Capecitabine + Water → 5'-Deoxy-5-fluorocytidine + 1-Pentanol + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Shows high catalytic efficiency for hydrolysis of cocaine, 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate, heroin and 6-monoacetylmorphine.
Gene Name:
CES2
Uniprot ID:
O00748
Molecular weight:
68898.39
Reactions
Capecitabine + Water → 5'-Deoxy-5-fluorocytidine + 1-Pentanol + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds
Specific function:
Converts N-carbamyl-beta-aminoisobutyric acid and N-carbamyl-beta-alanine to, respectively, beta-aminoisobutyric acid and beta-alanine, ammonia and carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
UPB1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBR1
Molecular weight:
43165.705
Reactions
Ureidopropionic acid + Water → Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxide + Ammoniadetails
Ureidoisobutyric acid + Water → 3-Aminoisobutanoic acid + Carbon dioxide + Ammoniadetails
alpha-Fluoro-beta-ureidopropionic acid + Water → alpha-Fluoro-beta-alanine + Carbon dioxide + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Involved in aminomethyltransferase activity
Specific function:
The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine.
Gene Name:
AMT
Uniprot ID:
P48728
Molecular weight:
43945.65
Reactions
Glycine + Tetrahydrofolic acid + NAD → 5,10-Methylene-THF + Ammonia + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the production of GABA.
Gene Name:
GAD2
Uniprot ID:
Q05329
Molecular weight:
65410.77
Reactions
L-Glutamic acid → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
L-Aspartic acid → Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxidedetails
Cysteic acid → Taurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
3-Sulfinoalanine → Hypotaurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the production of GABA.
Gene Name:
GAD1
Uniprot ID:
Q99259
Molecular weight:
66896.065
Reactions
L-Glutamic acid → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
L-Aspartic acid → Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxidedetails
Cysteic acid → Taurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
3-Sulfinoalanine → Hypotaurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Initiates extracellular glutathione (GSH) breakdown, provides cells with a local cysteine supply and contributes to maintain intracellular GSH level. It is part of the cell antioxidant defense mechanism. Catalyzes the transfer of the glutamyl moiety of glutathione to amino acids and dipeptide acceptors. Alternatively, glutathione can be hydrolyzed to give Cys-Gly and gamma glutamate. Isoform 3 seems to be inactive.
Gene Name:
GGT1
Uniprot ID:
P19440
Molecular weight:
61409.67
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP, generating ATP. Stimulates POU5F1-mediated transcriptional activation. Plays a general role in caspase independent cell death of tumor cells. The ratio betwween the highly active tetrameric form and nearly inactive dimeric form determines whether glucose carbons are channeled to biosynthetic processes or used for glycolytic ATP production. The transition between the 2 forms contributes to the control of glycolysis and is important for tumor cell proliferation and survival.
Gene Name:
PKM
Uniprot ID:
P14618
Molecular weight:
65930.14
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Plays a key role in glycolysis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PKLR
Uniprot ID:
P30613
Molecular weight:
61829.575
General function:
Involved in lyase activity
Specific function:
The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine. The P protein binds the alpha-amino group of glycine through its pyridoxal phosphate cofactor; CO(2) is released and the remaining methylamine moiety is then transferred to the lipoamide cofactor of the H protein.
Gene Name:
GLDC
Uniprot ID:
P23378
Molecular weight:
112728.805
Reactions
Glycine + Lipoylprotein → S-Aminomethyldihydrolipoylprotein + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in the degradation of tyrosine.
Gene Name:
HPD
Uniprot ID:
P32754
Molecular weight:
40497.105
Reactions
Phenylpyruvic acid + Oxygen → Ortho-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + Oxygen → Homogentisic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the reduction of the keto group on the C-3 of sterols.
Gene Name:
HSD17B7
Uniprot ID:
P56937
Molecular weight:
38205.77
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ME1
Uniprot ID:
P48163
Molecular weight:
64149.075
Reactions
L-Malic acid + NADP → Pyruvic acid + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ME3
Uniprot ID:
Q16798
Molecular weight:
67067.875
Reactions
L-Malic acid + NADP → Pyruvic acid + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ME2
Uniprot ID:
P23368
Molecular weight:
53585.73
Reactions
L-Malic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of histamine from histidine.
Gene Name:
HDC
Uniprot ID:
P19113
Molecular weight:
74139.825
Reactions
L-Histidine → Histamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). The heterodimer formed with SPTLC2 or SPTLC3 constitutes the catalytic core. The composition of the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) complex determines the substrate preference. The SPTLC1-SPTLC2-SPTSSA complex shows a strong preference for C16-CoA substrate, while the SPTLC1-SPTLC3-SPTSSA isozyme uses both C14-CoA and C16-CoA as substrates, with a slight preference for C14-CoA. The SPTLC1-SPTLC2-SPTSSB complex shows a strong preference for C18-CoA substrate, while the SPTLC1-SPTLC3-SPTSSB isozyme displays an ability to use a broader range of acyl-CoAs, without apparent preference.
Gene Name:
SPTLC1
Uniprot ID:
O15269
Molecular weight:
52743.41
Reactions
hexadecanoyl-CoA + L-Serine → 3-Dehydrosphinganine + Coenzyme A + Carbon dioxidedetails

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 107 proteins in total.