Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:29 UTC
Update Date2013-02-08 18:21:39 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01967
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCarbon dioxide
DescriptionCarbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals. Carbon dioxide is produced during respiration by all animals, fungi and microorganisms that depend on living and decaying plants for food, either directly or indirectly. It is, therefore, a major component of the carbon cycle. Additionally, carbon dioxide is used by plants during photosynthesis to make sugars which may either be consumed again in respiration or used as the raw material to produce polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose, proteins and the wide variety of other organic compounds required for plant growth and development. When inhaled at concentrations much higher than usual atmospheric levels, it can produce a sour taste in the mouth and a stinging sensation in the nose and throat. These effects result from the gas dissolving in the mucous membranes and saliva, forming a weak solution of carbonic acid. Carbon dioxide is used by the food industry, the oil industry, and the chemical industry. Carbon dioxide is used to produce carbonated soft drinks and soda water. Traditionally, the carbonation in beer and sparkling wine comes about through natural fermentation, but some manufacturers carbonate these drinks artificially.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Carbon oxide
  2. Carbon-12 dioxide
  3. Carbonic acid anhydride
  4. Carbonic acid gas
  5. Carbonic anhydride
Chemical FormulaCO2
Average Molecular Weight44.0095
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight43.989829244
IUPAC Namemethanedione
Traditional IUPAC Namecarbon dioxide
CAS Registry Number124-38-9
SMILES
O=C=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/CO2/c2-1-3
InChI KeyCURLTUGMZLYLDI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAliphatic Acyclic Compounds
ClassN/A
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • a small molecule(Cyc)
  • carbon oxide(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentAliphatic Acyclic Compounds
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, signalling
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-56.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.48 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP0.83HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility186 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.63ALOGPS
logP-0.28ChemAxon
logS0.63ALOGPS
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area34.14ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity6.38ChemAxon
polarizability2.57ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Liver
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Ammonia RecyclingSMP00009map00910
Carnitine SynthesisSMP00465Not Available
Catecholamine BiosynthesisSMP00012map00350
Citric Acid CycleSMP00057map00020
Folate MetabolismSMP00053map00670
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004map00260
Histidine MetabolismSMP00044map00340
Ketone Body MetabolismSMP00071map00072
Methionine MetabolismSMP00033map00270
Pentose Phosphate PathwaySMP00031map00030
Spermidine and Spermine BiosynthesisSMP00445Not Available
Threonine and 2-Oxobutanoate DegradationSMP00452Not Available
Transfer of Acetyl Groups into MitochondriaSMP00466Not Available
Vitamin K MetabolismSMP00464Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
BloodDetected and Quantified25600.0 +/- 1430.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified17000.00 (11100.0-21200.0) uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified20900.0 +/- 1100.0 uMChildren (1-13 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified21600.0 +/- 600.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableNormal
  • Not Applicable
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00423
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB014084
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID274
KEGG Compound IDC00011
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID33506
Wikipedia LinkCarbon Dioxide
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01967
Metagene LinkHMDB01967
METLIN ID3199
PubChem Compound280
PDB IDCO2
ChEBI ID16526
References
Synthesis ReferenceCallahan, Richard A. Process and apparatus for producing liquid carbon dioxide. U.S. (1993), 11 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 107 proteins in total.

Enzymes

Gene Name:
PDHB
Uniprot ID:
P11177
Reactions
Pyruvic acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate unknown 2-(a-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate + Carbon dioxidedetails
Pyruvic acid + Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine unknown [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
MLYCD
Uniprot ID:
O95822
Reactions
Malonyl-CoA unknown Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
ALAS2
Uniprot ID:
P22557
Reactions
Succinyl-CoA + Glycine unknown 5-Aminolevulinic acid + Coenzyme A + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
ALAS1
Uniprot ID:
P13196
Reactions
Succinyl-CoA + Glycine unknown 5-Aminolevulinic acid + Coenzyme A + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
FASN
Uniprot ID:
P49327
Reactions
Acetyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] unknown Acetoacetyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
Dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] unknown 3-Oxotetradecanoyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
Butyryl-[acp] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] unknown 3-Oxohexanoyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
Hexanoyl-[acp] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] unknown 3-Oxooctanoyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
Octanoyl-[acp] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] unknown 3-Oxodecanoyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
Decanoyl-[acp] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] unknown 3-Oxododecanoyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
Tetradecanoyl-[acp] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] unknown 3-Oxohexadecanoyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
Gene Name:
PDHA1
Uniprot ID:
P08559
Reactions
Pyruvic acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate unknown 2-(a-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate + Carbon dioxidedetails
Pyruvic acid + Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine unknown [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
PDHA2
Uniprot ID:
P29803
Reactions
Pyruvic acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate unknown 2-(a-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate + Carbon dioxidedetails
Pyruvic acid + Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine unknown [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
ALDH6A1
Uniprot ID:
Q02252
Reactions
Malonic semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD unknown Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Malonic semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NADP unknown Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD unknown Propionyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Gene Name:
TYR
Uniprot ID:
P14679
Gene Name:
GCDH
Uniprot ID:
Q92947
Reactions
Glutaryl-CoA + FAD unknown FADH + (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA + Carbon dioxidedetails
Glutaryl-CoA + Electron-transferring flavoprotein unknown (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA + Reduced electron-transferring flavoprotein + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
UROD
Uniprot ID:
P06132
Reactions
Uroporphyrinogen III unknown Coproporphyrinogen III + Carbon dioxidedetails
Uroporphyrinogen I unknown Coproporphyrinogen I + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
CPOX
Uniprot ID:
P36551
Reactions
Coproporphyrinogen III + Oxygen unknown Protoporphyrinogen IX + Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
Gene Name:
ACMSD
Uniprot ID:
Q8TDX5
Reactions
2-Amino-3-carboxymuconic acid semialdehyde unknown 2-Aminomuconic acid semialdehyde + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
MSMO1
Uniprot ID:
Q15800
Gene Name:
NSDHL
Uniprot ID:
Q15738
Reactions
4a-Carboxy-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol + NADP unknown 3-Keto-4-methylzymosterol + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
DDC
Uniprot ID:
P20711
Reactions
L-Tryptophan unknown Tryptamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
L-Phenylalanine unknown Phenylethylamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
L-Tyrosine unknown Tyramine + Carbon dioxidedetails
L-Histidine unknown Histamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
L-Dopa unknown Dopamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
Oxitriptan unknown Serotonin + Carbon dioxidedetails
5-Hydroxykynurenamine + Carbon dioxide unknown 5-Hydroxykynureninedetails
Gene Name:
PRDX6
Uniprot ID:
P30041
Reactions
L-Phenylalanine + Oxygen unknown 2-Phenylacetamide + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
BCKDHB
Uniprot ID:
P21953
Reactions
Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate unknown 2-Methyl-1-hydroxypropyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
Ketoleucine + Thiamine pyrophosphate unknown 3-Methyl-1-hydroxybutyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate unknown 2-Methyl-1-hydroxybutyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
BCKDHA
Uniprot ID:
P12694
Reactions
Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate unknown 2-Methyl-1-hydroxypropyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
Ketoleucine + Thiamine pyrophosphate unknown 3-Methyl-1-hydroxybutyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate unknown 2-Methyl-1-hydroxybutyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
P4HA2
Uniprot ID:
O15460
Reactions
L-Proline + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown 4-Hydroxyproline + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
P4HA1
Uniprot ID:
P13674
Reactions
L-Proline + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown 4-Hydroxyproline + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
QPRT
Uniprot ID:
Q15274
Reactions
nicotinate beta-D-ribonucleotide + Pyrophosphate + Carbon dioxide unknown Quinolinic acid + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphatedetails
Gene Name:
CPS1
Uniprot ID:
P31327
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Ammonia + Carbon dioxide + Water unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + Carbamoyl phosphatedetails
Gene Name:
BBOX1
Uniprot ID:
O75936
Reactions
4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown L-Carnitine + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
AMD1
Uniprot ID:
P17707
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + Hydrogen Ion unknown S-Adenosylmethioninamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
OGDH
Uniprot ID:
Q02218
Reactions
Oxoglutaric acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate unknown 3-Carboxy-1-hydroxypropylthiamine diphosphate + Carbon dioxidedetails
Oxoadipic acid + Coenzyme A + NAD unknown Glutaryl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Oxoadipic acid + Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine unknown [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue succinyltransferase] S-glutaryldihydrolipoyllysine + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
PLOD1
Uniprot ID:
Q02809
Reactions
Protein lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown Procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
Gene Name:
PLOD2
Uniprot ID:
O00469
Reactions
Protein lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown Procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
Gene Name:
PLOD3
Uniprot ID:
O60568
Reactions
Protein lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown Procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
Gene Name:
CES1
Uniprot ID:
P23141
Reactions
Capecitabine + Water unknown 5'-Deoxy-5-fluorocytidine + 1-Pentanol + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
CES2
Uniprot ID:
O00748
Reactions
Capecitabine + Water unknown 5'-Deoxy-5-fluorocytidine + 1-Pentanol + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
UPB1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBR1
Reactions
Ureidopropionic acid + Water unknown Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxide + Ammoniadetails
Ureidoisobutyric acid + Water unknown 3-Aminoisobutanoic acid + Carbon dioxide + Ammoniadetails
alpha-Fluoro-beta-ureidopropionic acid + Water unknown alpha-Fluoro-beta-alanine + Carbon dioxide + Ammoniadetails
Gene Name:
AMT
Uniprot ID:
P48728
Reactions
Glycine + Tetrahydrofolic acid + NAD unknown 5,10-Methylene-THF + Ammonia + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Gene Name:
GAD2
Uniprot ID:
Q05329
Reactions
L-Glutamic acid unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
L-Aspartic acid unknown Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxidedetails
Cysteic acid unknown Taurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
3-Sulfinoalanine unknown Hypotaurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
GAD1
Uniprot ID:
Q99259
Reactions
L-Glutamic acid unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
L-Aspartic acid unknown Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxidedetails
Cysteic acid unknown Taurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
3-Sulfinoalanine unknown Hypotaurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
GGT1
Uniprot ID:
P19440
Gene Name:
PKM
Uniprot ID:
P14618
Gene Name:
PKLR
Uniprot ID:
P30613
Gene Name:
GLDC
Uniprot ID:
P23378
Reactions
Glycine + Lipoylprotein unknown S-Aminomethyldihydrolipoylprotein + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
HPD
Uniprot ID:
P32754
Reactions
Phenylpyruvic acid + Oxygen unknown Ortho-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + Oxygen unknown Homogentisic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
HSD17B7
Uniprot ID:
P56937
Gene Name:
ME1
Uniprot ID:
P48163
Reactions
L-Malic acid + NADP unknown Pyruvic acid + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Gene Name:
ME3
Uniprot ID:
Q16798
Reactions
L-Malic acid + NADP unknown Pyruvic acid + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Gene Name:
ME2
Uniprot ID:
P23368
Reactions
L-Malic acid + NAD unknown Pyruvic acid + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Gene Name:
HDC
Uniprot ID:
P19113
Reactions
L-Histidine unknown Histamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
Gene Name:
SPTLC1
Uniprot ID:
O15269
Reactions
hexadecanoyl-CoA + L-Serine unknown 3-Dehydrosphinganine + Coenzyme A + Carbon dioxidedetails

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 107 proteins in total.