Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-05-18 08:50:34 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:13:49 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB05034
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTopiramate
DescriptionTopiramate is an anticonvulsant drug used to treat epilepsy in both children and adults. In children it is also indicated for treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (a disorder that causes seizures and developmental delays). It is also Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved, and now most frequently prescribed for, the prevention of migraines. It has been used by psychiatrists to treat bipolar disorder, although it is not FDA approved for this purpose and such use is somewhat controversial. This drug has been investigated for use in treatment of obesity, especially to aid in the reduction of binge eating, and also as a possible treatment for alcoholism. However, these uses are not actively promoted by the manufacturer, and like its use for bipolar disorder, are 'off-label' uses. The drug is also used in clinical trials to treat Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. A pilot study suggests that Topiramate is possibly effective against infantile spasm; Chemically, topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide, related to fructose, a rather unusual chemical structure for an anticonvulsant. Topiramate is quickly absorbed after oral use. Most of the drug (70%) is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug. The remainder is extensively metabolized by hydroxylation, hydrolysis, and glucuronidation. Six metabolites have been identified in humans, none of which constitutes more than 5% of an administered dose. Topiramate enhances GABA-activated chloride channels. In addition, topiramate inhibits excitatory neurotransmission, through actions on kainate and AMPA receptors. There is evidence that topiramate has a specific effect on GluR5 kainate receptors. It is also an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase, particularly subtypes II and IV, but this action is weak and unlikely to be related to its anticonvulsant actions, but may account for the bad taste and the development of renal stones seen during treatment. Its possible effect as a mood stabilizer seems to occur before anticonvulsant qualities at lower dosages. Topiramate inhibits maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures as well as partial and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the kindling model, findings predictive of a broad spectrum of antiseizure activities clinically; Johnson. It is used to treat epilepsy in both children and adults. In children it is also indicated for treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (a disorder that causes seizures and developmental delays). It is also Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for, and now most frequently prescribed for, the prevention of migraines. It has been used by psychiatrists to treat bipolar disorder, although it is not FDA approved for this purpose and such use is somewhat controversial. This drug has been investigated for use in treatment of obesity, especially to aid in the reduction of binge eating, and also as a possible treatment for alcoholism. However, these uses are not actively promoted by the manufacturer, and like its use for bipolar disorder, are 'off-label' uses. The drug is also used in clinical trials to treat Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. A pilot study suggests that Topiramate is possibly effective against infantile spasm. In May 2006 the U.S. National Institutes of Health web site clinicaltrials.gov listed several studies sponsored by Ortho-McNeil which propose to examine the use of topiramate on migraine, cluster, and severe headaches within various demographics; Topiramate (brand name: Topamax) is an anticonvulsant drug produced by Ortho-McNeil, a division of Johnson & Topiramate (brand name: Topamax) is an anticonvulsant drug produced by Ortho-McNeil, a division of Johnson & Johnson. It is used to treat epilepsy in both children and adults. In children it is also indicated for treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (a disorder that causes seizures and developmental delays). It is also Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for, and now most frequently prescribed for, the prevention of migraines. It has been used by psychiatrists to treat bipolar disorder, although it is not FDA approved for this purpose and such use is somewhat controversial. This drug has been investigated for use in treatment of obesity, especially to aid in the reduction of binge eating, and also as a possible treatment for alcoholism. However, these uses are not actively promoted by the manufacturer, and like its use for bipolar disorder, are 'off-label' uses. The drug is also used in clinical trials to treat Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. A pilot study suggests that Topiramate is possibly effective against infantile spasm. In May 2006 the U.S. National Institutes of Health web site clinicaltrials.gov listed several studies sponsored by Ortho-McNeil which propose to examine the use of topiramate on migraine, cluster, and severe headaches within various demographics.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Epitomax
  2. Topamax
  3. Topamax Sprinkle
  4. Topiramate
  5. Topomax
Chemical FormulaC12H21NO8S
Average Molecular Weight339.362
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight339.098787343
IUPAC Name[(1R,2S,6S,9R)-4,4,11,11-tetramethyl-3,5,7,10,12-pentaoxatricyclo[7.3.0.0^{2,6}]dodecan-6-yl]methyl sulfamate
Traditional IUPAC Nametopiramate
CAS Registry Number97240-79-4
SMILES
CC1(C)O[C@@H]2CO[C@@]3(COS(N)(=O)=O)OC(C)(C)O[C@H]3[C@@H]2O1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C12H21NO8S/c1-10(2)18-7-5-16-12(6-17-22(13,14)15)9(8(7)19-10)20-11(3,4)21-12/h7-9H,5-6H2,1-4H3,(H2,13,14,15)/t7-,8-,9+,12+/m1/s1
InChI KeyKJADKKWYZYXHBB-XBWDGYHZSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAliphatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
ClassDioxolopyrans
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
  • cyclic ketal(ChEBI)
  • ketohexose derivative(ChEBI)
  • sulfamate ester(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Acetal
  • Meta Dioxolane
  • Organic Sulfuric Acid Amide Ester
  • Oxane
  • Sulfamic Acid Derivative
Direct ParentDioxolopyrans
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point125 - 126 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility6.8 g/LALOGPS
logP1.29ALOGPS
logP0.13ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)11.09ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)-3.7ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count8ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count1ChemAxon
polar surface area115.54ChemAxon
rotatable bond count3ChemAxon
refractivity72.3ChemAxon
polarizability32.28ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Prostate
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
BloodDetected and Quantified1.47 +/- 0.03 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023601
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4447672
KEGG Compound IDC07502
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTopiramate
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB05034
Metagene LinkHMDB05034
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5284627
PDB IDTOR
ChEBI ID63631
References
Synthesis ReferenceMaryanoff, Bruce E.; Gardocki, Joseph F. Anticonvulsant sulfamate derivatives. U.S. (1985), CODEN: USXXAM US 4513006 A 19850423 CAN 103:37701 AN 1985:437701
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
  2. Petroff OA, Hyder F, Mattson RH, Rothman DL: Topiramate increases brain GABA, homocarnosine, and pyrrolidinone in patients with epilepsy. Neurology. 1999 Feb;52(3):473-8. Pubmed: 10025774

Enzymes

Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Gene Name:
CA2
Uniprot ID:
P00918
Gene Name:
CA4
Uniprot ID:
P22748