You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2009-04-06 16:22:10 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:24:09 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB12275
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePhenylethylamine
DescriptionPhenethylamine (PEA) is an aromatic amine, which is a colorless liquid at room temperature. It is soluble in water, ethanol, and ether. Similar to other low-molecular-weight amines, it has a fishy odor. Upon exposure to air, it forms a solid carbonate salt with carbon dioxide. Phenethylamine is strongly basic and forms a stable crystalline hydrochloride salt with a melting point of 217 oC. Phenethylamine is also a skin irritant and possible sensitizer. Phenethylamine also has a constitutional isomer (+)-phenylethylamine (1-phenylethylamine), which has two stereoisomers: (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine and (S)-(-)-1-phenylethylamine. In the human brain, 2-phenethylamine is believed to function as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter (a trace amine). Phenethylamine can be biosynthesized from the amino acid phenylalanine by enzymatic decarboxylation. It is also found in many foods such as chocolate, especially after microbial fermentation. However trace amounts from food are quickly metabolized by the enzyme MAO-B (into phenylacetic acid), preventing significant concentrations from reaching the brain. Phenylethylamine is a precursor to the neurotransmitter phenylethanolamine. High levels of PEA have been found in the urine of schizophrenics but it is not significantly elevated in the serum or CSF of schizophrenics (PMID: 7906896 , PMID: 7360842 ). Urinary levels of PEA are significantly lower in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (PMID: 12205654 ). It has been found that PEA is the primary compound found in carnivore (especially cat) urine that leads to rodent (mouse and rat) avoidance. In other words, phenylethylamine is useful for scaring off rodent pests. Quantitative HPLC analysis across 38 mammalian species has shown that PEA production in urine is especially enhanced in carnivores, with some producing >3,000-fold more than herbivores (PMID: 21690383 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
BenzeneethanamineChEBI
beta-AminoethylbenzeneChEBI
beta-PhenethylamineChEBI
beta-PhenylethylamineChEBI
PhenethylamineChEBI
b-AminoethylbenzeneGenerator
β-aminoethylbenzeneGenerator
b-PhenethylamineGenerator
β-phenethylamineGenerator
b-PhenylethylamineGenerator
β-phenylethylamineGenerator
(2-Aminoethyl)benzeneHMDB
(2-Aminoethyl)polystyreneHMDB
1-amino-2-PhenylethaneHMDB
1-PhenethylamineHMDB
1-Phenyl-2-amino-athanHMDB
1-Phenyl-2-aminoethaneHMDB
1TNJHMDB
1UtmHMDB
1UtoHMDB
2-amino-1-PhenylethaneHMDB
2-amino-FenylethanHMDB
2-FenylethylaminHMDB
2-PhenethylamineHMDB
2-Phenyl-ethanamineHMDB
2-PhenylethanamineHMDB
2-Phenylethanamine (acd/name 4.0)HMDB
2-PhenylethylamineHMDB
2-Phenylethylamine (acd/name 4.0)HMDB
b-PhenylaethylaminHMDB
Benzeneethanamine hydrochlorideHMDB
beta PhenethylamineHMDB
beta-PhenylaethylaminHMDB
Omega-phenylethylamineHMDB
PEAHMDB
Phenethylamine hydrochlorideHMDB
Polystyrene a-NH2HMDB
Chemical FormulaC8H11N
Average Molecular Weight121.1796
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight121.089149357
IUPAC Name2-phenylethan-1-amine
Traditional Name2-phenylethylamine
CAS Registry Number64-04-0
SMILES
NCCC1=CC=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C8H11N/c9-7-6-8-4-2-1-3-5-8/h1-5H,6-7,9H2
InChI KeyInChIKey=BHHGXPLMPWCGHP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenethylamines. These are compounds containing a phenethylamine moiety, which consists of a phenyl group substituted at the second position by an ethan-1-amine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenethylamines
Direct ParentPhenethylamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenethylamine
  • Aralkylamine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Microbial
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.19 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.41ALOGPS
logP1.39ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.79ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.02 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity39.29 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability14.35 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-0udi-3900000000-c931498c67dbf88820eeView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-00dr-5900000000-d15a3c803d2534e366d8View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-05fr-0900000000-10a3aff16ce06e5488bbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-1900000000-c8186da6e772bfd9759cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-9500000000-2745e56fb8603507394bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-b746d7d1eb593614d234View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-1900000000-f4ada8157d6dde803051View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0ufu-9500000000-54d2d2a1b68d878200b8View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9000000000-bf5d1e8f4a14683bd0aaView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot Available
Normal
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.011 (0.003-0.067) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothBulimia Nervosa details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableChildren (1-13 years old)BothADHD (Attention Defict Hyperactivity Disorder) details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.028 +/- 0.038 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothAutism details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB04325
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB010580
KNApSAcK IDC00001426
Chemspider ID13856352
KEGG Compound IDC05332
BioCyc IDPHENYLETHYLAMINE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB12275
Metagene LinkHMDB12275
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound1001
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID18397
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Kusaga A, Yamashita Y, Koeda T, Hiratani M, Kaneko M, Yamada S, Matsuishi T: Increased urine phenylethylamine after methylphenidate treatment in children with ADHD. Ann Neurol. 2002 Sep;52(3):372-4. [12205654 ]
  2. O'Reilly RL, Davis BA: Phenylethylamine and schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1994 Jan;18(1):63-75. [7906896 ]
  3. Potkin SG, Wyatt RJ, Karoum F: Phenylethylamine (PEA) and phenylacetic acid (PAA) in the urine of chronic schizophrenic patients and controls. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1980 Jan;16(1):52-4. [7360842 ]
  4. Ferrero DM, Lemon JK, Fluegge D, Pashkovski SL, Korzan WJ, Datta SR, Spehr M, Fendt M, Liberles SD: Detection and avoidance of a carnivore odor by prey. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jul 5;108(27):11235-40. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1103317108. Epub 2011 Jun 20. [21690383 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Controls the night/day rhythm of melatonin production in the pineal gland. Catalyzes the N-acetylation of serotonin into N-acetylserotonin, the penultimate step in the synthesis of melatonin.
Gene Name:
AANAT
Uniprot ID:
Q16613
Molecular weight:
23343.8
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
MAOB
Uniprot ID:
P27338
Molecular weight:
58762.475
Reactions
Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water → Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular weight:
59681.27
Reactions
Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water → Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
Gene Name:
DDC
Uniprot ID:
P20711
Molecular weight:
53893.755
Reactions
L-Phenylalanine → Phenylethylamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Cell adhesion protein that participates in lymphocyte recirculation by mediating the binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node vascular endothelial cells in an L-selectin-independent fashion. Has a monoamine oxidase activity. May play a role in adipogenesis.
Gene Name:
AOC3
Uniprot ID:
Q16853
Molecular weight:
84621.27
Reactions
Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water → Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Has a monoamine oxidase activity with substrate specificity for 2-phenylethylamine and tryptamine. May play a role in adipogenesis. May be a critical modulator of signal transmission in retina.
Gene Name:
AOC2
Uniprot ID:
O75106
Molecular weight:
80515.11
Reactions
Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water → Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for trace amines, including beta- phenylethylamine (b-PEA), p-tyramine (p-TYR), octopamine and tryptamine, with highest affinity for b-PEA and p-TYR. Unresponsive to classical biogenic amines, such as epinephrine and histamine and only partially activated by dopamine and serotonine. Trace amines are biogenic amines present in very low levels in mammalian tissues. Although some trace amines have clearly defined roles as neurotransmitters in invertebrates, the extent to which they function as true neurotransmitters in vertebrates has remained speculative. Trace amines are likely to be involved in a variety of physiological functions that have yet to be fully understood. The signal transduced by this receptor is mediated by the G(s)-class of G-proteins which activate adenylate cyclase
Gene Name:
TAAR1
Uniprot ID:
Q96RJ0
Molecular weight:
39091.3