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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:01:10 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:28:00 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB14118
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTrifluoroacetic acid
DescriptionAt a low concentration, trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is used as an ion pairing agent in liquid chromatography (HPLC) of organic compounds, particularly peptides and small proteins. TFA is a versatile solvent for NMR spectroscopy (for materials stable in acid). It is also used as a calibrant in mass spectrometry. TFA is the precursor to many other fluorinated compounds such as trifluoroacetic anhydride and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol. It is a reagent used in organic synthesis because of a combination of convenient properties: volatility, solubility in organic solvents, and its strength as an acid. TFA is also less oxidizing than sulfuric acid but more readily available in anhydrous form than many other acids. One complication to its use is that TFA forms an azeotrope with water (b. p. 105°C). TFA is the simplest stable perfluorinated carboxylic acid chemical compound, with the formula CF3CO2H. It is a strong carboxylic acid due to the influence of the electronegative trifluoromethyl group. TFA is almost 100,000-fold more acidic than acetic acid. TFA is widely used in organic chemistry.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Acide trifluoroacetiqueChEBI
CF3COOHChEBI
Perfluoroacetic acidChEBI
TrifluoressigsaeureChEBI
TrifluoroacetateGenerator
PerfluoroacetateGenerator
Kyselina trifluoroctovaHMDB
Trifluoracetic acidHMDB
TrifluoressigsaureHMDB
trifluoro-Acetic acidHMDB
Trifluoroacetic acid (acd/name 4.0)HMDB
Trifluoroethanoic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC2HF3O2
Average Molecular Weight114.0233
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight113.992863891
IUPAC Nametrifluoroacetic acid
Traditional Nametrifluoroacetic acid
CAS Registry Number76-05-1
SMILES
OC(=O)C(F)(F)F
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C2HF3O2/c3-2(4,5)1(6)7/h(H,6,7)
InChI KeyInChIKey=DTQVDTLACAAQTR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha-halocarboxylic acids. These are carboxylic acids containing a halogen atom bonded to the alpha carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAlpha-halocarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentAlpha-halocarboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-halocarboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alkyl halide
  • Alkyl fluoride
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Waste products
Application
  • Pharmaceutical, waste
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-15.4 °CNot Available
Boiling Point72.4 °CNot Available
Water Solubility1000 mg/mL at 20 °CMiscible
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.44 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.35ALOGPS
logP0.91ChemAxon
logS-1.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity13.65 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability5.62 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Liver
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00330
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia Linktrifluoroacetic_acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB14118
Metagene LinkHMDB14118
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem CompoundNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID45892
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Yi GS, Lee WB, Chow GM: Synthesis of LiYF4, BaYF5, and NaLaF4 optical nanocrystals. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2007 Aug;7(8):2790-4. [17685299 ]
  2. Marchetti F, Marchetti F, Melai B, Pampaloni G, Zacchini S: Synthesis and reactivity of Haloacetato derivatives of iron(II) including the crystal and the molecular structure of [Fe(CF3COOH)2(micro-CF3COO)2]n. Inorg Chem. 2007 Apr 16;46(8):3378-84. Epub 2007 Mar 13. [17352467 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidation reduction
Specific function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND1
Uniprot ID:
P03886
Molecular weight:
35660.055
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Hanley PJ, Ray J, Brandt U, Daut J: Halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane inhibit NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of cardiac mitochondria. J Physiol. 2002 Nov 1;544(Pt 3):687-93. [12411515 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Restrepo JG, Garcia-Martin E, Martinez C, Agundez JA: Polymorphic drug metabolism in anaesthesia. Curr Drug Metab. 2009 Mar;10(3):236-46. [19442086 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in hydrogen ion transporting ATP synthase activity, rotational mechanism
Specific function:
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain. F-type ATPases consist of two structural domains, F(1) - containing the extramembraneous catalytic core, and F(0) - containing the membrane proton channel, linked together by a central stalk and a peripheral stalk. During catalysis, ATP turnover in the catalytic domain of F(1) is coupled via a rotary mechanism of the central stalk subunits to proton translocation. Part of the complex F(1) domain and of the central stalk which is part of the complex rotary element. Rotation of the central stalk against the surrounding alpha(3)beta(3) subunits leads to hydrolysis of ATP in three separate catalytic sites on the beta subunits
Gene Name:
ATP5D
Uniprot ID:
P30049
Molecular weight:
17489.8
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P98194
Molecular weight:
96959.125
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular weight:
56848.42
References
  1. Restrepo JG, Garcia-Martin E, Martinez C, Agundez JA: Polymorphic drug metabolism in anaesthesia. Curr Drug Metab. 2009 Mar;10(3):236-46. [19442086 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
  3. Spracklin DK, Hankins DC, Fisher JM, Thummel KE, Kharasch ED: Cytochrome P450 2E1 is the principal catalyst of human oxidative halothane metabolism in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Apr;281(1):400-11. [9103523 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular weight:
56277.81
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular weight:
56517.005
References
  1. Restrepo JG, Garcia-Martin E, Martinez C, Agundez JA: Polymorphic drug metabolism in anaesthesia. Curr Drug Metab. 2009 Mar;10(3):236-46. [19442086 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine
Gene Name:
GRIN3B
Uniprot ID:
O60391
Molecular weight:
112991.0
References
  1. Perouansky M, Kirson ED, Yaari Y: Halothane blocks synaptic excitation of inhibitory interneurons. Anesthesiology. 1996 Dec;85(6):1431-8; discussion 29A. [8968191 ]
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels possesses high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Activation requires binding of agonist to both types of subunits
Gene Name:
GRIN2A
Uniprot ID:
Q12879
Molecular weight:
165281.2
References
  1. Perouansky M, Kirson ED, Yaari Y: Halothane blocks synaptic excitation of inhibitory interneurons. Anesthesiology. 1996 Dec;85(6):1431-8; discussion 29A. [8968191 ]
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Potassium channel activated by both membrane depolarization or increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) that mediates export of K(+). It is also activated by the concentration of cytosolic Mg(2+). Its activation dampens the excitatory events that elevate the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and/or depolarize the cell membrane. It therefore contributes to repolarization of the membrane potential. Plays a key role in controlling excitability in a number of systems, such as regulation of the contraction of smooth muscle, the tuning of hair cells in the cochlea, regulation of transmitter release, and innate immunity. In smooth muscles, its activation by high level of Ca(2+), caused by ryanodine receptors in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, regulates the membrane potential. In cochlea cells, its number and kinetic properties partly determine the characteristic frequency of each hair cell and thereby helps to establish a tonotopic map. Kinetics of KCNMA1 channels are determined by alternative splicing, phosphorylation status and its combination with modulating beta subunits. Highly sensitive to both iberiotoxin (IbTx) and charybdotoxin (CTX)
Gene Name:
KCNMA1
Uniprot ID:
Q12791
Molecular weight:
137558.1
References
  1. Namba T, Ishii TM, Ikeda M, Hisano T, Itoh T, Hirota K, Adelman JP, Fukuda K: Inhibition of the human intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, hIK1, by volatile anesthetics. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Apr 28;395(2):95-101. [10794813 ]
  2. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in signal transducer activity
Specific function:
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein- effector interaction
Gene Name:
GNG2
Uniprot ID:
P59768
Molecular weight:
7850.0
References
  1. Ishizawa Y, Sharp R, Liebman PA, Eckenhoff RG: Halothane binding to a G protein coupled receptor in retinal membranes by photoaffinity labeling. Biochemistry. 2000 Jul 25;39(29):8497-502. [10913255 ]
  2. Zang WJ, Yu XJ, Zang YM: [Effect of halothane on the muscarinic potassium current of the heart]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2000 Apr;52(2):175-8. [11961592 ]
  3. Yoshimura H, Jones KA, Perkins WJ, Warner DO: Dual effects of hexanol and halothane on the regulation of calcium sensitivity in airway smooth muscle. Anesthesiology. 2003 Apr;98(4):871-80. [12657848 ]
  4. Streiff J, Jones K, Perkins WJ, Warner DO, Jones KA: Effect of halothane on the guanosine 5' triphosphate binding activity of G-protein alphai subunits. Anesthesiology. 2003 Jul;99(1):105-11. [12826849 ]
  5. Milovic S, Steinecker-Frohnwieser B, Schreibmayer W, Weigl LG: The sensitivity of G protein-activated K+ channels toward halothane is essentially determined by the C terminus. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 13;279(33):34240-9. Epub 2004 Jun 2. [15175324 ]
General function:
Involved in potassium channel activity
Specific function:
pH-dependent, voltage-insensitive, background potassium channel protein. Rectification direction results from potassium ion concentration on either side of the membrane. Acts as an outward rectifier when external potassium concentration is low. When external potassium concentration is high, current is inward
Gene Name:
KCNK3
Uniprot ID:
O14649
Molecular weight:
43517.7
References
  1. Lazarenko RM, Willcox SC, Shu S, Berg AP, Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Talley EM, Chen X, Bayliss DA: Motoneuronal TASK channels contribute to immobilizing effects of inhalational general anesthetics. J Neurosci. 2010 Jun 2;30(22):7691-704. [20519544 ]
  2. Pandit JJ, Buckler KJ: Halothane and sevoflurane exert different degrees of inhibition on carotid body glomus cell intracellular Ca2+ response to hypoxia. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;669:201-4. [20217349 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Photoreceptor required for image-forming vision at low light intensity. Required for photoreceptor cell viability after birth. Light-induced isomerization of 11-cis to all-trans retinal triggers a conformational change leading to G-protein activation and release of all-trans retinal
Gene Name:
RHO
Uniprot ID:
P08100
Molecular weight:
38892.3
References
  1. Ishizawa Y, Sharp R, Liebman PA, Eckenhoff RG: Halothane binding to a G protein coupled receptor in retinal membranes by photoaffinity labeling. Biochemistry. 2000 Jul 25;39(29):8497-502. [10913255 ]
  2. Keller C, Grimm C, Wenzel A, Hafezi F, Reme C: Protective effect of halothane anesthesia on retinal light damage: inhibition of metabolic rhodopsin regeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001 Feb;42(2):476-80. [11157886 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
May be active in signaling pathway in an autocrine or paracrine fashion in several tissues. Receptor for neuropeptide S, it may mediate its action, such as inhibitory effects, on cell growth. Involved in pathogenesis of asthma and other IgE-mediated diseases
Gene Name:
NPSR1
Uniprot ID:
Q6W5P4
Molecular weight:
42686.3
References
  1. Ishizawa Y, Sharp R, Liebman PA, Eckenhoff RG: Halothane binding to a G protein coupled receptor in retinal membranes by photoaffinity labeling. Biochemistry. 2000 Jul 25;39(29):8497-502. [10913255 ]
  2. Ishizawa Y, Pidikiti R, Liebman PA, Eckenhoff RG: G protein-coupled receptors as direct targets of inhaled anesthetics. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 May;61(5):945-52. [11961111 ]
  3. Streiff J, Jones K, Perkins WJ, Warner DO, Jones KA: Effect of halothane on the guanosine 5' triphosphate binding activity of G-protein alphai subunits. Anesthesiology. 2003 Jul;99(1):105-11. [12826849 ]
General function:
Involved in calmodulin binding
Specific function:
Forms a voltage-independent potassium channel that is activated by intracellular calcium. Activation is followed by membrane hyperpolarization which promotes calcium influx. The channel is blocked by clotrimazole and charybdotoxin but is insensitive to apamin
Gene Name:
KCNN4
Uniprot ID:
O15554
Molecular weight:
47695.1
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Namba T, Ishii TM, Ikeda M, Hisano T, Itoh T, Hirota K, Adelman JP, Fukuda K: Inhibition of the human intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, hIK1, by volatile anesthetics. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Apr 28;395(2):95-101. [10794813 ]
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May play a role in the development of dendritic spines. May play a role in PPP2CB-NMDAR mediated signaling mechanism
Gene Name:
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCU5
Molecular weight:
125464.1
References
  1. Perouansky M, Kirson ED, Yaari Y: Halothane blocks synaptic excitation of inhibitory interneurons. Anesthesiology. 1996 Dec;85(6):1431-8; discussion 29A. [8968191 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular weight:
51801.4
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing)
Gene Name:
GLRA1
Uniprot ID:
P23415
Molecular weight:
52623.4
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Schofield CM, Trudell JR, Harrison NL: Alanine-scanning mutagenesis in the signature disulfide loop of the glycine receptor alpha 1 subunit: critical residues for activation and modulation. Biochemistry. 2004 Aug 10;43(31):10058-63. [15287733 ]
General function:
Involved in inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific function:
This potassium channel is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. This receptor plays a crucial role in regulating the heartbeat
Gene Name:
KCNJ3
Uniprot ID:
P48549
Molecular weight:
56602.8
References
  1. Weigl LG, Schreibmayer W: G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels are targets for volatile anesthetics. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Aug;60(2):282-9. [11455015 ]
  2. Yamakura T, Lewohl JM, Harris RA: Differential effects of general anesthetics on G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying and other potassium channels. Anesthesiology. 2001 Jul;95(1):144-53. [11465552 ]
  3. Milovic S, Steinecker-Frohnwieser B, Schreibmayer W, Weigl LG: The sensitivity of G protein-activated K+ channels toward halothane is essentially determined by the C terminus. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 13;279(33):34240-9. Epub 2004 Jun 2. [15175324 ]
General function:
Involved in inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific function:
This potassium channel may be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion by glucose and/or neurotransmitters acting through G-protein-coupled receptors. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium
Gene Name:
KCNJ6
Uniprot ID:
P48051
Molecular weight:
48451.0
References
  1. Milovic S, Steinecker-Frohnwieser B, Schreibmayer W, Weigl LG: The sensitivity of G protein-activated K+ channels toward halothane is essentially determined by the C terminus. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 13;279(33):34240-9. Epub 2004 Jun 2. [15175324 ]
  2. Hara K, Yamakura T, Sata T, Harris RA: The effects of anesthetics and ethanol on alpha2 adrenoceptor subtypes expressed with G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels in Xenopus oocytes. Anesth Analg. 2005 Nov;101(5):1381-8. [16243998 ]