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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:49 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:28:09 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB14337
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePhentermine
DescriptionPhentermine is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of dextroamphetamine. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity. [PubChem]Phentermine is an amphetamine that stimulates neurons to release or maintain high levels of a particular group of neurotransmitters known as catecholamines; these include dopamine and norepinephrine. High levels of these catecholamines tend to suppress hunger signals and appetite. The drug seems to inhibit reuptake of noradrenaline, dopamine, and seratonin through inhibition or reversal of the reuptake transporters. It may also inhibit MAO enzymes leaving more neurotransmitter available at the synapse.Phentermine (through catecholamine elevation) may also indirectly affect leptin levels in the brain. It is theorized that phentermine can raise levels of leptin which signal satiety. It is also theorized that increased levels of the catecholamines are partially responsible for halting another chemical messenger known as neuropeptide Y. This peptide initiates eating, decreases energy expenditure, and increases fat storage.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
alpha,alpha-DimethylphenethylamineChEBI
FenterminaChEBI
PhenterminumChEBI
a,a-DimethylphenethylamineGenerator
α,α-dimethylphenethylamineGenerator
(alpha,alpha)-DimethylphenethylamineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC10H15N
Average Molecular Weight149.2328
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight149.120449485
IUPAC Name2-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine
Traditional Namephentermine
CAS Registry Number122-09-8
SMILES
CC(C)(N)CC1=CC=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H15N/c1-10(2,11)8-9-6-4-3-5-7-9/h3-7H,8,11H2,1-2H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=DHHVAGZRUROJKS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as amphetamines and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing or derived from 1-phenylpropan-2-amine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenethylamines
Direct ParentAmphetamines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Phenylpropane
  • Aralkylamine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Adrenergic Agents
  • Anorexigenic Agents
  • Appetite Depressants
  • Central Nervous System Agents
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Stimulants
  • Sympathomimetics
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point205 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility7.57e-01 g/LNot Available
LogP2.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.76 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.32ALOGPS
logP2.08ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.25ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.02 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity48.34 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17.87 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0ue9-0900000000-f2eb273dfd0ec45869c5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0f89-2900000000-f527ee48b9e2784c178cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0159-4900000000-548f73a83354267c9f81View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-c7ab0aa268d14ae3da39View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-1900000000-ce1c08c021fbc1cc5c8cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-2900000000-94b2b38953d359938c0aView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-9100000000-7037d3f1fad22de72c33View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00191
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00191
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-3 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00191
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4607
KEGG Compound IDC07438
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPhentermine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB14337
Metagene LinkHMDB14337
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound4771
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID8080
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Bray GA: A concise review on the therapeutics of obesity. Nutrition. 2000 Oct;16(10):953-60. [11054601 ]
  2. Nelson DL, Gehlert DR: Central nervous system biogenic amine targets for control of appetite and energy expenditure. Endocrine. 2006 Feb;29(1):49-60. [16622292 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
MAOB
Uniprot ID:
P27338
Molecular weight:
58762.475
References
  1. Rothman RB: Does phentermine inhibit monoamine oxidase? Lancet. 1999 Apr 17;353(9161):1362-3. [10218558 ]
  2. Rothman RB: Is phentermine an inhibitor of monoamine oxidase? A critical appraisal. Synapse. 1999 May;32(2):141-5. [10231134 ]
  3. Ulus IH, Maher TJ, Wurtman RJ: Characterization of phentermine and related compounds as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Jun 15;59(12):1611-21. [10799660 ]
  4. Kilpatrick IC, Traut M, Heal DJ: Monoamine oxidase inhibition is unlikely to be relevant to the risks associated with phentermine and fenfluramine: a comparison with their abilities to evoke monoamine release. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Oct;25(10):1454-8. [11673765 ]
  5. Nandigama RK, Newton-Vinson P, Edmondson DE: Phentermine inhibition of recombinant human liver monoamine oxidases A and B. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Mar 1;63(5):865-9. [11911838 ]
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular weight:
59681.27
References
  1. Rothman RB: Is phentermine an inhibitor of monoamine oxidase? A critical appraisal. Synapse. 1999 May;32(2):141-5. [10231134 ]
  2. Ulus IH, Maher TJ, Wurtman RJ: Characterization of phentermine and related compounds as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Jun 15;59(12):1611-21. [10799660 ]
  3. Kilpatrick IC, Traut M, Heal DJ: Monoamine oxidase inhibition is unlikely to be relevant to the risks associated with phentermine and fenfluramine: a comparison with their abilities to evoke monoamine release. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Oct;25(10):1454-8. [11673765 ]
  4. Nandigama RK, Newton-Vinson P, Edmondson DE: Phentermine inhibition of recombinant human liver monoamine oxidases A and B. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Mar 1;63(5):865-9. [11911838 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID:
Q01959
Molecular weight:
68494.255
References
  1. John CE, Jones SR: Voltammetric characterization of the effect of monoamine uptake inhibitors and releasers on dopamine and serotonin uptake in mouse caudate-putamen and substantia nigra slices. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Jun;52(8):1596-605. Epub 2007 Mar 16. [17459426 ]
  2. Gruner JA, Marcy VR, Lin YG, Bozyczko-Coyne D, Marino MJ, Gasior M: The roles of dopamine transport inhibition and dopamine release facilitation in wake enhancement and rebound hypersomnolence induced by dopaminergic agents. Sleep. 2009 Nov;32(11):1425-38. [19928382 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular weight:
69331.42
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Stephens LC, Katz SG: Phentermine and anaesthesia. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2005 Aug;33(4):525-7. [16119498 ]
  4. Samanin R, Garattini S: Neurochemical mechanism of action of anorectic drugs. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1993 Aug;73(2):63-8. [7902561 ]
  5. Proietto J, Fam BC, Ainslie DA, Thorburn AW: Novel anti-obesity drugs. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2000 Jun;9(6):1317-26. [11060745 ]
General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular weight:
70324.165
References
  1. John CE, Jones SR: Voltammetric characterization of the effect of monoamine uptake inhibitors and releasers on dopamine and serotonin uptake in mouse caudate-putamen and substantia nigra slices. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Jun;52(8):1596-605. Epub 2007 Mar 16. [17459426 ]
  2. Johnson GJ, Leis LA, Dunlop PC, Weir EK: The effect of the anorectic agent, d-fenfluramine, and its primary metabolite, d-norfenfluramine, on intact human platelet serotonin uptake and efflux. J Thromb Haemost. 2003 Dec;1(12):2663-8. [14675103 ]
  3. Mekontso-Dessap A, Brouri F, Pascal O, Lechat P, Hanoun N, Lanfumey L, Seif I, Benhaiem-Sigaux N, Kirsch M, Hamon M, Adnot S, Eddahibi S: Deficiency of the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene leads to cardiac fibrosis and valvulopathy in mice. Circulation. 2006 Jan 3;113(1):81-9. Epub 2005 Dec 27. [16380550 ]
  4. Rothman RB, Ayestas MA, Dersch CM, Baumann MH: Aminorex, fenfluramine, and chlorphentermine are serotonin transporter substrates. Implications for primary pulmonary hypertension. Circulation. 1999 Aug 24;100(8):869-75. [10458725 ]
  5. Zolkowska D, Rothman RB, Baumann MH: Amphetamine analogs increase plasma serotonin: implications for cardiac and pulmonary disease. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Aug;318(2):604-10. Epub 2006 Apr 27. [16644904 ]