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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-04-16 17:01:40 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000063
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00063
  • HMDB0014879
  • HMDB14879
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCortisol
DescriptionCortisol is the main glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex and it is involved in the stress response. Its synthetic counterpart hydrocortisone is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions. Hydrocortisone is synthesized from pregnenolone and is used as an immunosuppressive drug given by injection in the treatment of severe allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis and angioedema, in place of prednisolone in patients who need steroid treatment but cannot take oral medication, and peri-operatively in patients on long-term steroid treatment to prevent an Addisonian crisis. Cortisol increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels, may cause infertility in women, and suppresses the immune system. The amount of cortisol present in the serum undergoes diurnal variation, with the highest levels present in the early morning and lower levels in the evening, several hours after the onset of sleep. Cortisol is found to be associated with ACTH deficiency and glucocorticoid deficiency, which are inborn errors of metabolism. Cortisol binds to the cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor. After binding the receptor, the newly formed receptor-ligand complex translocates itself into the cell nucleus where it binds to many glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) in the promoter region of the target genes. The DNA-bound receptor then interacts with basic transcription factors, causing the increase in expression of specific target genes. The anti-inflammatory actions of corticosteroids are thought to involve lipocortins, phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins which, through inhibition arachidonic acid, control the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Specifically, glucocorticoids induce lipocortin-1 (annexin-1) synthesis, which then binds to cell membranes and prevents phospholipase A2 from coming into contact with its substrate arachidonic acid. This leads to diminished eicosanoid production. The cyclooxygenase (both COX-1 and COX-2) expression is also suppressed, potentiating the effect. In other words, the two main products of inflammation, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, are inhibited by the action of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids also stimulate the escape of lipocortin-1 into the extracellular space, where it binds to the leukocyte membrane receptors and inhibits various inflammatory events: epithelial adhesion, emigration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and the release of various inflammatory mediators (lysosomal enzymes, cytokines, tissue plasminogen activator, chemokines, etc.) from neutrophils, macrophages, and mastocytes. Additionally, the immune system is suppressed by corticosteroids due to a decrease in the function of the lymphatic system, a reduction in immunoglobulin and complement concentrations, the precipitation of lymphocytopenia, and interference with antigen-antibody binding.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(11beta)-11,17,21-Trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dioneChEBI
11beta,17alpha,21-Trihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dioneChEBI
11beta-HydrocortisoneChEBI
17-HydroxycorticosteroneChEBI
4-Pregnen-11beta,17alpha,21-triol-3,20-dioneChEBI
HidrocortisonaChEBI
HydrocortisoneChEBI
HydrocortisonumChEBI
Kendall's compound FChEBI
Reichstein's substance mChEBI
HCKegg
ActicortKegg
Anusol HCKegg
ColocortKegg
CortefKegg
HytoneKegg
PlenadrenKegg
Balneol-HCChEMBL
CORTRILChEMBL
CetacortChEMBL
Cort-domeChEMBL
FlexicortChEMBL
Hi-corChEMBL
Hydrocortisone in absorbaseChEMBL
Nogenic HCChEMBL
Aeroseb-HCChEMBL
Ala-cortChEMBL
Ala-scalpChEMBL
PenecortChEMBL
TexacortChEMBL
H-CortChEMBL
HYDROCORTONEChEMBL
OphthocortChEMBL
Terra-cortrilChEMBL
Cor-oticinChEMBL
NutracortChEMBL
CortifoamChEMBL
GlycortChEMBL
HC #1ChEMBL
HC #4ChEMBL
ProctocortChEMBL
Anucort-HCChEMBL
CortenemaChEMBL
DermacortChEMBL
Micort-HCChEMBL
SynacortChEMBL
U-cortChEMBL
EldecortChEMBL
EpicortChEMBL
neo-CortefChEMBL
Stie-cortChEMBL
Anusol-HCChEMBL
Beta-HCChEMBL
hydro-RXChEMBL
LocoidChEMBL
(11b)-11,17,21-Trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dioneGenerator
(11β)-11,17,21-trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dioneGenerator
11b,17a,21-Trihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dioneGenerator
11β,17α,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dioneGenerator
11b-HydrocortisoneGenerator
11β-hydrocortisoneGenerator
4-Pregnen-11b,17a,21-triol-3,20-dioneGenerator
4-Pregnen-11β,17α,21-triol-3,20-dioneGenerator
b-HCGenerator
β-HCGenerator
11-beta-HydrocortisoneHMDB
11-beta-HydroxycortisoneHMDB
11-HydrocortisoneHMDB
11a-HydroxycorticosteroneHMDB
11alpha-HydroxycorticosteroneHMDB
11b,17,21-TrihydroxyprogesteroneHMDB
11b-HydroxycortisoneHMDB
11beta,17,21-TrihydroxyprogesteroneHMDB
11beta-HydroxycortisoneHMDB
17a-HydroxycorticosteroneHMDB
17alpha-HydroxycorticosteroneHMDB
4-Pregnene-11alpha,21-triol 3,20-dioneHMDB
4-Pregnene-11b,17a,21-triol-3,20-dioneHMDB
Aeroseb HCHMDB
AlacortHMDB
AlgicirtisHMDB
AlphadermHMDB
AmberinHMDB
AnflamHMDB
Anti-inflammatory hormoneHMDB
AquacortHMDB
Aquanil HCHMDB
Barseb HCHMDB
Basan-cortiHMDB
CaldeCORT sprayHMDB
ChronocortHMDB
Clear aidHMDB
CleitonHMDB
CobadexHMDB
Compound FHMDB
Cor-tar-quinHMDB
Cort-quinHMDB
CortanalHMDB
CortesalHMDB
CorticremeHMDB
CortifanHMDB
CortimentHMDB
Cortisol alcoholHMDB
CortisolonumHMDB
CortisporinHMDB
Cortisporin oticoHMDB
CortisprayHMDB
CortizolHMDB
CortolotionHMDB
CortonemaHMDB
CortoxideHMDB
CremesoneHMDB
Cremicort-HHMDB
CutisolHMDB
DelacortHMDB
Derm-aidHMDB
DermilHMDB
DermolateHMDB
DihydrocostisoneHMDB
DiodermHMDB
Dome-cortHMDB
Domolene-HCHMDB
DroticHMDB
Ef corlinHMDB
EfcorbinHMDB
EfcortelanHMDB
EfcortelinHMDB
EldercortHMDB
Epiderm HHMDB
Esiderm HHMDB
EvacortHMDB
FicortrilHMDB
FiocortrilHMDB
Foille insettiHMDB
GenacortHMDB
gyno-CortisoneHMDB
Heb cortHMDB
Heb-cortHMDB
HidaloneHMDB
hidro-ColisonaHMDB
HycortHMDB
HycortolHMDB
HycortoleHMDB
HydracortHMDB
HydrassonHMDB
hydro-AdresonHMDB
hydro-ColisonaHMDB
HydrocortHMDB
HydrocortalHMDB
HydrocorticosteroneHMDB
Hydrocortisone alcoholHMDB
Hydrocortisone baseHMDB
Hydrocortisone free alcoholHMDB
HydrocortistabHMDB
HydrocortisylHMDB
HydroskinHMDB
HydroxycortisoneHMDB
HysoneHMDB
HytisoneHMDB
Hytone lotionHMDB
IdrocortisoneHMDB
Incortin-HHMDB
Incortin-hydrogenHMDB
Komed HCHMDB
KyypakkausHMDB
Lacticare HCHMDB
Lacticare-HCHMDB
LactisonaHMDB
LubricortHMDB
MaintasoneHMDB
MedicortHMDB
MeusicortHMDB
MildisonHMDB
MillidermHMDB
neo-Cort-domeHMDB
Neosporin-H earHMDB
Nystaform-HCHMDB
OptefHMDB
OtalgineHMDB
Otic-neo-cort-domeHMDB
OtobioticHMDB
OtocortHMDB
Otosone-FHMDB
Pediotic suspensionHMDB
PermicortHMDB
Polcort HHMDB
Preparation H hydrocortisone creamHMDB
PrepcortHMDB
Prestwick_265HMDB
Prevex HCHMDB
ProctofoamHMDB
ProtocortHMDB
RacetHMDB
RectoidHMDB
Remederm HCHMDB
SanatisonHMDB
Scalpicin capilarHMDB
SchericurHMDB
Scheroson FHMDB
SigmacortHMDB
SignefHMDB
StiefcorcilHMDB
Systral hydrocortHMDB
TarcortinHMDB
TimocortHMDB
TopicortHMDB
Transderma HHMDB
TraumaideHMDB
UnidermHMDB
Vioform-hydrocortisoneHMDB
VoSol HCHMDB
VytoneHMDB
ZenoxoneHMDB
11-EpicortisolMeSH
Hydrocortisone, (11 alpha)-isomerMeSH
Hydrocortisone, (9 beta,10 alpha,11 alpha)-isomerMeSH
11 EpicortisolMeSH
CortifairMeSH
EpicortisolMeSH
Hydrocortisone acetateHMDB
Hydrocortisone butyrateHMDB
Hydrocortisone sodium phosphateHMDB
Hydrocortisone valerateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC21H30O5
Average Molecular Weight362.4599
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight362.20932407
IUPAC Name(1S,2R,10S,11S,14R,15S,17S)-14,17-dihydroxy-14-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-6-en-5-one
Traditional Name(1S,2R,10S,11S,14R,15S,17S)-14,17-dihydroxy-14-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-6-en-5-one
CAS Registry Number50-23-7
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@](O)(C(=O)CO)[C@@]1(C)C[C@H](O)[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CCC2=CC(=O)CC[C@]12C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C21H30O5/c1-19-7-5-13(23)9-12(19)3-4-14-15-6-8-21(26,17(25)11-22)20(15,2)10-16(24)18(14)19/h9,14-16,18,22,24,26H,3-8,10-11H2,1-2H3/t14-,15-,16-,18+,19-,20-,21-/m0/s1
InChI KeyJYGXADMDTFJGBT-VWUMJDOOSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 21-hydroxysteroids. These are steroids carrying a hydroxyl group at the 21-position of the steroid backbone.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassHydroxysteroids
Direct Parent21-hydroxysteroids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Progestogin-skeleton
  • 21-hydroxysteroid
  • 20-oxosteroid
  • Pregnane-skeleton
  • 3-oxo-delta-4-steroid
  • 3-oxosteroid
  • Oxosteroid
  • 11-beta-hydroxysteroid
  • 11-hydroxysteroid
  • 17-hydroxysteroid
  • Delta-4-steroid
  • Cyclohexenone
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Alpha-hydroxy ketone
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Ketone
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point220 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.32 mg/mLNot Available
LogP1.61HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.2 g/LALOGPS
logP1.79ALOGPS
logP1.28ChemAxon
logS-3.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.58ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area94.83 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity97.4 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability39.45 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 MEOX; 3 TMS)splash10-0f7o-3930000000-b7b43b2fc9f20acfd20bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f7o-3930000000-b7b43b2fc9f20acfd20bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-052f-2910000000-2625335a031486ecb302View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-03di-0764390000-da961c85fe1bb83113ddView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-03di-0759000000-b337a46ecfd6de91776bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-05fs-3940000000-2bf712a915c3a2c100a2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , negativesplash10-015a-0189000000-61afe49a8d4a96aae3f9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-00lu-0149000000-b95a11b27f7e7d44dd51View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-001l-0019000000-4c4924e6ac472ad52886View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-001j-0259000000-fda4e876e9ef04015946View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-03di-0009000000-cc8188e19dbdd6210b77View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-07r1-1985000000-b6d756bd554367393be3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-00dj-1930000000-120dc8893cc4709c1f6bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-00dm-2910000000-d1f01e1bce5fe0108f40View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-05tf-3900000000-4ffd79c22013fe5479b6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-054o-4900000000-fdbed869a0cadc21b64bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-002f-7900000000-dac7b2c5b3f8e8b85086View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-016u-7900000000-3a770c3819f82ea45841View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-016r-9800000000-d261cf7141fbf30715f5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positivesplash10-056r-0289000000-9a48511b5c3d5fa404e9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-03di-0759000000-b337a46ecfd6de91776bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-05fs-3940000000-2bf712a915c3a2c100a2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01ot-0019000000-8ad3f8da375dbe757f56View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-01r2-0249000000-626e28356285f53f3fe6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a5i-1591000000-0e29016542b4be9b2b71View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0009000000-50ebf457069ff74ed883View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-114u-2029000000-385a70405fc241c4d5a4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9086000000-3eda615d9551e69f2b4aView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Fetus
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gonads
  • Gut
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Lymphocyte
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Skin
  • Spleen
  • Testes
Pathways
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP11B1)ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simpleNot Available
17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP17)ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simpleNot Available
21-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP21)ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simpleNot Available
3-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase DeficiencyThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simpleNot Available
Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 3 or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase DeficiencyThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simpleNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.287 +/- 0.099 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0130-0.340 uMNewborn (2 - <15 days old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.014-0.46 uMInfant (15 days - <1 year old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.048-0.30 uMChildren (1 - <9 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.060-0.35 uMChildren (9 - <14 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.077-0.45 uMAdolescent (14 - <17 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.097-0.51 uMAdolescent (17 - <19 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.150-0.650 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.028-0.634 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.32 +/- 0.19 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.221-0.690 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.199 (0.058-0.475) uMInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.359 (0.130-0.519) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.171 +/- 0.0662 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.427 (0.110-0.744) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.386 (0.100-0.671) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.348 (0.090-0.605) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.313 (0.081-0.545) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.282 (0.073-0.491) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.255 (0.066-0.443) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.171-0.538 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.881-1.656 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.07-0.55 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)BothNormal
    • Physician's Guide...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.138-0.690 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.46 +/- 0.30 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.260-0.719 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.14 (0.0-0.28) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.052 +/- 0.023 uMElderly (>65 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.02 +/- 0.011 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.03 +/- 0.005 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0069 +/- 0.0058 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0063 +/- 0.0052 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0063 +/- 0.005 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0077 +/- 0.0052 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2.35 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0081 (0.0019-0.014) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.016(0.012-0.021) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified<0.00960 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00184-0.0184 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0061 +/- 0.00064 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified1.036 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Male
3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase Deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.235 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Female
Adrenal insufficiency, congenital, with 46,XY sex reversal, partial or complete
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0124-0.455 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)MaleAdrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified<0.0276 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Female
Adrenal insufficiency, congenital, with 46,XY sex reversal, partial or complete
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.34 (0.028-0.66) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothACTH deficiency, isolated
    • MetaGene: Metabol...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.001 (0.0-0.002) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothAdrenal Hypoplasia
    • MetaGene: Metabol...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.326 +/- 0.090 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
BloodDetected and Quantified10.55 +/- 1.93 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.381 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Female
3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCHAD)
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.135 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Female
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.300 +/- 0.200 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not Specified
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.684-0.991 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Glucocorticoid resistance
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.400 +/- 0.200 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.07 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.12 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Male
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.290-0.390 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.280-0.480 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00615 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)MaleGlucocorticoid deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.353 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Male3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase Deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.360 +/- 0.100 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAdrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.230 +/- 0.120 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedAdrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.300 +/- 0.120 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothAdrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.360 +/- 0.120 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleAdrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified<0.138 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleProprotein Convertase 1/3 Deficiency details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified<0.0280 uMInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleLipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.152 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.556 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)FemaleBartter Syndrome, Type 2, Antenatal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.434-0.654 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Antley-Bixler syndrome with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.558 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Female
Aromatase deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.27 +/- 0.06 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMajor affective disorder details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0806 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Female
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.41 +/- 0.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothTic disorder details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0469 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.221 uMInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleCorticosterone methyloxidase I deficiency- CMO I details
BloodDetected and Quantified<0.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleACTH deficiency, isolated details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.22 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleACTH deficiency, isolated details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0096 (0.0027-0.016) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleGynecological diseases (benign) details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0001+/- 0.00001 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleFunctional hypothalamic amenorrhea details
SalivaDetected and Quantified8.69 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothStress period details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.021 +/- 0.0097 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0082 +/- 0.0014 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0133 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleGlucocorticoid resistance details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0114 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleLeptin Deficiency or Dysfunction details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.026 +/- 0.011 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Rheumatoid arthritis
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0052 +/- 0.001 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Rheumatoid arthritis
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.44 +/- 0.09 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothAnorexia nervosa details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency
  1. Hattori N, Ishihara T, Moridera K, Hino M, Ikekubo K, Kurahachi H: A case of late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to partial 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. Endocr J. 1993 Feb;40(1):107-9. [PubMed:7951484 ]
  2. Lutfallah C, Wang W, Mason JI, Chang YT, Haider A, Rich B, Castro-Magana M, Copeland KC, David R, Pang S: Newly proposed hormonal criteria via genotypic proof for type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jun;87(6):2611-22. doi: 10.1210/jcem.87.6.8615. [PubMed:12050224 ]
  3. Guven A, Polat S: Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumor in Two Brothers with a Novel Mutation in the 3-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase-2 Gene. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2017 Mar 1;9(1):85-90. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.3306. Epub 2016 Jul 29. [PubMed:27476613 ]
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency
  1. Santarelli F, Cassanello M, Enea A, Poma F, D'Onofrio V, Guala G, Garrone G, Puccinelli P, Caruso U, Porta F, Spada M: A neonatal case of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric-coenzyme A lyase deficiency. Ital J Pediatr. 2013 May 24;39:33. doi: 10.1186/1824-7288-39-33. [PubMed:23705938 ]
Anorexia nervosa
  1. Vierhapper H, Kiss A, Nowotny P, Wiesnagrotzki S, Monder C, Waldhausl W: Metabolism of cortisol in anorexia nervosa. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1990 Jun;122(6):753-8. [PubMed:2165347 ]
Benign gynecological diseases
  1. Murakami K, Nakagawa T, Shozu M, Uchide K, Koike K, Inoue M: Changes with aging of steroidal levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of women. Maturitas. 1999 Sep 24;33(1):71-80. [PubMed:10585175 ]
Bipolar disorder
  1. Walker EF, Bonsall R, Walder DJ: Plasma hormones and catecholamine metabolites in monozygotic twins discordant for psychosis. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 2002 Mar;15(1):10-7. [PubMed:11877547 ]
Corticosterone methyl oxidase I deficiency
  1. Ustyol A, Atabek ME, Taylor N, Yeung MC, Chan AO: Corticosterone Methyl Oxidase Deficiency Type 1 with Normokalemia in an Infant. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2016 Sep 1;8(3):356-9. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.2824. Epub 2016 Apr 29. [PubMed:27125267 ]
Schizophrenia
  1. Walker EF, Bonsall R, Walder DJ: Plasma hormones and catecholamine metabolites in monozygotic twins discordant for psychosis. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 2002 Mar;15(1):10-7. [PubMed:11877547 ]
  2. Schwarz E, Guest PC, Rahmoune H, Harris LW, Wang L, Leweke FM, Rothermundt M, Bogerts B, Koethe D, Kranaster L, Ohrmann P, Suslow T, McAllister G, Spain M, Barnes A, van Beveren NJ, Baron-Cohen S, Steiner J, Torrey FE, Yolken RH, Bahn S: Identification of a biological signature for schizophrenia in serum. Mol Psychiatry. 2012 May;17(5):494-502. doi: 10.1038/mp.2011.42. Epub 2011 Apr 12. [PubMed:21483431 ]
  3. Bicikova M, Hill M, Ripova D, Mohr P, Hampl R: Determination of steroid metabolome as a possible tool for laboratory diagnosis of schizophrenia. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013 Jan;133:77-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2012.08.009. Epub 2012 Aug 24. [PubMed:22944140 ]
Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea
  1. Brundu B, Loucks TL, Adler LJ, Cameron JL, Berga SL: Increased cortisol in the cerebrospinal fluid of women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Apr;91(4):1561-5. Epub 2006 Feb 7. [PubMed:16464944 ]
Rheumatoid arthritis
  1. Straub RH, Weidler C, Demmel B, Herrmann M, Kees F, Schmidt M, Scholmerich J, Schedel J: Renal clearance and daily excretion of cortisol and adrenal androgens in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004 Aug;63(8):961-8. [PubMed:15249323 ]
Stress
  1. Krahwinkel T, Nastali S, Azrak B, Willershausen B: The effect of examination stress conditions on the cortisol content of saliva - a study of students from clinical semesters. Eur J Med Res. 2004 May 28;9(5):256-60. [PubMed:15257879 ]
Tic disorder
  1. Hoekstra PJ, Anderson GM, Troost PW, Kallenberg CG, Minderaa RB: Plasma kynurenine and related measures in tic disorder patients. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Jun;16 Suppl 1:71-7. doi: 10.1007/s00787-007-1009-1. [PubMed:17665285 ]
ACTH deficiency, isolated
  1. Harano Y, Kitano A, Akiyama Y, Kotajima L, Honda K, Arioka H: A case of isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency: a rare but possible cause of hypercalcemia. Int Med Case Rep J. 2015 Mar 27;8:77-9. doi: 10.2147/IMCRJ.S63778. eCollection 2015. [PubMed:25870516 ]
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, due to 17-Hydroxylase-Deficiency
  1. Wong SL, Shu SG, Tsai CR: Seventeen alpha-hydroxylase deficiency. J Formos Med Assoc. 2006 Feb;105(2):177-81. doi: 10.1016/S0929-6646(09)60342-9. [PubMed:16477341 ]
  2. Kim SM, Rhee JH: A case of 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency. Clin Exp Reprod Med. 2015 Jun;42(2):72-6. doi: 10.5653/cerm.2015.42.2.72. Epub 2015 Jun 30. [PubMed:26161337 ]
Adrenal insufficiency, congenital, with 46,XY sex reversal, partial or complete
  1. Kim CJ, Lin L, Huang N, Quigley CA, AvRuskin TW, Achermann JC, Miller WL: Severe combined adrenal and gonadal deficiency caused by novel mutations in the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Mar;93(3):696-702. doi: 10.1210/jc.2007-2330. Epub 2008 Jan 8. [PubMed:18182448 ]
Antley-Bixler syndrome with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis
  1. Fukami M, Hasegawa T, Horikawa R, Ohashi T, Nishimura G, Homma K, Ogata T: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency in three patients initially regarded as having 21-hydroxylase deficiency and/or aromatase deficiency: diagnostic value of urine steroid hormone analysis. Pediatr Res. 2006 Feb;59(2):276-80. doi: 10.1203/01.pdr.0000195825.31504.28. [PubMed:16439592 ]
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess
  1. New MI, Levine LS, Biglieri EG, Pareira J, Ulick S: Evidence for an unidentified steroid in a child with apparent mineralocorticoid hypertension. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1977 May;44(5):924-33. doi: 10.1210/jcem-44-5-924. [PubMed:870517 ]
Aromatase deficiency
  1. Mullis PE, Yoshimura N, Kuhlmann B, Lippuner K, Jaeger P, Harada H: Aromatase deficiency in a female who is compound heterozygote for two new point mutations in the P450arom gene: impact of estrogens on hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, multicystic ovaries, and bone densitometry in childhood. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Jun;82(6):1739-45. doi: 10.1210/jcem.82.6.3994. [PubMed:9177373 ]
3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase Deficiency
  1. Morris AA, Lascelles CV, Olpin SE, Lake BD, Leonard JV, Quant PA: Hepatic mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a synthase deficiency. Pediatr Res. 1998 Sep;44(3):392-6. doi: 10.1203/00006450-199809000-00021. [PubMed:9727719 ]
3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
  1. Clayton PT, Eaton S, Aynsley-Green A, Edginton M, Hussain K, Krywawych S, Datta V, Malingre HE, Berger R, van den Berg IE: Hyperinsulinism in short-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency reveals the importance of beta-oxidation in insulin secretion. J Clin Invest. 2001 Aug;108(3):457-65. [PubMed:11489939 ]
Bartter Syndrome, Type 2, Antenatal
  1. Chan WK, To KF, Tong JH, Law CW: Paradoxical hypertension and salt wasting in Type II Bartter syndrome. Clin Kidney J. 2012 Jun;5(3):217-20. doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfs026. Epub 2012 Mar 29. [PubMed:26069767 ]
Glucocorticoid resistance
  1. Donner KM, Hiltunen TP, Janne OA, Sane T, Kontula K: Generalized glucocorticoid resistance caused by a novel two-nucleotide deletion in the hormone-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 Dec 10;168(1):K9-K18. doi: 10.1530/EJE-12-0532. Print 2013 Jan. [PubMed:23076843 ]
Leptin Deficiency or Dysfunction
  1. Farooqi IS, Jebb SA, Langmack G, Lawrence E, Cheetham CH, Prentice AM, Hughes IA, McCamish MA, O'Rahilly S: Effects of recombinant leptin therapy in a child with congenital leptin deficiency. N Engl J Med. 1999 Sep 16;341(12):879-84. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199909163411204. [PubMed:10486419 ]
Lipoid Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
  1. Fujieda K, Tajima T, Nakae J, Sageshima S, Tachibana K, Suwa S, Sugawara T, Strauss JF 3rd: Spontaneous puberty in 46,XX subjects with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia. Ovarian steroidogenesis is spared to some extent despite inactivating mutations in the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene. J Clin Invest. 1997 Mar 15;99(6):1265-71. doi: 10.1172/JCI119284. [PubMed:9077535 ]
Proprotein Convertase 1/3 Deficiency
  1. O'Rahilly S, Gray H, Humphreys PJ, Krook A, Polonsky KS, White A, Gibson S, Taylor K, Carr C: Brief report: impaired processing of prohormones associated with abnormalities of glucose homeostasis and adrenal function. N Engl J Med. 1995 Nov 23;333(21):1386-90. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199511233332104. [PubMed:7477119 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 125480 (Bipolar disorder)
  • 181500 (Schizophrenia)
  • 201400 (ACTH deficiency, isolated)
  • 218030 (Apparent mineralocorticoid excess)
  • 201810 (Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency)
  • 613546 (Aromatase deficiency)
  • 605911 (3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase Deficiency)
  • 231530 (3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency)
  • 201750 (Antley-Bixler syndrome with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis)
  • 202110 (Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, due to 17-Hydroxylase-Deficiency)
  • 613743 (Adrenal insufficiency, congenital, with 46,XY sex reversal, partial or complete)
  • 246450 (3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency)
  • 241200 (Bartter Syndrome, Type 2, Antenatal)
  • 615962 (Glucocorticoid resistance)
  • 600955 (Proprotein Convertase 1/3 Deficiency)
  • 201710 (Lipoid Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia)
  • 203400 (Corticosterone methyl oxidase I deficiency)
  • 606788 (Anorexia nervosa)
  • 180300 (Rheumatoid arthritis)
  • 614962 (Leptin Deficiency or Dysfunction)
DrugBank IDDB00741
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021888
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5551
KEGG Compound IDC00735
BioCyc IDCORTISOL
BiGG ID35828
Wikipedia LinkHydrocortisone
METLIN ID5124
PubChem Compound5754
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17650
References
Synthesis ReferenceHanson, Frederick R.; Mann, Kingsley M.; Nielson, Eldon D.; Anderson, Hugh V.; Brunner, Mari P.; Karnemaat, John N.; Colingsworth, Donald R.; Haines, Wm. J. Microbiological transformations of steroids. VIII. Preparation of 17a-hydroxycorticosterone.  Journal of the American Chemical Society 1953, 75(21), p.5369-5370. (https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/ja01117a066)
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Schwarz S, Pohl P: Steroid hormones and steroid hormone binding globulins in cerebrospinal fluid studied in individuals with intact and with disturbed blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Neuroendocrinology. 1992 Feb;55(2):174-82. [PubMed:1620285 ]
  2. Al-Damluji S, Iveson T, Thomas JM, Pendlebury DJ, Rees LH, Besser GM: Food-induced cortisol secretion is mediated by central alpha-1 adrenoceptor modulation of pituitary ACTH secretion. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1987 May;26(5):629-36. [PubMed:2822298 ]
  3. Krahwinkel T, Nastali S, Azrak B, Willershausen B: The effect of examination stress conditions on the cortisol content of saliva - a study of students from clinical semesters. Eur J Med Res. 2004 May 28;9(5):256-60. [PubMed:15257879 ]
  4. Rubin RT, Miller TH, Rhodes ME, Czambel RK: Adrenal cortical responses to low- and high-dose ACTH(1-24) administration in major depressives vs. matched controls. Psychiatry Res. 2006 Jun 30;143(1):43-50. Epub 2006 May 16. [PubMed:16707164 ]
  5. Morris JG, Nevill ME, Boobis LH, Macdonald IA, Williams C: Muscle metabolism, temperature, and function during prolonged, intermittent, high-intensity running in air temperatures of 33 degrees and 17 degrees C. Int J Sports Med. 2005 Dec;26(10):805-14. [PubMed:16320162 ]
  6. Deuschle M, Lecei O, Stalla GK, Landgraf R, Hamann B, Lederbogen F, Uhr M, Luppa P, Maras A, Colla M, Heuser I: Steroid synthesis inhibition with ketoconazole and its effect upon the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system in healthy humans. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Feb;28(2):379-83. Epub 2002 Aug 12. [PubMed:12589391 ]
  7. Clauss SB, Holmes KW, Hopkins P, Stein E, Cho M, Tate A, Johnson-Levonas AO, Kwiterovich PO: Efficacy and safety of lovastatin therapy in adolescent girls with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Pediatrics. 2005 Sep;116(3):682-8. [PubMed:16140708 ]
  8. Stark JG, Werner S, Homrighausen S, Tang Y, Krieg M, Derendorf H, Moellmann H, Hochhaus G: Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of total lymphocytes and selected subtypes after oral budesonide. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2006 Aug;33(4):441-59. Epub 2006 Apr 22. [PubMed:16633890 ]
  9. Makras P, Koukoulis GN, Bourikas G, Papatheodorou G, Bedevis K, Menounos P, Pappas D, Kartalis G: Effect of 4 weeks of basic military training on peripheral blood leucocytes and urinary excretion of catecholamines and cortisol. J Sports Sci. 2005 Aug;23(8):825-34. [PubMed:16195034 ]
  10. Costa A, Benedetto C, Fabris C, Giraudi GF, Testori O, Bertino E, Marozio L, Varvello G, Arisio R, Ariano M, Emanuel A: Cortisol in human tissues at different stages of life. J Endocrinol Invest. 1996 Jul-Aug;19(7):463-71. [PubMed:8884541 ]
  11. Targher G, Bertolini L, Zoppini G, Zenari L, Falezza G: Relationship of non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis to cortisol secretion in diet-controlled Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med. 2005 Sep;22(9):1146-50. [PubMed:16108840 ]
  12. Pruessner JC, Baldwin MW, Dedovic K, Renwick R, Mahani NK, Lord C, Meaney M, Lupien S: Self-esteem, locus of control, hippocampal volume, and cortisol regulation in young and old adulthood. Neuroimage. 2005 Dec;28(4):815-26. Epub 2005 Jul 14. [PubMed:16023372 ]
  13. Whorwood CB, Donovan SJ, Flanagan D, Phillips DI, Byrne CD: Increased glucocorticoid receptor expression in human skeletal muscle cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes. 2002 Apr;51(4):1066-75. [PubMed:11916927 ]
  14. Takahashi T, Ikeda K, Ishikawa M, Tsukasaki T, Nakama D, Tanida S, Kameda T: Social stress-induced cortisol elevation acutely impairs social memory in humans. Neurosci Lett. 2004 Jun 10;363(2):125-30. [PubMed:15172099 ]
  15. Chapman TE, Kraan GP, Nagel GT, Wolthers BG, Drayer NM: Measurement of the cortisol production rate in two sisters with 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency using [1,2,3,4-13C]cortisol and isotope dilution mass spectrometry. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1991 Apr;38(4):489-96. [PubMed:2031862 ]
  16. Heckmann M, Wudy SA, Haack D, Pohlandt F: Reference range for serum cortisol in well preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1999 Nov;81(3):F171-4. [PubMed:10525017 ]
  17. Turpeinen U, Markkanen H, Valimaki M, Stenman UH: Determination of urinary free cortisol by HPLC. Clin Chem. 1997 Aug;43(8 Pt 1):1386-91. [PubMed:9267318 ]
  18. Chrousos GP, Ghaly L, Shedden A, Iezzoni DG, Harris AG: Effects of mometasone furoate dry powder inhaler and beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane and chlorofluorocarbon on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in asthmatic subjects. Chest. 2005 Jul;128(1):70-7. [PubMed:16002918 ]
  19. Ritsner M, Gibel A, Maayan R, Ratner Y, Ram E, Biadsy H, Modai I, Weizman A: Cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone ratio and responses to antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Oct;30(10):1913-22. [PubMed:15870835 ]
  20. Seidegard J, Dahlstrom K, Kullberg A: Effect of grapefruit juice on urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol excretion. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1998 May;25(5):379-81. [PubMed:9612666 ]
  21. Palacios R, Sugawara I: Hydrocortisone abrogates proliferation of T cells in autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction by rendering the interleukin-2 Producer T cells unresponsive to interleukin-1 and unable to synthesize the T-cell growth factor. Scand J Immunol. 1982 Jan;15(1):25-31. [PubMed:6461917 ]
  22. de Weerth C, Zijl RH, Buitelaar JK: Development of cortisol circadian rhythm in infancy. Early Hum Dev. 2003 Aug;73(1-2):39-52. [PubMed:12932892 ]
  23. KNIGHT RP Jr, KORNFELD DS, GLASER GH, BONDY PK: Effects of intravenous hydrocortisone on electrolytes of serum and urine in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1955 Feb;15(2):176-81. [PubMed:13233328 ]
  24. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
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  26. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  27. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  28. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 19 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Has steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase activity. In addition to this activity, the 18 or 19-hydroxylation of steroids and the aromatization of androstendione to estrone have also been ascribed to cytochrome P450 XIB.
Gene Name:
CYP11B1
Uniprot ID:
P15538
Molecular weight:
57572.44
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Efficiently catalyzes the reduction of progesterone, androstenedione, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and testosterone to 5-beta-reduced metabolites. The bile acid intermediates 7-alpha,12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one can also act as substrates.
Gene Name:
AKR1D1
Uniprot ID:
P51857
Molecular weight:
32889.38
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Modulates intracellular glucocorticoid levels, thus protecting the nonselective mineralocorticoid receptor from occupation by glucocorticoids.
Gene Name:
HSD11B2
Uniprot ID:
P80365
Molecular weight:
44126.06
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of 7-ketocholesterol to 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol. In intact cells, the reaction runs only in one direction, from 7-ketocholesterol to 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HSD11B1
Uniprot ID:
P28845
Molecular weight:
32400.665
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Ekins S, Bravi G, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship analysis of cytochrome P-450 3A4 substrates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):424-33. [PubMed:10490933 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular weight:
57108.065
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular weight:
57525.03
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Receptor for both mineralocorticoids (MC) such as aldosterone and glucocorticoids (GC) such as corticosterone or cortisol. Binds to mineralocorticoid response elements (MRE) and transactivates target genes. The effect of MC is to increase ion and water transport and thus raise extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure and lower potassium levels
Gene Name:
NR3C2
Uniprot ID:
P08235
Molecular weight:
107066.6
General function:
Involved in 3-beta-hydroxy-delta5-steroid dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
3-beta-HSD is a bifunctional enzyme, that catalyzes the oxidative conversion of Delta(5)-ene-3-beta-hydroxy steroid, and the oxidative conversion of ketosteroids. The 3-beta-HSD enzymatic system plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of all classes of hormonal steroids. Efficiently catalyzes the transformation of pregnenolone to progesterone, 17-alpha-hydroxypregnenolone to 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, DHEA to 4-androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone to 5-alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione and 5-alpha-androstan-3 beta,17 beta-diol to 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone.
Gene Name:
HSD3B1
Uniprot ID:
P14060
Molecular weight:
42251.25

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [PubMed:12699389 ]
  2. Kim RB, Wandel C, Leake B, Cvetkovic M, Fromm MF, Dempsey PJ, Roden MM, Belas F, Chaudhary AK, Roden DM, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR: Interrelationship between substrates and inhibitors of human CYP3A and P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 1999 Mar;16(3):408-14. [PubMed:10213372 ]
  3. Yates CR, Chang C, Kearbey JD, Yasuda K, Schuetz EG, Miller DD, Dalton JT, Swaan PW: Structural determinants of P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of glucocorticoids. Pharm Res. 2003 Nov;20(11):1794-803. [PubMed:14661924 ]
  4. Ueda K, Okamura N, Hirai M, Tanigawara Y, Saeki T, Kioka N, Komano T, Hori R: Human P-glycoprotein transports cortisol, aldosterone, and dexamethasone, but not progesterone. J Biol Chem. 1992 Dec 5;267(34):24248-52. [PubMed:1360010 ]
  5. Orlowski S, Mir LM, Belehradek J Jr, Garrigos M: Effects of steroids and verapamil on P-glycoprotein ATPase activity: progesterone, desoxycorticosterone, corticosterone and verapamil are mutually non-exclusive modulators. Biochem J. 1996 Jul 15;317 ( Pt 2):515-22. [PubMed:8713080 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from the brain. May be involved in brain-to-blood efflux. Appears to play a major role in the multidrug resistance phenotype of several cancer cell lines. When overexpressed, the transfected cells become resistant to mitoxantrone, daunorubicin and doxorubicin, display diminished intracellular accumulation of daunorubicin, and manifest an ATP- dependent increase in the efflux of rhodamine 123
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular weight:
72313.5
References
  1. Imai Y, Asada S, Tsukahara S, Ishikawa E, Tsuruo T, Sugimoto Y: Breast cancer resistance protein exports sulfated estrogens but not free estrogens. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Sep;64(3):610-8. [PubMed:12920197 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular weight:
74144.1
References
  1. Kanai N, Lu R, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Schuster VL: Transient expression of oatp organic anion transporter in mammalian cells: identification of candidate substrates. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F319-25. [PubMed:8779893 ]
  2. Bossuyt X, Muller M, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ: Polyspecific drug and steroid clearance by an organic anion transporter of mammalian liver. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):891-6. [PubMed:8786566 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 19 proteins in total.