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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-04-16 17:03:57 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000289
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00289
Metabolite Identification
Common NameUric acid
DescriptionUric acid is a heterocyclic purine derivative that is the final oxidation product of purine metabolism. It is produced by the enzyme xanthine oxidase, which oxidizes oxypurines such as xanthine into uric acid. In most mammals, except humans and higher primates, the enzyme uricase further oxidizes uric acid to allantoin. Uric acid is also the end product of nitrogen metabolism in birds and reptiles. In such species, it is excreted in feces as a dry mass. Humans produce only small quantities of uric acid with excess accumulation leading to a type of arthritis known as gout. The loss of uricase in higher primates parallels the similar loss of the ability to synthesize ascorbic acid vitamin C. This may be because in higher primates uric acid partially replaces ascorbic acid. Uric acid is found to be associated with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and xanthinuria type I, which are inborn errors of metabolism.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2,6,8-TrioxopurineChEBI
2,6,8-TrioxypurineChEBI
Purine-2,6,8(1H,3H,9H)-trioneChEBI
UrateChEBI
1H-Purine-2,6,8-triolHMDB
2,6,8-TrihydroxypurineHMDB
LithateHMDB
Lithic acidHMDB
Acid urate, ammoniumMeSH
Ammonium acid urateMeSH
Monohydrate, sodium urateMeSH
Urate, ammonium acidMeSH
Urate, monosodiumMeSH
Acid, uricMeSH
Monosodium urate monohydrateMeSH
Sodium acid urateMeSH
Sodium urateMeSH
TrioxopurineMeSH
Urate, sodium acidMeSH
Monohydrate, monosodium urateMeSH
Monosodium urateMeSH
Potassium urateMeSH
Sodium acid urate monohydrateMeSH
Urate monohydrate, sodiumMeSH
Acid urate, sodiumMeSH
Sodium urate monohydrateMeSH
Urate monohydrate, monosodiumMeSH
Urate, potassiumMeSH
Urate, sodiumMeSH
Chemical FormulaC5H4N4O3
Average Molecular Weight168.1103
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight168.028340014
IUPAC Name2,3,6,7,8,9-hexahydro-1H-purine-2,6,8-trione
Traditional Nameuric acid
CAS Registry Number69-93-2
SMILES
O=C1NC2=C(N1)C(=O)NC(=O)N2
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H4N4O3/c10-3-1-2(7-4(11)6-1)8-5(12)9-3/h(H4,6,7,8,9,10,11,12)
InChI KeyLEHOTFFKMJEONL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassImidazopyrimidines
Sub ClassPurines and purine derivatives
Direct ParentXanthines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Xanthine
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Purinone
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrimidine
  • Azole
  • Imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Lactam
  • Urea
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point> 300 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.06 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-2.17NAHUM,A & HORVATH,C (1980)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.76 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.1ALOGPS
logP-1.5ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area99.33 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity45.63 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.61 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0537-0913400000-bd24364053510c462adeView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-052f-0603900000-8c1224738bed2608c262View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0g59-5917000000-4b28946431495667844bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0537-0913400000-bd24364053510c462adeView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-052f-0603900000-8c1224738bed2608c262View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0g59-5917000000-4b28946431495667844bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-052g-0902500000-05851611f4bbf0745b81View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00os-4900000000-54b6de73b60ab2faad65View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-0900000000-0525c12dc3951f55a2c8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-006w-9500000000-fe10d491ad634ca46332View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0gbd-9100000000-d48a3e7919c385949313View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-01c0-3900000000-b3b3f0a20aaac71095d7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positivesplash10-0f6x-0900000000-a6699ab18f69b21b3823View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-971b5c8c5d975d306fedView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-016r-1900000000-72edb3607fe9beb9b805View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0zgi-9500000000-753be769a0b48fc2960bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-a4f5b18495486c5a1d5aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01b9-1900000000-bc9e45f168dafb0d874cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9100000000-e01e386869d687364c61View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-002f-9200000000-e5abb655836214cc56b3View in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Peroxisome
Biospecimen Locations
  • Amniotic Fluid
  • Bile
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Erythrocyte
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Spleen
Pathways
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simpleNot Available
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencyThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simpleNot Available
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencyThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simpleNot Available
AICA-RibosiduriaThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simpleNot Available
Azathioprine Action PathwayThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simpleNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Amniotic FluidDetected and Quantified384.18 +/- 203.31 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BileDetected and Quantified260.0 +/- 63.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified279.578 +/- 23.794 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified303 +/- 59 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified59.485-208.197 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified210-430 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified150-360 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified120-330 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified120-330 uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified140-410 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified<350 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified165-394 uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
    • Clinical and Labo...
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified377.6 +/- 82.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified494.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified372.0 (238.0-506.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • The Merck Manual,...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified298.0 (149.0-446.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • The Merck Manual,...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified271.95 +/- 43.13 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified256.8 +/- 7.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified291.475 +/- 59.485 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified240.91 +/- 82.68 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified166.56-755.46 uMNewborn (0 - <14 days old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified95.18-374.76 uMInfant (15 days - <1 year old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified107.073-291.48 uMChildren (1 - <12 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified154.66-350.96 uMAdolescent (12 - <19 years old)Female
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified154.66-452.084 uMAdolescent (12 - <19 years old)Male
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified150-450 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified120-400 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified329.0 +/- 129.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified302.0 +/- 60.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified234.0 +/- 52.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified118.97 uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified<327 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified<420 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified200-420 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified15.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified10.2+/-6.8 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified16.0 (4.2-28.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified22.0 (6.6-37.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified29.3 (11.9-46.7) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified<1.00 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified184 +/- 22 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified178 +/- 19 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified162 +/- 17 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified186 (93-329) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified200-500 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified200-500 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified300-1400 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified300-1800 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified218-543 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified206.5 +/- 87.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified166.45 +/- 31.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified23.81-398.74 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified118.09 +/- 114.57 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified524.75 +/- 249.57 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified337.84 +/- 29.75 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified209.55 +/- 104.52 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified209.333 +/- 88.667 umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1076.0554 (807.0416-1412.323) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not Available
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified679.260 +/- 161.408 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified228.662 +/- 73.979 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified197.00 (98.6-293.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified188.0 (78.9-296.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2000-4000 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified100-800 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified176.471 +/- 25.380 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified200 +/- 0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified231.991-243.887 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Primary Hypomagnesemia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified643 +/- 274 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified170-270 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleCerebral creatine deficiency syndrome 2 details
BloodDetected and Quantified350-770 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleD-Lactic Acidosis details
BloodDetected and Quantified95.176 uMChildren (1-13 years old)FemaleFanconi Bickel syndrome
    • Late Diagnosis of...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified244 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Male
Sulfite oxidase deficiency
    • Clinical and Labo...
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified400.0 +/- 103.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Diabetes
details
BloodDetected and Quantified368.2 +/- 115.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Diabetes
details
BloodDetected and Quantified713.817 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Female
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified505.620-678.126 uMInfant (0-1 year old)MalePhosphoribosylpyrophosphate Synthetase Superactivity details
BloodDetected and Quantified565.105-690.0232 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MalePhosphoribosylpyrophosphate Synthetase Superactivity details
BloodDetected and Quantified426.0 +/- 107.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Impaired glucose tolerance
details
BloodDetected and Quantified347.5 +/- 105.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Impaired glucose tolerance
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000420-0.000440 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Bothcongenital disorder of glycosylation CDG-Ia details
BloodDetected and Quantified493.72 +/- 77.33 uMAdult (>18 years old)Bothuremia details
BloodDetected and Quantified95.176 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleFanconi syndrome details
BloodDetected and Quantified553.208 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePhosphoribosylpyrophosphate Synthetase Superactivity details
BloodDetected and Quantified1797.90 +/- 895.44 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
gastric cancer
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
superficial gastric cancer
details
BloodDetected and Quantified476.00 (357.00-714.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothGOUT
    • MetaGene: Metabol...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified23 uMInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleMolybdenium co-factor deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified420 uMInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleLong-chain Fatty Acids, Defect in Transport of details
BloodDetected and Quantified600-1000 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothLesch-Nyhan syndrome details
BloodDetected and Quantified193.89 +/- 49.05 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMultiple sclerosis details
BloodDetected and Quantified178.9 +/- 107.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCryptococcus meningitis details
BloodDetected and Quantified612 +/- 36 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCachexia details
BloodDetected and Quantified23.794 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Male
Xanthinuria type 1
details
BloodDetected and Quantified35.691 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Xanthinuria type 1
details
BloodDetected and Quantified459 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
details
BloodDetected and Quantified570 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)MaleLesch-Nyhan syndrome details
BloodDetected and Quantified<10 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Xanthinuria type 1
details
BloodDetected and Quantified<59.485 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Female
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1-3 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothXanthinuria type 1 details
BloodDetected and Quantified148.712-190.351 uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothSulfite oxidase deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified23.794-178.454 uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothMolybdenum cofactor deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified35.7 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not SpecifiedIsolated 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA Carboxylase Deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified24.0 (20.1-27.9) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDegenerative disc disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified125.0 (35.5-215.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Meningitis
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified22.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAdenylosuccinate lyase (ASDL) deficiency details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
UrineDetected and Quantified75-277 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleCerebral creatine deficiency syndrome 2 details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1554.14 +/- 748.85 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified2084.857 (807.0416-3160.913) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not Available
Fructose intolerance, hereditary
details
UrineDetected and Quantified73.979-423.697 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNucleotide Depletion Syndrome details
UrineDetected and Quantified645.633 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemalePhosphoribosylpyrophosphate Synthetase Superactivity details
UrineDetected and Quantified1237.464-2192.463 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)MalePhosphoribosylpyrophosphate Synthetase Superactivity details
UrineDetected and Quantified29 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleMolybdenium co-factor deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.19 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Male
Xanthinuria type 1
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.983 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Female
Xanthinuria type 1
details
UrineDetected and Quantified5 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency
details
UrineDetected and Quantified10 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Xanthinuria type 1
details
UrineDetected and Quantified20 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Not Specified
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency
details
UrineDetected and Quantified233.6 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)MaleLesch-Nyhan syndrome details
UrineDetected and Quantified0-47 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothXanthinuria type 1 details
UrineDetected and Quantified1900 +/- 900 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Bacterial meningitis
  1. Peng F, Zhang B, Zhong X, Li J, Xu G, Hu X, Qiu W, Pei Z: Serum uric acid levels of patients with multiple sclerosis and other neurological diseases. Mult Scler. 2008 Mar;14(2):188-96. Epub 2007 Oct 17. [PubMed:17942520 ]
Cachexia
  1. Doehner W, Rauchhaus M, Florea VG, Sharma R, Bolger AP, Davos CH, Coats AJ, Anker SD: Uric acid in cachectic and noncachectic patients with chronic heart failure: relationship to leg vascular resistance. Am Heart J. 2001 May;141(5):792-9. [PubMed:11320368 ]
Canavan disease
  1. Tavazzi B, Lazzarino G, Leone P, Amorini AM, Bellia F, Janson CG, Di Pietro V, Ceccarelli L, Donzelli S, Francis JS, Giardina B: Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic separation of purines, pyrimidines, N-acetylated amino acids, and dicarboxylic acids for the chemical diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. Clin Biochem. 2005 Nov;38(11):997-1008. Epub 2005 Sep 1. [PubMed:16139832 ]
Degenerative disc disease
  1. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. [PubMed:6656991 ]
Diabetes mellitus type 2
  1. Costa A, Iguala I, Bedini J, Quinto L, Conget I: Uric acid concentration in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: relationship to components of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. 2002 Mar;51(3):372-5. [PubMed:11887176 ]
Schizophrenia
  1. Xuan J, Pan G, Qiu Y, Yang L, Su M, Liu Y, Chen J, Feng G, Fang Y, Jia W, Xing Q, He L: Metabolomic profiling to identify potential serum biomarkers for schizophrenia and risperidone action. J Proteome Res. 2011 Dec 2;10(12):5433-43. doi: 10.1021/pr2006796. Epub 2011 Nov 8. [PubMed:22007635 ]
  2. Cai HL, Li HD, Yan XZ, Sun B, Zhang Q, Yan M, Zhang WY, Jiang P, Zhu RH, Liu YP, Fang PF, Xu P, Yuan HY, Zhang XH, Hu L, Yang W, Ye HS: Metabolomic analysis of biochemical changes in the plasma and urine of first-episode neuroleptic-naive schizophrenia patients after treatment with risperidone. J Proteome Res. 2012 Aug 3;11(8):4338-50. doi: 10.1021/pr300459d. Epub 2012 Jul 26. [PubMed:22800120 ]
Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency
  1. Pagliara AS, Karl IE, Keating JP, Brown BI, Kipnis DM: Hepatic fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency. A cause of lactic acidosis and hypoglycemia in infancy. J Clin Invest. 1972 Aug;51(8):2115-23. doi: 10.1172/JCI107018. [PubMed:4341015 ]
Impaired glucose tolerance
  1. Costa A, Iguala I, Bedini J, Quinto L, Conget I: Uric acid concentration in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: relationship to components of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. 2002 Mar;51(3):372-5. [PubMed:11887176 ]
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
  1. Gregoric A, Rabelink GM, Kokalj Vokac N, Varda NM, Zagradisnik B: Eighteen-year follow-up of a patient with partial hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency and a new mutation. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005 Sep;20(9):1346-8. Epub 2005 Jun 18. [PubMed:15965771 ]
  2. Puig JG, Torres RJ, Mateos FA, Ramos TH, Arcas JM, Buno AS, O'Neill P: The spectrum of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency. Clinical experience based on 22 patients from 18 Spanish families. Medicine (Baltimore). 2001 Mar;80(2):102-12. [PubMed:11307586 ]
Meningitis
  1. Kastenbauer S, Koedel U, Becker BF, Pfister HW: Oxidative stress in bacterial meningitis in humans. Neurology. 2002 Jan 22;58(2):186-91. [PubMed:11805243 ]
Multiple sclerosis
  1. Toncev G, Milicic B, Toncev S, Samardzic G: Serum uric acid levels in multiple sclerosis patients correlate with activity of disease and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Eur J Neurol. 2002 May;9(3):221-6. [PubMed:11985629 ]
Fanconi syndrome
  1. Cheng HM, Jap TS, Ho LT: Fanconi syndrome: report of a case. J Formos Med Assoc. 1990 Dec;89(12):1115-7. [PubMed:1982686 ]
Xanthinuria type 1
  1. Mateos FA, Puig JG, Jimenez ML, Fox IH: Hereditary xanthinuria. Evidence for enhanced hypoxanthine salvage. J Clin Invest. 1987 Mar;79(3):847-52. [PubMed:3818951 ]
  2. Eggermann T, Spengler S, Denecke B, Zerres K, Mache CJ: Multi-exon deletion in the XDH gene as a cause of classical xanthinuria. Clin Nephrol. 2013 Jan;79(1):78-80. [PubMed:23249873 ]
  3. Mraz M, Hurba O, Bartl J, Dolezel Z, Marinaki A, Fairbanks L, Stiburkova B: Modern diagnostic approach to hereditary xanthinuria. Urolithiasis. 2015 Feb;43(1):61-7. doi: 10.1007/s00240-014-0734-4. Epub 2014 Nov 6. [PubMed:25370766 ]
Gout
  1. G.Frauendienst-Egger, Friedrich K. Trefz (2017). MetaGene: Metabolic & Genetic Information Center (MIC: http://www.metagene.de). METAGENE consortium.
Fanconi Bickel syndrome
  1. Nirupama Gupta, Bimota Nambam, David A. Weinstein, and Lawrence R. Shoemaker (2016). Late Diagnosis of Fanconi-Bickel Syndrome: Challenges With the Diagnosis and Literature Review . Journal of Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Screening.
Cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome 2
  1. Caldeira Araujo H, Smit W, Verhoeven NM, Salomons GS, Silva S, Vasconcelos R, Tomas H, Tavares de Almeida I, Jakobs C, Duran M: Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency identified in adults and a child with mental retardation. Am J Med Genet A. 2005 Mar 1;133A(2):122-7. [PubMed:15651030 ]
congenital disorder of glycosylation CDG-Ia
  1. Harding BN, Dunger DB, Grant DB, Erdohazi M: Familial olivopontocerebellar atrophy with neonatal onset: a recessively inherited syndrome with systemic and biochemical abnormalities. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1988 Mar;51(3):385-90. [PubMed:3162953 ]
D-Lactic Acidosis
  1. Duran M, Van Biervliet JP, Kamerling JP, Wadman SK: D-lactic aciduria, an inborn error of metabolism? Clin Chim Acta. 1977 Feb 1;74(3):297-300. [PubMed:832430 ]
Fructose intolerance, hereditary
  1. Steinmann B, Gitzelmann R: The diagnosis of hereditary fructose intolerance. Helv Paediatr Acta. 1981 Sep;36(4):297-316. [PubMed:6268573 ]
Long-chain Fatty Acids, Defect in Transport of
  1. Treem WR, Stanley CA, Finegold DN, Hale DE, Coates PM: Primary carnitine deficiency due to a failure of carnitine transport in kidney, muscle, and fibroblasts. N Engl J Med. 1988 Nov 17;319(20):1331-6. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198811173192006. [PubMed:3185635 ]
Molybdenium co-factor deficiency
  1. Aukett A, Bennett MJ, Hosking GP: Molybdenum co-factor deficiency: an easily missed inborn error of metabolism. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1988 Aug;30(4):531-5. [PubMed:3169394 ]
Nucleotide Depletion Syndrome
  1. Page T, Yu A, Fontanesi J, Nyhan WL: Developmental disorder associated with increased cellular nucleotidase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Oct 14;94(21):11601-6. [PubMed:9326656 ]
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate Synthetase Superactivity
  1. Sperling O, Eilam G, Sara-Persky-Brosh, De Vries A: Accelerated erythrocyte 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate synthesis. A familial abnormality associated with excessive uric acid production and gout. Biochem Med. 1972 Aug;6(4):310-6. [PubMed:4340256 ]
  2. Garcia-Pavia P, Torres RJ, Rivero M, Ahmed M, Garcia-Puig J, Becker MA: Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase overactivity as a cause of uric acid overproduction in a young woman. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Jul;48(7):2036-41. doi: 10.1002/art.11058. [PubMed:12847698 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 125853 (Diabetes mellitus type 2)
  • 138900 (Gout)
  • 126200 (Multiple sclerosis)
  • 181500 (Schizophrenia)
  • 278300 (Xanthinuria type 1)
  • 300322 (Lesch-Nyhan syndrome)
  • 229700 (Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency)
  • 300661 (Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate Synthetase Superactivity)
  • 612736 (Cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome 2)
  • 245450 (D-Lactic Acidosis)
  • 603376 (Long-chain Fatty Acids, Defect in Transport of)
  • 212065 (congenital disorder of glycosylation CDG-Ia)
  • 252150 (Molybdenium co-factor deficiency)
  • 227810 (Fanconi Bickel syndrome)
  • 271900 (Canavan disease)
  • 229600 (Fructose intolerance, hereditary)
DrugBank IDDB08844
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB015350
KNApSAcK IDC00007301
Chemspider ID1142
KEGG Compound IDC00366
BioCyc IDURATE
BiGG ID34768
Wikipedia LinkUric_acid
METLIN ID88
PubChem Compound1175
PDB IDURC
ChEBI ID17775
References
Synthesis ReferenceBrenner-Holzach, O.; Leuthardt, F. Uric acid formation from glucose carbon in Drosophila melanogaster. Preliminary report. Helvetica Chimica Acta (1963), 46(4), 1426-8.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. [PubMed:6656991 ]
  3. Kastenbauer S, Koedel U, Becker BF, Pfister HW: Oxidative stress in bacterial meningitis in humans. Neurology. 2002 Jan 22;58(2):186-91. [PubMed:11805243 ]
  4. Kanbay M, Akcay A, Huddam B, Usluogullari CA, Arat Z, Ozdemir FN, Haberal M: Influence of cyclosporine and tacrolimus on serum uric acid levels in stable kidney transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2005 Sep;37(7):3119-20. [PubMed:16213325 ]
  5. Marinaki AM, Champion M, Kurian MA, Simmonds HA, Marie S, Vincent MF, van den Berghe G, Duley JA, Fairbanks LD: Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency--first British case. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004 Oct;23(8-9):1231-3. [PubMed:15571235 ]
  6. Hanvivadhanakul P, Akkasilpa S, Deesomchok U: Efficacy of benzbromarone compared to allopurinol in lowering serum uric acid level in hyperuricemic patients. J Med Assoc Thai. 2002 Jun;85 Suppl 1:S40-7. [PubMed:12188443 ]
  7. Kirschbaum B: Correlation studies of plasma paraoxonase activity and uric acid concentration with AAPH-Induced erythrocyte hemolysis in hemodialysis patients. Artif Organs. 2004 Mar;28(3):259-64. [PubMed:15046624 ]
  8. Sysyn GD, Rozycki HJ: Lack of prognostic significance of early elevated serum uric acid levels in low birthweight infants. Biol Neonate. 2003;83(4):253-7. [PubMed:12743454 ]
  9. Tumgor G, Arikan C, Kilic M, Aydogdu S: Frequency of hyperuricemia and effect of calcineurin inhibitors on serum uric acid levels in liver transplanted children. Pediatr Transplant. 2006 Sep;10(6):665-8. [PubMed:16911488 ]
  10. Srinivasan S, Kalaiselvi P, Sakthivel R, Pragasam V, Muthu V, Varalakshmi P: Uric acid: an abettor or protector in calcium oxalate urolithiasis? Biochemical study in stone formers. Clin Chim Acta. 2005 Mar;353(1-2):45-51. [PubMed:15698589 ]
  11. Puig JG, Torres R, Ruilope LM: AT1 blockers and uric acid metabolism: are there relevant differences? J Hypertens Suppl. 2002 Jun;20(5):S29-31. [PubMed:12184060 ]
  12. Alderman M, Aiyer KJ: Uric acid: role in cardiovascular disease and effects of losartan. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Mar;20(3):369-79. [PubMed:15025846 ]
  13. Iwai N, Mino Y, Hosoyamada M, Tago N, Kokubo Y, Endou H: A high prevalence of renal hypouricemia caused by inactive SLC22A12 in Japanese. Kidney Int. 2004 Sep;66(3):935-44. [PubMed:15327384 ]
  14. Williams KP, Galerneau F: The role of serum uric acid as a prognostic indicator of the severity of maternal and fetal complications in hypertensive pregnancies. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2002 Aug;24(8):628-32. [PubMed:12196841 ]
  15. Inoue K, Namiki T, Iwasaki Y, Yoshimura Y, Nakazawa H: Determination of uric acid in human saliva by high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Feb 25;785(1):57-63. [PubMed:12535838 ]
  16. Cacabelos R, Fernandez-Novoa L, Corzo L, Pichel V, Lombardi V, Kubota Y: Genomics and phenotypic profiles in dementia: implications for pharmacological treatment. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Jul-Aug;26(6):421-44. [PubMed:15349138 ]
  17. Simkin PA, Hoover PL, Paxson CS, Wilson WF: Uric acid excretion: quantitative assessment from spot, midmorning serum and urine samples. Ann Intern Med. 1979 Jul;91(1):44-7. [PubMed:464453 ]
  18. Mazzali M: Uric acid and transplantation. Semin Nephrol. 2005 Jan;25(1):50-5. [PubMed:15660335 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular weight:
146422.99
Reactions
Xanthine + Water + Oxygen → Uric acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Xanthine + NAD + Water → Uric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorylase activity
Specific function:
Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties.
Gene Name:
PYGL
Uniprot ID:
P06737
Molecular weight:
93133.25
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]