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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-07-29 16:09:41 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000289
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00289
Metabolite Identification
Common NameUric acid
DescriptionUric acid is a heterocyclic purine derivative that is the final oxidation product of purine metabolism. It is a weak acid distributed throughout the extracellular fluid as sodium urate. Uric acid is produced by the enzyme xanthine oxidase, which oxidizes oxypurines such as xanthine into uric acid. In most mammals, except humans and higher primates, the enzyme uricase further oxidizes uric acid to allantoin. Interestingly, during the Miocene epoch (~15-20 million years ago), two distinct mutations in the primate genome occurred that led to a nonfunctioning uricase gene. Consequently, humans, apes, and certain New World monkeys have much higher uric acid levels (>120 μM) compared with other mammals (<<120 uM). The loss of uricase in higher primates parallels the similar loss of the ability to synthesize ascorbic acid vitamin C. This may be because in higher primates uric acid partially replaces ascorbic acid. Like ascorbic acid, uric acid is an antioxidant. In fact, in primates, uric acid is the major antioxidant in serum and is thought to be a major factor in lengthening life-span and decreasing age-specific cancer rates in humans and other primates (PMID: 6947260 ). Uric acid is also the end product of nitrogen metabolism in birds and reptiles. In these animal species, it is excreted in feces as a dry mass. In humans and other mammals, the amount of urate in the blood depends on the dietary intake of purines, the level of endogenous urate biosynthesis, and the rate of urate excretion. Several kidney urate transporters are involved in the regulation of plasma urate levels. These include the urate transporter 1 (URAT1), which controls the reabsorption of urate as well as a number of organic ion transporters (OAT), such as OAT1 and OAT3, and the ATP-dependent urate export transporter MRP4. URAT1 is believed to be most critical in the regulation of plasma urate levels. (PMID: 17890445 ) High levels of plasma uric acid lead to a condition called hyperuricemia while low levels are associated with a condition called hypouricemia. Hyperuricemia has been defined as a uric acid concentration greater than 380 μM, while hypouricemia is generally defined as a urate concentration of less than 120 μM. Hyperuricemia can arise from a number of factors, including both acute and chronic causes. Acute causes of hyperuricemia include the intake of large amounts of alcohol, tumor lysis syndrome and a diet that is rich in purines or proteins. Chronic hyperuricemia can arise from a reduction in the kidney’s glomerular filtration rate, a decrease in the excretion of urate or an increase in overall tubular absorption in the kidneys. Hyperuricemia has been linked to a number of diseases and conditions, including gout, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and renal disease. Uric acid has been identified as a uremic toxin according to the European Uremic Toxin Working Group (PMID: 22626821 ). Many of the causes of hyperuricemia are correctable either with lifestyle changes or drugs. Lifestyle changes include reducing weight and reducing the consumption of protein, purines, and alcohol. There are two kinds of drugs that can be used to treat chronic hyperuricemia. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors, such as allopurinol, inhibit the production of urate by blocking urate synthesis. Alternately, uricosuric drugs, such as probenecid, sulfinpyrazone, and benzpromarone, are used to reduce the serum urate concentration through the inhibition of the URAT1 transporter. (PMID: 17890445 ). Uric acid (especially crystalline uric acid) is also thought to be an essential initiator and amplifier of allergic inflammation for asthma and peanut allergies (PMID: 21474346 ). 
Structure
Data?1563860641
Synonyms
ValueSource
2,6,8-TrioxopurineChEBI
2,6,8-TrioxypurineChEBI
Purine-2,6,8(1H,3H,9H)-trioneChEBI
UrateChEBI
1H-Purine-2,6,8-triolHMDB
2,6,8-TrihydroxypurineHMDB
LithateHMDB
Lithic acidHMDB
Acid urate, ammoniumHMDB
Ammonium acid urateHMDB
Monohydrate, sodium urateHMDB
Urate, ammonium acidHMDB
Urate, monosodiumHMDB
Acid, uricHMDB
Monosodium urate monohydrateHMDB
Sodium acid urateHMDB
Sodium urateHMDB
TrioxopurineHMDB
Urate, sodium acidHMDB
Monohydrate, monosodium urateHMDB
Monosodium urateHMDB
Potassium urateHMDB
Sodium acid urate monohydrateHMDB
Urate monohydrate, sodiumHMDB
Acid urate, sodiumHMDB
Sodium urate monohydrateHMDB
Urate monohydrate, monosodiumHMDB
Urate, potassiumHMDB
Urate, sodiumHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H4N4O3
Average Molecular Weight168.1103
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight168.028340014
IUPAC Name2,3,6,7,8,9-hexahydro-1H-purine-2,6,8-trione
Traditional Nameuric acid
CAS Registry Number69-93-2
SMILES
O=C1NC2=C(N1)C(=O)NC(=O)N2
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H4N4O3/c10-3-1-2(7-4(11)6-1)8-5(12)9-3/h(H4,6,7,8,9,10,11,12)
InChI KeyLEHOTFFKMJEONL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassImidazopyrimidines
Sub ClassPurines and purine derivatives
Direct ParentXanthines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Xanthine
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Purinone
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrimidine
  • Azole
  • Imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Lactam
  • Urea
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point> 300 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.06 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-2.17NAHUM,A & HORVATH,C (1980)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.76 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.1ALOGPS
logP-1.5ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.25ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area99.33 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity45.63 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.61 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0537-0913400000-bd24364053510c462adeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-052f-0603900000-8c1224738bed2608c262JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0g59-5917000000-4b28946431495667844bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0537-0913400000-bd24364053510c462adeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-052f-0603900000-8c1224738bed2608c262JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0g59-5917000000-4b28946431495667844bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-052g-0902500000-05851611f4bbf0745b81JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00os-4900000000-54b6de73b60ab2faad65JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-0900000000-0525c12dc3951f55a2c8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-006w-9500000000-fe10d491ad634ca46332JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0gbd-9100000000-d48a3e7919c385949313JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-01c0-3900000000-b3b3f0a20aaac71095d7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positivesplash10-0f6x-0900000000-a6699ab18f69b21b3823JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-971b5c8c5d975d306fedJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-016r-1900000000-72edb3607fe9beb9b805JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0zgi-9500000000-753be769a0b48fc2960bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-a4f5b18495486c5a1d5aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01b9-1900000000-bc9e45f168dafb0d874cJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9100000000-e01e386869d687364c61JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-002f-9200000000-e5abb655836214cc56b3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Peroxisome
Biospecimen Locations
  • Amniotic Fluid
  • Bile
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Erythrocyte
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Spleen
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Amniotic FluidDetected and Quantified384.18 +/- 203.31 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BileDetected and Quantified260.0 +/- 63.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified279.578 +/- 23.794 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified303 +/- 59 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified59.485-208.197 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified210-430 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified150-360 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified120-330 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified120-330 uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified140-410 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified<350 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified165-394 uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
    • Clinical and Labo...
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified377.6 +/- 82.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified494.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified372.0 (238.0-506.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • The Merck Manual,...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified298.0 (149.0-446.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • The Merck Manual,...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified271.95 +/- 43.13 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified256.8 +/- 7.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified291.475 +/- 59.485 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified240.91 +/- 82.68 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified166.56-755.46 uMNewborn (0 - <14 days old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified95.18-374.76 uMInfant (15 days - <1 year old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified107.073-291.48 uMChildren (1 - <12 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified154.66-350.96 uMAdolescent (12 - <19 years old)Female
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified154.66-452.084 uMAdolescent (12 - <19 years old)Male
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified<400 uMChildren (3 months - 6 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified150-450 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified120-400 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified329.0 +/- 129.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified302.0 +/- 60.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified234.0 +/- 52.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified118.97 uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified<327 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified<420 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified200-420 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified15.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified10.2+/-6.8 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified16.0 (4.2-28.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified22.0 (6.6-37.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified29.3 (11.9-46.7) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified<1.00 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified184 +/- 22 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified178 +/- 19 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified162 +/- 17 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified186 (93-329) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified200-500 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified200-500 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified300-1400 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified300-1800 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified218-543 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified206.5 +/- 87.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified166.45 +/- 31.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified23.81-398.74 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified118.09 +/- 114.57 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified524.75 +/- 249.57 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified337.84 +/- 29.75 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified209.55 +/- 104.52 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified209.333 +/- 88.667 umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1076.0554 (807.0416-1412.323) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not Available
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified679.260 +/- 161.408 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified228.662 +/- 73.979 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified197.00 (98.6-293.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified188.0 (78.9-296.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2000-4000 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified100-800 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified176.471 +/- 25.380 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified200 +/- 0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified231.991-243.887 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Primary Hypomagnesemia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified643 +/- 274 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified170-270 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleCerebral creatine deficiency syndrome 2 details
BloodDetected and Quantified350-770 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleD-Lactic Acidosis details
BloodDetected and Quantified95.176 uMChildren (1-13 years old)FemaleFanconi Bickel syndrome
    • Late Diagnosis of...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified244 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Male
Sulfite oxidase deficiency
    • Clinical and Labo...
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified400.0 +/- 103.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Diabetes
details
BloodDetected and Quantified368.2 +/- 115.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Diabetes
details
BloodDetected and Quantified713.817 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Female
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified505.620-678.126 uMInfant (0-1 year old)MalePhosphoribosylpyrophosphate Synthetase Superactivity details
BloodDetected and Quantified565.105-690.0232 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MalePhosphoribosylpyrophosphate Synthetase Superactivity details
BloodDetected and Quantified426.0 +/- 107.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Impaired glucose tolerance
details
BloodDetected and Quantified347.5 +/- 105.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Impaired glucose tolerance
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000420-0.000440 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Bothcongenital disorder of glycosylation CDG-Ia details
BloodDetected and Quantified493.72 +/- 77.33 uMAdult (>18 years old)Bothuremia details
BloodDetected and Quantified95.176 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleFanconi syndrome details
BloodDetected and Quantified553.208 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePhosphoribosylpyrophosphate Synthetase Superactivity details
BloodDetected and Quantified1797.90 +/- 895.44 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
gastric cancer
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
superficial gastric cancer
details
BloodDetected and Quantified476.00 (357.00-714.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothGOUT
    • MetaGene: Metabol...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified496.429 +/- 264.881 uMChildren (3 months - 6 years old)Not Specified
Uremia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified23 uMInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleMolybdenium co-factor deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified420 uMInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleLong-chain Fatty Acids, Defect in Transport of details
BloodDetected and Quantified600-1000 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothLesch-Nyhan syndrome details
BloodDetected and Quantified193.89 +/- 49.05 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMultiple sclerosis details
BloodDetected and Quantified178.9 +/- 107.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCryptococcus meningitis details
BloodDetected and Quantified612 +/- 36 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCachexia details
BloodDetected and Quantified23.794 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Male
Xanthinuria type 1
details
BloodDetected and Quantified35.691 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Xanthinuria type 1
details
BloodDetected and Quantified459 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
details
BloodDetected and Quantified570 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)MaleLesch-Nyhan syndrome details
BloodDetected and Quantified<10 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Xanthinuria type 1
details
BloodDetected and Quantified<59.485 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Female
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1-3 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothXanthinuria type 1 details
BloodDetected and Quantified148.712-190.351 uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothSulfite oxidase deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified23.794-178.454 uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothMolybdenum cofactor deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified35.7 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not SpecifiedIsolated 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA Carboxylase Deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified24.0 (20.1-27.9) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDegenerative disc disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified125.0 (35.5-215.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Meningitis
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified22.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAdenylosuccinate lyase (ASDL) deficiency details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
UrineDetected and Quantified75-277 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleCerebral creatine deficiency syndrome 2 details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified1554.14 +/- 748.85 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified2084.857 (807.0416-3160.913) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not Available
Fructose intolerance, hereditary
details
UrineDetected and Quantified73.979-423.697 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNucleotide Depletion Syndrome details
UrineDetected and Quantified645.633 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemalePhosphoribosylpyrophosphate Synthetase Superactivity details
UrineDetected and Quantified1237.464-2192.463 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)MalePhosphoribosylpyrophosphate Synthetase Superactivity details
UrineDetected and Quantified29 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleMolybdenium co-factor deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.19 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Male
Xanthinuria type 1
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.983 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Female
Xanthinuria type 1
details
UrineDetected and Quantified5 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency
details
UrineDetected and Quantified10 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Xanthinuria type 1
details
UrineDetected and Quantified20 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Not Specified
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency
details
UrineDetected and Quantified233.6 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)MaleLesch-Nyhan syndrome details
UrineDetected and Quantified0-47 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothXanthinuria type 1 details
UrineDetected and Quantified1900 +/- 900 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Diabetes mellitus type 2
  1. Costa A, Iguala I, Bedini J, Quinto L, Conget I: Uric acid concentration in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: relationship to components of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. 2002 Mar;51(3):372-5. [PubMed:11887176 ]
Impaired glucose tolerance
  1. Costa A, Iguala I, Bedini J, Quinto L, Conget I: Uric acid concentration in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: relationship to components of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. 2002 Mar;51(3):372-5. [PubMed:11887176 ]
Gout
  1. G.Frauendienst-Egger, Friedrich K. Trefz (2017). MetaGene: Metabolic & Genetic Information Center (MIC: http://www.metagene.de). METAGENE consortium.
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
  1. Nyhan WL: Lesch-Nyhan Disease. J Hist Neurosci. 2005 Mar;14(1):1-10. [PubMed:15804753 ]
  2. Gregoric A, Rabelink GM, Kokalj Vokac N, Varda NM, Zagradisnik B: Eighteen-year follow-up of a patient with partial hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency and a new mutation. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005 Sep;20(9):1346-8. Epub 2005 Jun 18. [PubMed:15965771 ]
  3. Puig JG, Torres RJ, Mateos FA, Ramos TH, Arcas JM, Buno AS, O'Neill P: The spectrum of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency. Clinical experience based on 22 patients from 18 Spanish families. Medicine (Baltimore). 2001 Mar;80(2):102-12. [PubMed:11307586 ]
Multiple sclerosis
  1. Toncev G, Milicic B, Toncev S, Samardzic G: Serum uric acid levels in multiple sclerosis patients correlate with activity of disease and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Eur J Neurol. 2002 May;9(3):221-6. [PubMed:11985629 ]
Bacterial meningitis
  1. Peng F, Zhang B, Zhong X, Li J, Xu G, Hu X, Qiu W, Pei Z: Serum uric acid levels of patients with multiple sclerosis and other neurological diseases. Mult Scler. 2008 Mar;14(2):188-96. Epub 2007 Oct 17. [PubMed:17942520 ]
Cachexia
  1. Doehner W, Rauchhaus M, Florea VG, Sharma R, Bolger AP, Davos CH, Coats AJ, Anker SD: Uric acid in cachectic and noncachectic patients with chronic heart failure: relationship to leg vascular resistance. Am Heart J. 2001 May;141(5):792-9. [PubMed:11320368 ]
Uremia
  1. Duranton F, Cohen G, De Smet R, Rodriguez M, Jankowski J, Vanholder R, Argiles A: Normal and pathologic concentrations of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jul;23(7):1258-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011121175. Epub 2012 May 24. [PubMed:22626821 ]
  2. Vanholder R, De Smet R, Glorieux G, Argiles A, Baurmeister U, Brunet P, Clark W, Cohen G, De Deyn PP, Deppisch R, Descamps-Latscha B, Henle T, Jorres A, Lemke HD, Massy ZA, Passlick-Deetjen J, Rodriguez M, Stegmayr B, Stenvinkel P, Tetta C, Wanner C, Zidek W: Review on uremic toxins: classification, concentration, and interindividual variability. Kidney Int. 2003 May;63(5):1934-43. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.2003.00924.x. [PubMed:12675874 ]
Stomach cancer
  1. Yu L, Aa J, Xu J, Sun M, Qian S, Cheng L, Yang S, Shi R: Metabolomic phenotype of gastric cancer and precancerous stages based on gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011 Aug;26(8):1290-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2011.06724.x. [PubMed:21443661 ]
Schizophrenia
  1. Xuan J, Pan G, Qiu Y, Yang L, Su M, Liu Y, Chen J, Feng G, Fang Y, Jia W, Xing Q, He L: Metabolomic profiling to identify potential serum biomarkers for schizophrenia and risperidone action. J Proteome Res. 2011 Dec 2;10(12):5433-43. doi: 10.1021/pr2006796. Epub 2011 Nov 8. [PubMed:22007635 ]
  2. Cai HL, Li HD, Yan XZ, Sun B, Zhang Q, Yan M, Zhang WY, Jiang P, Zhu RH, Liu YP, Fang PF, Xu P, Yuan HY, Zhang XH, Hu L, Yang W, Ye HS: Metabolomic analysis of biochemical changes in the plasma and urine of first-episode neuroleptic-naive schizophrenia patients after treatment with risperidone. J Proteome Res. 2012 Aug 3;11(8):4338-50. doi: 10.1021/pr300459d. Epub 2012 Jul 26. [PubMed:22800120 ]
Sulfite oxidase deficiency, ISOLATED
  1. Zaki MS, Selim L, El-Bassyouni HT, Issa MY, Mahmoud I, Ismail S, Girgis M, Sadek AA, Gleeson JG, Abdel Hamid MS: Molybdenum cofactor and isolated sulphite oxidase deficiencies: Clinical and molecular spectrum among Egyptian patients. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2016 Sep;20(5):714-22. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2016.05.011. Epub 2016 May 30. [PubMed:27289259 ]
  2. Choong T. et al. (2010). Clinical and Laboratory Barriers to the Timely Diagnosis of Sulphite Oxidase Deficiency. Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare, 19(2), 94-100.. Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare.
Xanthinuria type 1
  1. Mateos FA, Puig JG, Jimenez ML, Fox IH: Hereditary xanthinuria. Evidence for enhanced hypoxanthine salvage. J Clin Invest. 1987 Mar;79(3):847-52. [PubMed:3818951 ]
  2. Eggermann T, Spengler S, Denecke B, Zerres K, Mache CJ: Multi-exon deletion in the XDH gene as a cause of classical xanthinuria. Clin Nephrol. 2013 Jan;79(1):78-80. [PubMed:23249873 ]
  3. Mraz M, Hurba O, Bartl J, Dolezel Z, Marinaki A, Fairbanks L, Stiburkova B: Modern diagnostic approach to hereditary xanthinuria. Urolithiasis. 2015 Feb;43(1):61-7. doi: 10.1007/s00240-014-0734-4. Epub 2014 Nov 6. [PubMed:25370766 ]
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency
  1. Sass JO, Kishikawa M, Puttinger R, Reiss J, Erwa W, Shimizu A, Sperl W: Hypohomocysteinaemia and highly increased proportion of S-sulfonated plasma transthyretin in molybdenum cofactor deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2003;26(1):80-2. [PubMed:12872846 ]
  2. Zaki MS, Selim L, El-Bassyouni HT, Issa MY, Mahmoud I, Ismail S, Girgis M, Sadek AA, Gleeson JG, Abdel Hamid MS: Molybdenum cofactor and isolated sulphite oxidase deficiencies: Clinical and molecular spectrum among Egyptian patients. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2016 Sep;20(5):714-22. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2016.05.011. Epub 2016 May 30. [PubMed:27289259 ]
  3. van Gennip AH, Abeling NG, Stroomer AE, Overmars H, Bakker HD: The detection of molybdenum cofactor deficiency: clinical symptomatology and urinary metabolite profile. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1994;17(1):142-5. [PubMed:8051926 ]
Primary hypomagnesemia
  1. Jin-no Y, Kamiya Y, Okada M, Hirako M, Takada N, Kawaguchi M: Primary hypomagnesemia caused by isolated magnesium malabsorption: atypical case in adult. Intern Med. 1999 Mar;38(3):261-5. [PubMed:10337938 ]
Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency
  1. Pagliara AS, Karl IE, Keating JP, Brown BI, Kipnis DM: Hepatic fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency. A cause of lactic acidosis and hypoglycemia in infancy. J Clin Invest. 1972 Aug;51(8):2115-23. doi: 10.1172/JCI107018. [PubMed:4341015 ]
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate Synthetase Superactivity
  1. Sperling O, Eilam G, Sara-Persky-Brosh, De Vries A: Accelerated erythrocyte 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate synthesis. A familial abnormality associated with excessive uric acid production and gout. Biochem Med. 1972 Aug;6(4):310-6. [PubMed:4340256 ]
  2. Garcia-Pavia P, Torres RJ, Rivero M, Ahmed M, Garcia-Puig J, Becker MA: Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase overactivity as a cause of uric acid overproduction in a young woman. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Jul;48(7):2036-41. doi: 10.1002/art.11058. [PubMed:12847698 ]
Fanconi syndrome
  1. Cheng HM, Jap TS, Ho LT: Fanconi syndrome: report of a case. J Formos Med Assoc. 1990 Dec;89(12):1115-7. [PubMed:1982686 ]
Cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome 2
  1. Caldeira Araujo H, Smit W, Verhoeven NM, Salomons GS, Silva S, Vasconcelos R, Tomas H, Tavares de Almeida I, Jakobs C, Duran M: Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency identified in adults and a child with mental retardation. Am J Med Genet A. 2005 Mar 1;133A(2):122-7. [PubMed:15651030 ]
D-Lactic Acidosis
  1. Duran M, Van Biervliet JP, Kamerling JP, Wadman SK: D-lactic aciduria, an inborn error of metabolism? Clin Chim Acta. 1977 Feb 1;74(3):297-300. [PubMed:832430 ]
Long-chain Fatty Acids, Defect in Transport of
  1. Treem WR, Stanley CA, Finegold DN, Hale DE, Coates PM: Primary carnitine deficiency due to a failure of carnitine transport in kidney, muscle, and fibroblasts. N Engl J Med. 1988 Nov 17;319(20):1331-6. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198811173192006. [PubMed:3185635 ]
congenital disorder of glycosylation CDG-Ia
  1. Harding BN, Dunger DB, Grant DB, Erdohazi M: Familial olivopontocerebellar atrophy with neonatal onset: a recessively inherited syndrome with systemic and biochemical abnormalities. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1988 Mar;51(3):385-90. [PubMed:3162953 ]
Molybdenium co-factor deficiency
  1. Aukett A, Bennett MJ, Hosking GP: Molybdenum co-factor deficiency: an easily missed inborn error of metabolism. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1988 Aug;30(4):531-5. [PubMed:3169394 ]
Fanconi Bickel syndrome
  1. Nirupama Gupta, Bimota Nambam, David A. Weinstein, and Lawrence R. Shoemaker (2016). Late Diagnosis of Fanconi-Bickel Syndrome: Challenges With the Diagnosis and Literature Review . Journal of Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Screening.
Degenerative disc disease
  1. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. [PubMed:6656991 ]
Meningitis
  1. Kastenbauer S, Koedel U, Becker BF, Pfister HW: Oxidative stress in bacterial meningitis in humans. Neurology. 2002 Jan 22;58(2):186-91. [PubMed:11805243 ]
ATIC deficiency
  1. Marinaki AM, Champion M, Kurian MA, Simmonds HA, Marie S, Vincent MF, van den Berghe G, Duley JA, Fairbanks LD: Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency--first British case. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004 Oct;23(8-9):1231-3. [PubMed:15571235 ]
3-Methyl-crotonyl-glycinuria
  1. de Kremer RD, Latini A, Suormala T, Baumgartner ER, Larovere L, Civallero G, Guelbert N, Paschini-Capra A, Depetris-Boldini C, Mayor CQ: Leukodystrophy and CSF purine abnormalities associated with isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency. Metab Brain Dis. 2002 Mar;17(1):13-8. [PubMed:11893004 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  2. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Canavan disease
  1. Tavazzi B, Lazzarino G, Leone P, Amorini AM, Bellia F, Janson CG, Di Pietro V, Ceccarelli L, Donzelli S, Francis JS, Giardina B: Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic separation of purines, pyrimidines, N-acetylated amino acids, and dicarboxylic acids for the chemical diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. Clin Biochem. 2005 Nov;38(11):997-1008. Epub 2005 Sep 1. [PubMed:16139832 ]
Fructose intolerance, hereditary
  1. Steinmann B, Gitzelmann R: The diagnosis of hereditary fructose intolerance. Helv Paediatr Acta. 1981 Sep;36(4):297-316. [PubMed:6268573 ]
Nucleotide Depletion Syndrome
  1. Page T, Yu A, Fontanesi J, Nyhan WL: Developmental disorder associated with increased cellular nucleotidase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Oct 14;94(21):11601-6. [PubMed:9326656 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 125853 (Diabetes mellitus type 2)
  • 138900 (Gout)
  • 300322 (Lesch-Nyhan syndrome)
  • 126200 (Multiple sclerosis)
  • 137215 (Stomach cancer)
  • 181500 (Schizophrenia)
  • 272300 (Sulfite oxidase deficiency, ISOLATED)
  • 278300 (Xanthinuria type 1)
  • 248250 (Primary hypomagnesemia)
  • 229700 (Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency)
  • 300661 (Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate Synthetase Superactivity)
  • 612736 (Cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome 2)
  • 245450 (D-Lactic Acidosis)
  • 603376 (Long-chain Fatty Acids, Defect in Transport of)
  • 212065 (congenital disorder of glycosylation CDG-Ia)
  • 252150 (Molybdenium co-factor deficiency)
  • 227810 (Fanconi Bickel syndrome)
  • 608688 (ATIC deficiency)
  • 210200 (3-Methyl-crotonyl-glycinuria)
  • 114500 (Colorectal cancer)
  • 271900 (Canavan disease)
  • 229600 (Fructose intolerance, hereditary)
DrugBank IDDB08844
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB015350
KNApSAcK IDC00007301
Chemspider ID1142
KEGG Compound IDC00366
BioCyc IDURATE
BiGG ID34768
Wikipedia LinkUric_acid
METLIN ID88
PubChem Compound1175
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17775
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceBrenner-Holzach, O.; Leuthardt, F. Uric acid formation from glucose carbon in Drosophila melanogaster. Preliminary report. Helvetica Chimica Acta (1963), 46(4), 1426-8.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Kanbay M, Akcay A, Huddam B, Usluogullari CA, Arat Z, Ozdemir FN, Haberal M: Influence of cyclosporine and tacrolimus on serum uric acid levels in stable kidney transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2005 Sep;37(7):3119-20. [PubMed:16213325 ]
  2. Marinaki AM, Champion M, Kurian MA, Simmonds HA, Marie S, Vincent MF, van den Berghe G, Duley JA, Fairbanks LD: Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency--first British case. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004 Oct;23(8-9):1231-3. [PubMed:15571235 ]
  3. Hanvivadhanakul P, Akkasilpa S, Deesomchok U: Efficacy of benzbromarone compared to allopurinol in lowering serum uric acid level in hyperuricemic patients. J Med Assoc Thai. 2002 Jun;85 Suppl 1:S40-7. [PubMed:12188443 ]
  4. Kirschbaum B: Correlation studies of plasma paraoxonase activity and uric acid concentration with AAPH-Induced erythrocyte hemolysis in hemodialysis patients. Artif Organs. 2004 Mar;28(3):259-64. [PubMed:15046624 ]
  5. Sysyn GD, Rozycki HJ: Lack of prognostic significance of early elevated serum uric acid levels in low birthweight infants. Biol Neonate. 2003;83(4):253-7. [PubMed:12743454 ]
  6. Kastenbauer S, Koedel U, Becker BF, Pfister HW: Oxidative stress in bacterial meningitis in humans. Neurology. 2002 Jan 22;58(2):186-91. [PubMed:11805243 ]
  7. Tumgor G, Arikan C, Kilic M, Aydogdu S: Frequency of hyperuricemia and effect of calcineurin inhibitors on serum uric acid levels in liver transplanted children. Pediatr Transplant. 2006 Sep;10(6):665-8. [PubMed:16911488 ]
  8. Srinivasan S, Kalaiselvi P, Sakthivel R, Pragasam V, Muthu V, Varalakshmi P: Uric acid: an abettor or protector in calcium oxalate urolithiasis? Biochemical study in stone formers. Clin Chim Acta. 2005 Mar;353(1-2):45-51. [PubMed:15698589 ]
  9. Puig JG, Torres R, Ruilope LM: AT1 blockers and uric acid metabolism: are there relevant differences? J Hypertens Suppl. 2002 Jun;20(5):S29-31. [PubMed:12184060 ]
  10. Alderman M, Aiyer KJ: Uric acid: role in cardiovascular disease and effects of losartan. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Mar;20(3):369-79. [PubMed:15025846 ]
  11. Iwai N, Mino Y, Hosoyamada M, Tago N, Kokubo Y, Endou H: A high prevalence of renal hypouricemia caused by inactive SLC22A12 in Japanese. Kidney Int. 2004 Sep;66(3):935-44. [PubMed:15327384 ]
  12. Williams KP, Galerneau F: The role of serum uric acid as a prognostic indicator of the severity of maternal and fetal complications in hypertensive pregnancies. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2002 Aug;24(8):628-32. [PubMed:12196841 ]
  13. Inoue K, Namiki T, Iwasaki Y, Yoshimura Y, Nakazawa H: Determination of uric acid in human saliva by high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Feb 25;785(1):57-63. [PubMed:12535838 ]
  14. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. [PubMed:6656991 ]
  15. Cacabelos R, Fernandez-Novoa L, Corzo L, Pichel V, Lombardi V, Kubota Y: Genomics and phenotypic profiles in dementia: implications for pharmacological treatment. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Jul-Aug;26(6):421-44. [PubMed:15349138 ]
  16. Simkin PA, Hoover PL, Paxson CS, Wilson WF: Uric acid excretion: quantitative assessment from spot, midmorning serum and urine samples. Ann Intern Med. 1979 Jul;91(1):44-7. [PubMed:464453 ]
  17. Mazzali M: Uric acid and transplantation. Semin Nephrol. 2005 Jan;25(1):50-5. [PubMed:15660335 ]
  18. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  19. Ames BN, Cathcart R, Schwiers E, Hochstein P: Uric acid provides an antioxidant defense in humans against oxidant- and radical-caused aging and cancer: a hypothesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Nov;78(11):6858-62. [PubMed:6947260 ]
  20. Kutzing MK, Firestein BL: Altered uric acid levels and disease states. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Jan;324(1):1-7. doi: 10.1124/jpet.107.129031. Epub 2007 Sep 21. [PubMed:17890445 ]
  21. Kool M, Willart MA, van Nimwegen M, Bergen I, Pouliot P, Virchow JC, Rogers N, Osorio F, Reis e Sousa C, Hammad H, Lambrecht BN: An unexpected role for uric acid as an inducer of T helper 2 cell immunity to inhaled antigens and inflammatory mediator of allergic asthma. Immunity. 2011 Apr 22;34(4):527-40. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2011.03.015. Epub 2011 Apr 7. [PubMed:21474346 ]
  22. Duranton F, Cohen G, De Smet R, Rodriguez M, Jankowski J, Vanholder R, Argiles A: Normal and pathologic concentrations of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jul;23(7):1258-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011121175. Epub 2012 May 24. [PubMed:22626821 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular weight:
146422.99
Reactions
Xanthine + Water + Oxygen → Uric acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Xanthine + NAD + Water → Uric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorylase activity
Specific function:
Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties.
Gene Name:
PYGL
Uniprot ID:
P06737
Molecular weight:
93133.25
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]