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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-08-15 17:25:35 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 20:40:31 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000464
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00464
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCalcium
DescriptionCalcium is essential for the normal growth and maintenance of bones and teeth, and calcium requirements must be met throughout life. Requirements are greatest during periods of growth, such as childhood, during pregnancy and when breast-feeding. Long-term calcium deficiency can lead to osteoporosis, in which the bone deteriorates and there is an increased risk of fractures. Adults need between 1,000 and 1,300 mg of calcium in their daily diet. Calcium is essential for living organisms, particularly in cell physiology, and is the most common metal in many animals. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Calcium combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Calcium is an important component of a healthy diet. A deficit can affect bone and tooth formation, while overretention can cause kidney stones. Vitamin D is needed to absorb calcium. Dairy products, such as milk and cheese, are a well-known source of calcium. However, some individuals are allergic to dairy products and even more people, particularly those of non-European descent, are lactose-intolerant, leaving them unable to consume dairy products. Fortunately, many other good sources of calcium exist. These include: seaweeds such as kelp, wakame and hijiki; nuts and seeds (like almonds and sesame); beans; amaranth; collard greens; okra; rutabaga; broccoli; kale; and fortified products such as orange juice and soy milk. Calcium has also been found to assist in the production of lymphatic fluids. Furthermore, calcium is found to be associated with primary hypomagnesemia, which is an inborn error of metabolism.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Ca(2+)ChEBI
Ca2+ChEBI
CALCIUM ionChEBI
Calcium, doubly charged positive ionChEBI
CaHMDB
Calcium elementHMDB
Blood coagulation factor XIIIMeSH
Coagulation factor XIIIMeSH
Factor XIIIMeSH
Factor XIII a chainMeSH
Factor XIII a-chainMeSH
Factor XIII transamidaseMeSH
Factor XIII, coagulationMeSH
Fibrin stabilizing factorMeSH
FibrinaseMeSH
Laki lorand factorMeSH
Laki-lorand factorMeSH
Stabilizing factor, fibrinMeSH
Transamidase, factor XIIIMeSH
XIII, coagulation factorMeSH
Chemical FormulaCa
Average Molecular Weight40.078
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight39.962591155
IUPAC Namecalcium(2+) ion
Traditional Namecalcium(2+) ion
CAS Registry Number7440-70-2
SMILES
[Ca++]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/Ca/q+2
InChI KeyBHPQYMZQTOCNFJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a alkaline earth metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous alkaline earth metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point850 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.57ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-382f6681443a5ba4aff6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-382f6681443a5ba4aff6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-382f6681443a5ba4aff6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-b897a59dd4cd48dea0d1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-b897a59dd4cd48dea0d1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-b897a59dd4cd48dea0d1View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified1536 +/- 141 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2120-2700 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2120.86-2744.65 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Female
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2295.52-2619.89 uMChildren (1 - <19 years old)Female
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2120.86-2744.65 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Male
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2295.52-2619.89 uMChildren (1 - <19 years old)Male
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2100-2600 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2100-2500 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1200-1380 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1270 +/- 120 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2220.0 +/- 190.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2510.0 +/- 90.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2430.0 +/- 70.0 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2100-2700 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2420.0 (2250.0-2590.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1400 uMInfant (0-1 year old)FemalePyroglutamic aciduria details
BloodDetected and Quantified2377.0 +/- 100.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2352.0 +/- 100.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2120.864-2495.134 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2100-2400 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2100-2550 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2100-2550 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2100-2550 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2100-2550 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1150-1320 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1047 +/- 520 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1190.0 (1020.0 - 1340.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1830 +/- 1020 uMNot SpecifiedBoth
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified690.32 +/- 404.88 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3241.679 +/- 2450.721 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2751.634 +/- 1492.589 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2060.981 +/- 391.736 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Shatha A Hassan a...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1644.294 +/- 321.872 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Shatha A Hassan a...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1719.148 +/- 444.134 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Shatha A Hassan a...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1579.420 +/- 504.0172 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1479.615 +/- 331.853 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1437.197 +/- 269.475 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1270.0235 +/- 229.552 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2480 +/- 630 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified990 +/- 760 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified200.0 (16.9-520.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified100-300 umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified391.0 +/- 125.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified299.0 +/- 99.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified<700 umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified<2256.799 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified256.5 +/- 13.00 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified276.00 +/- 19.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1700-2300 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Female
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified1472.129 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Male
Primary hypomagnesemia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1534.508 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Male
Primary hypomagnesemia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1580 +/- 330 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothPrimary Hypomagnesemia details
BloodDetected and Quantified2540 (2380-2640) uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Bartter Syndrome, Type 3
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2395.329-2869.405 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Primary Hypomagnesemia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified798.443-1047.956 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Primary Hypomagnesemia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1637 +/- 282 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMultiple sclerosis details
BloodDetected and Quantified1683 +/- 249 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothParkinson's disease details
BloodDetected and Quantified1980 uMInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleSucrase-isomaltase deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified1290-1860 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not AvailableMitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified1190 +/- 80 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDigeorge Syndrome details
BloodDetected and Quantified2310 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)MaleHypomagnesemia 1, intestinal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2090 uMChildren (1-13 years old)FemaleHypomagnesemia 1, intestinal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1200-2290 uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothHypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome details
BloodDetected and Quantified1696.691 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
27-hydroxylase deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2120.864 uMChildren (1-13 years old)FemaleHyperphosphatasia details
BloodDetected and Quantified2400(2200-2600) uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedOculocerebrorenal Syndrome of Lowe details
BloodDetected and Quantified1714 +/- 132 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
BloodDetected and Quantified1047.956 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Female
Bartter Syndrome, Type 1, Antenatal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1090 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Bartter Syndrome, Type 4A, Neonatal, with Sensorineural Deafness
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1370 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)FemaleBartter Syndrome, Type 4B, Neonatal, With Sensorineural Deafness details
UrineDetected and Quantified6 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleBartter Syndrome, Type 4B, Neonatal, With Sensorineural Deafness details
UrineDetected and Quantified20-30 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)FemaleBartter Syndrome, Type 4B, Neonatal, With Sensorineural Deafness details
UrineDetected and Quantified186.667-380.667 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Primary Hypomagnesemia
details
UrineDetected and Quantified199.611-532.295 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Primary Hypomagnesemia
details
UrineDetected and Quantified864.980-1131.128 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Primary Hypomagnesemia
details
UrineDetected and Quantified296.921 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleSucrase-isomaltase deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified3800 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)FemaleBartter Syndrome, Type 2, Antenatal details
UrineDetected and Quantified8180.897-40340.286 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)MaleBartter Syndrome, Type 5, Antenatal, Transient details
UrineDetected and Quantified1500 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Bartter Syndrome, Type 4A, Neonatal, with Sensorineural Deafness
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1692.599-3385.199 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Female
Bartter Syndrome, Type 1, Antenatal
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. [PubMed:16244393 ]
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis
  1. Agrawal NK, Garg S: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: a rare disorder with a rare presentation. BMJ Case Rep. 2012 Sep 21;2012. pii: bcr-2012-006202. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2012-006202. [PubMed:23001091 ]
Multiple sclerosis
  1. Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. [PubMed:16244395 ]
Oculocerebrorenal syndrome
  1. Charnas LR, Bernardini I, Rader D, Hoeg JM, Gahl WA: Clinical and laboratory findings in the oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe, with special reference to growth and renal function. N Engl J Med. 1991 May 9;324(19):1318-25. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199105093241904. [PubMed:2017228 ]
Parkinson's disease
  1. Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. [PubMed:16244392 ]
Primary hypomagnesemia
  1. Vainsel M, Vandevelde G, Smulders J, Vosters M, Hubain P, Loeb H: Tetany due to hypomagnesaemia with secondary hypocalcaemia. Arch Dis Child. 1970 Apr;45(240):254-8. [PubMed:5419995 ]
  2. Shalev H, Phillip M, Galil A, Carmi R, Landau D: Clinical presentation and outcome in primary familial hypomagnesaemia. Arch Dis Child. 1998 Feb;78(2):127-30. [PubMed:9579153 ]
  3. Jin-no Y, Kamiya Y, Okada M, Hirako M, Takada N, Kawaguchi M: Primary hypomagnesemia caused by isolated magnesium malabsorption: atypical case in adult. Intern Med. 1999 Mar;38(3):261-5. [PubMed:10337938 ]
  4. Kari JA, Farouq M, Alshaya HO: Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2003 Jun;18(6):506-10. Epub 2003 Apr 29. [PubMed:12720080 ]
Bartter Syndrome, Type 1, Antenatal
  1. Adachi M, Asakura Y, Sato Y, Tajima T, Nakajima T, Yamamoto T, Fujieda K: Novel SLC12A1 (NKCC2) mutations in two families with Bartter syndrome type 1. Endocr J. 2007 Dec;54(6):1003-7. Epub 2007 Nov 12. [PubMed:17998760 ]
Bartter Syndrome, Type 2, Antenatal
  1. Chan WK, To KF, Tong JH, Law CW: Paradoxical hypertension and salt wasting in Type II Bartter syndrome. Clin Kidney J. 2012 Jun;5(3):217-20. doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfs026. Epub 2012 Mar 29. [PubMed:26069767 ]
Bartter Syndrome, Type 3
  1. Seys E, Andrini O, Keck M, Mansour-Hendili L, Courand PY, Simian C, Deschenes G, Kwon T, Bertholet-Thomas A, Bobrie G, Borde JS, Bourdat-Michel G, Decramer S, Cailliez M, Krug P, Cozette P, Delbet JD, Dubourg L, Chaveau D, Fila M, Jourde-Chiche N, Knebelmann B, Lavocat MP, Lemoine S, Djeddi D, Llanas B, Louillet F, Merieau E, Mileva M, Mota-Vieira L, Mousson C, Nobili F, Novo R, Roussey-Kesler G, Vrillon I, Walsh SB, Teulon J, Blanchard A, Vargas-Poussou R: Clinical and Genetic Spectrum of Bartter Syndrome Type 3. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017 Aug;28(8):2540-2552. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2016101057. Epub 2017 Apr 5. [PubMed:28381550 ]
Bartter Syndrome, Type 4A, Neonatal, with Sensorineural Deafness
  1. Zaffanello M, Taranta A, Palma A, Bettinelli A, Marseglia GL, Emma F: Type IV Bartter syndrome: report of two new cases. Pediatr Nephrol. 2006 Jun;21(6):766-70. doi: 10.1007/s00467-006-0090-x. Epub 2006 Apr 1. [PubMed:16583241 ]
  2. Heilberg IP, Totoli C, Calado JT: Adult presentation of Bartter syndrome type IV with erythrocytosis. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2015 Oct-Dec;13(4):604-6. doi: 10.1590/S1679-45082015RC3013. Epub 2015 Oct 30. [PubMed:26537508 ]
Bartter Syndrome, Type 4B, Neonatal, With Sensorineural Deafness
  1. Nozu K, Inagaki T, Fu XJ, Nozu Y, Kaito H, Kanda K, Sekine T, Igarashi T, Nakanishi K, Yoshikawa N, Iijima K, Matsuo M: Molecular analysis of digenic inheritance in Bartter syndrome with sensorineural deafness. J Med Genet. 2008 Mar;45(3):182-6. doi: 10.1136/jmg.2007.052944. [PubMed:18310267 ]
Bartter Syndrome, Type 5, Antenatal, Transient
  1. Laghmani K, Beck BB, Yang SS, Seaayfan E, Wenzel A, Reusch B, Vitzthum H, Priem D, Demaretz S, Bergmann K, Duin LK, Gobel H, Mache C, Thiele H, Bartram MP, Dombret C, Altmuller J, Nurnberg P, Benzing T, Levtchenko E, Seyberth HW, Klaus G, Yigit G, Lin SH, Timmer A, de Koning TJ, Scherjon SA, Schlingmann KP, Bertrand MJ, Rinschen MM, de Backer O, Konrad M, Komhoff M: Polyhydramnios, Transient Antenatal Bartter's Syndrome, and MAGED2 Mutations. N Engl J Med. 2016 May 12;374(19):1853-63. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1507629. Epub 2016 Apr 27. [PubMed:27120771 ]
Digeorge Syndrome
  1. Cheung EN, George SR, Costain GA, Andrade DM, Chow EW, Silversides CK, Bassett AS: Prevalence of hypocalcaemia and its associated features in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2014 Aug;81(2):190-6. doi: 10.1111/cen.12466. Epub 2014 May 27. [PubMed:24735350 ]
Hyperphosphatasia
  1. Saki F, Karamizadeh Z, Nasirabadi S, Mumm S, McAlister WH, Whyte MP: Juvenile paget's disease in an Iranian kindred with vitamin D deficiency and novel homozygous TNFRSF11B mutation. J Bone Miner Res. 2013 Jun;28(6):1501-8. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.1868. [PubMed:23322328 ]
Hypomagnesemia 1, intestinal
  1. Hennekam RC, Donckerwolcke RA: Primary hypomagnesaemia, an autosomal recessive inherited disease? Lancet. 1983 Apr 23;1(8330):927. [PubMed:6132241 ]
Hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome
  1. Sanjad SA, Sakati NA, Abu-Osba YK, Kaddoura R, Milner RD: A new syndrome of congenital hypoparathyroidism, severe growth failure, and dysmorphic features. Arch Dis Child. 1991 Feb;66(2):193-6. [PubMed:2001103 ]
Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency
  1. den Boer ME, Dionisi-Vici C, Chakrapani A, van Thuijl AO, Wanders RJ, Wijburg FA: Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency: a severe fatty acid oxidation disorder with cardiac and neurologic involvement. J Pediatr. 2003 Jun;142(6):684-9. doi: 10.1067/mpd.2003.231. [PubMed:12838198 ]
Sucrase-isomaltase deficiency
  1. Belmont JW, Reid B, Taylor W, Baker SS, Moore WH, Morriss MC, Podrebarac SM, Glass N, Schwartz ID: Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency presenting with failure to thrive, hypercalcemia, and nephrocalcinosis. BMC Pediatr. 2002 Apr 25;2:4. [PubMed:12014995 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 104300 (Alzheimer's disease)
  • 126200 (Multiple sclerosis)
  • 168600 (Parkinson's disease)
  • 248250 (Primary hypomagnesemia)
  • 601678 (Bartter Syndrome, Type 1, Antenatal)
  • 213700 (Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis)
  • 607364 (Bartter Syndrome, Type 3)
  • 239000 (Hyperphosphatasia)
  • 609015 (Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency)
  • 188400 (Digeorge Syndrome)
  • 602014 (Hypomagnesemia 1, intestinal)
  • 241410 (Hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome)
  • 309000 (Oculocerebrorenal syndrome)
  • 602522 (Bartter Syndrome, Type 4A, Neonatal, with Sensorineural Deafness)
  • 241200 (Bartter Syndrome, Type 2, Antenatal)
  • 222900 (Sucrase-isomaltase deficiency)
  • 300971 (Bartter Syndrome, Type 5, Antenatal, Transient)
  • 613090 (Bartter Syndrome, Type 4B, Neonatal, With Sensorineural Deafness)
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003513
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID266
KEGG Compound IDC00076
BioCyc IDCA%2b2
BiGG ID33764
Wikipedia LinkCalcium
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound271
PDB IDCA
ChEBI ID29108
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Boonen S, Vanderschueren D, Haentjens P, Lips P: Calcium and vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis - a clinical update. J Intern Med. 2006 Jun;259(6):539-52. [PubMed:16704554 ]
  2. Gennari C: Calcium and vitamin D nutrition and bone disease of the elderly. Public Health Nutr. 2001 Apr;4(2B):547-59. [PubMed:11683549 ]
  3. Kirchhoff P, Geibel JP: Role of calcium and other trace elements in the gastrointestinal physiology. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 May 28;12(20):3229-36. [PubMed:16718844 ]
  4. Gross MD: Vitamin D and calcium in the prevention of prostate and colon cancer: new approaches for the identification of needs. J Nutr. 2005 Feb;135(2):326-31. [PubMed:15671236 ]
  5. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE: Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep 4;337(10):670-6. [PubMed:9278463 ]
  6. Porthouse J, Cockayne S, King C, Saxon L, Steele E, Aspray T, Baverstock M, Birks Y, Dumville J, Francis R, Iglesias C, Puffer S, Sutcliffe A, Watt I, Torgerson DJ: Randomised controlled trial of calcium and supplementation with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) for prevention of fractures in primary care. BMJ. 2005 Apr 30;330(7498):1003. [PubMed:15860827 ]
  7. Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, McDonald AM, MacLennan GS, McPherson GC, Anderson FH, Cooper C, Francis RM, Donaldson C, Gillespie WJ, Robinson CM, Torgerson DJ, Wallace WA: Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2005 May 7-13;365(9471):1621-8. [PubMed:15885294 ]
  8. Weingarten MA, Zalmanovici A, Yaphe J: Dietary calcium supplementation for preventing colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jul 20;(3):CD003548. [PubMed:16034903 ]
  9. Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black HR, Blanchette P, Bonds DE, Brunner RL, Brzyski RG, Caan B, Cauley JA, Chlebowski RT, Cummings SR, Granek I, Hays J, Heiss G, Hendrix SL, Howard BV, Hsia J, Hubbell FA, Johnson KC, Judd H, Kotchen JM, Kuller LH, Langer RD, Lasser NL, Limacher MC, Ludlam S, Manson JE, Margolis KL, McGowan J, Ockene JK, O'Sullivan MJ, Phillips L, Prentice RL, Sarto GE, Stefanick ML, Van Horn L, Wactawski-Wende J, Whitlock E, Anderson GL, Assaf AR, Barad D: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 16;354(7):669-83. [PubMed:16481635 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 1085 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Required for the function of light chain amino-acid transporters. Involved in sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan. Involved in guiding and targeting of LAT1 and LAT2 to the plasma membrane. When associated with SLC7A6 or SLC7A7 acts as an arginine/glutamine exchanger, following an antiport mechanism for amino acid transport, influencing arginine release in exchange for extracellular amino acids. Plays a role in nitric oxide synthesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) via transport of L-arginine. Required for normal and neoplastic cell growth. When associated with SLC7A5/LAT1, is also involved in the transport of L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier, and that of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) across the cell membrane in tissues such as placenta. Involved in the uptake of methylmercury (MeHg) when administered as the L-cysteine or D,L-homocysteine complexes, and hence plays a role in metal ion homeostasis and toxicity. When associated with SLC7A5 or SLC7A8, involved in the cellular activity of small molecular weight nitrosothiols, via the stereoselective transport of L- nitrosocysteine (L-CNSO) across the transmembrane. Together with ICAM1, regulates the transport activity LAT2 in polarized intestinal cells, by generating and delivering intracellular signals. When associated with SLC7A5, plays an important role in transporting L-leucine from the circulating blood to the retina across the inner blood-retinal barrier
Gene Name:
SLC3A2
Uniprot ID:
P08195
Molecular weight:
67993.3
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. This receptor is involved in tracheal smooth muscle contraction, bronchoconstriction, and control of aldosterone production
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular weight:
52602.6
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system
Gene Name:
HTR2B
Uniprot ID:
P41595
Molecular weight:
54297.4
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular weight:
51820.7
General function:
Involved in protein kinase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the regulation of fatty acid synthesis by phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. It also regulates cholesterol synthesis via phosphorylation and inactivation of hormone-sensitive lipase and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase. Appears to act as a metabolic stress-sensing protein kinase switching off biosynthetic pathways when cellular ATP levels are depleted and when 5'-AMP rises in response to fuel limitation and/or hypoxia. This is a catalytic subunit
Gene Name:
PRKAA1
Uniprot ID:
Q13131
Molecular weight:
64008.6
General function:
Involved in protein kinase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the regulation of fatty acid synthesis by phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. It also regulates cholesterol synthesis via phosphorylation and inactivation of hormone-sensitive lipase and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase. Appears to act as a metabolic stress-sensing protein kinase switching off biosynthetic pathways when cellular ATP levels are depleted and when 5'-AMP rises in response to fuel limitation and/or hypoxia. This is a catalytic subunit
Gene Name:
PRKAA2
Uniprot ID:
P54646
Molecular weight:
62319.1
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the degradation of compounds such as putrescine, histamine, spermine, and spermidine, substances involved in allergic and immune responses, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation, tumor formation, and possibly apoptosis. Placental DAO is thought to play a role in the regulation of the female reproductive function.
Gene Name:
ABP1
Uniprot ID:
P19801
Molecular weight:
85377.1
General function:
Involved in extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding may induce an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma
Gene Name:
CHRNA10
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZZ6
Molecular weight:
49704.3
General function:
Involved in extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding may induce an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma. May also regulate keratinocyte adhesion
Gene Name:
CHRNA9
Uniprot ID:
Q9UGM1
Molecular weight:
54806.6
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol- calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular weight:
51486.0

Transporters

General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Cotransporter which plays a role in lipoprotein, vitamin and iron metabolism, by facilitating their uptake. Binds to ALB, MB, Kappa and lambda-light chains, TF, hemoglobin, GC, SCGB1A1, APOA1, high density lipoprotein, and the GIF-cobalamin complex. The binding of all ligands required calcium. Serves as important transporter in several absorptive epithelia, including intestine, renal proximal tubules and embryonic yolk sac. Interaction with LRP2 mediates its trafficking throughout vesicles and facilitates the uptake of specific ligands like GC, hemoglobin, ALB, TF and SCGB1A1. Interaction with AMN controls its trafficking to the plasma membrane and facilitates endocytosis of ligands. May play an important role in the development of the peri-implantation embryo through internalization of APOA1 and cholesterol. Binds to LGALS3 at the maternal-fetal interface
Gene Name:
CUBN
Uniprot ID:
O60494
Molecular weight:
398672.8
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of p- aminohippurate (PAH), ochratoxin (OTA), acyclovir (ACV), 3'-azido- 3-'deoxythymidine (AZT), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro- phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), hippurate (HA), indoleacetate (IA), indoxyl sulfate (IS) and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2- furanpropionate (CMPF), cidofovir, adefovir, 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) guanine (PMEG), 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) diaminopurine (PMEDAP) and edaravone sulfate. PAH uptake is inhibited by p- chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (PCMBS), diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), sulindac, diclofenac, carprofen, glutarate and okadaic acid. PAH uptake is inhibited by benzothiazolylcysteine (BTC), S-chlorotrifluoroethylcysteine (CTFC), cysteine S-conjugates S-dichlorovinylcysteine (DCVC), furosemide, steviol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore A23187, benzylpenicillin, furosemide, indomethacin, bumetamide, losartan, probenecid, phenol red, urate, and alpha-ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular weight:
61815.8

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 1085 proteins in total.