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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-03-14 18:00:55 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000698
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0002474
  • HMDB00698
  • HMDB02474
Metabolite Identification
Common NameLithocholic acid glycine conjugate
DescriptionLithocholic acid glycine conjugate is an acyl glycine and a bile acid-glycine conjugate. is an acyl glycine and a bile acid-glycine conjugate. It is a secondary bile acid produced by the action of enzymes existing in the microbial flora of the colonic environment. In hepatocytes, both primary and secondary bile acids undergo amino acid conjugation at the C-24 carboxylic acid on the side chain, and almost all bile acids in the bile duct therefore exist in a glycine conjugated form (PMID:16949895 ). Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, depends only on presence or absence of hydroxyl groups on positions 3, 7, and 12. Bile acids are physiological detergents that facilitate excretion, absorption, and transport of fats and sterols in the intestine and liver. Bile acids are also steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH and, consequently, require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. The unique detergent properties of bile acids are essential for the digestion and intestinal absorption of hydrophobic nutrients. Bile acids have potent toxic properties (e.g., membrane disruption) and there are a plethora of mechanisms to limit their accumulation in blood and tissues. (PMID: 11316487 , 16037564 , 12576301 , 11907135 ).
Structure
Data?1547234097
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC26H43NO4
Average Molecular Weight433.6239
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight433.319208869
IUPAC NameNot Available
Traditional NameNot Available
CAS Registry Number474-74-8
SMILESNot Available
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C26H43NO4/c1-16(4-9-23(29)27-15-24(30)31)20-7-8-21-19-6-5-17-14-18(28)10-12-25(17,2)22(19)11-13-26(20,21)3/h16-22,28H,4-15H2,1-3H3,(H,27,29)(H,30,31)/t16-,17-,18-,19+,20-,21+,22+,25+,26-/m1/s1
InChI KeyXBSQTYHEGZTYJE-OETIFKLTSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biospecimen Locations
  • Bile
  • Blood
  • Feces
Tissue Locations
  • Gall Bladder
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BileDetected and Quantified620 (590-650) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.009 (0.005-0.015) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified6.68 +/- 18.49 nmol/g dry fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
External LinksNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceMomose, Toshiaki; Tsubaki, Takayuki; Iida, Takashi; Nambara, Toshio. An improved synthesis of taurine- and glycine-conjugated bile acids. Lipids (1997), 32(7), 775-778.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Tadano T, Kanoh M, Matsumoto M, Sakamoto K, Kamano T: Studies of serum and feces bile acids determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Rinsho Byori. 2006 Feb;54(2):103-10. [PubMed:16548228 ]
  2. Cowen AE, Korman MG, Hofmann AF, Cass OW, Coffin SB: Metabolism of lithocholate in healthy man. II. Enterohepatic circulation. Gastroenterology. 1975 Jul;69(1):67-76. [PubMed:1097294 ]
  3. Cowen AE, Korman MG, Hofmann AF, Cass OW: Metabolism of lethocholate in healthy man. I. Biotransformation and biliary excretion of intravenously administered lithocholate, lithocholylglycine, and their sulfates. Gastroenterology. 1975 Jul;69(1):59-66. [PubMed:1150035 ]
  4. Lee BL, New AL, Ong CN: Comparative analysis of conjugated bile acids in human serum using high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1997 Dec 19;704(1-2):35-42. [PubMed:9518169 ]
  5. Cowen AE, Korman MG, Hofmann AF, Thomas PJ: Metabolism of lithocholate in healthy man. III. Plasma disappearance of radioactivity after intravenous injection of labeled lithocholate and its derivatives. Gastroenterology. 1975 Jul;69(1):77-82. [PubMed:1150037 ]
  6. Goto T, Myint KT, Sato K, Wada O, Kakiyama G, Iida T, Hishinuma T, Mano N, Goto J: LC/ESI-tandem mass spectrometric determination of bile acid 3-sulfates in human urine 3beta-Sulfooxy-12alpha-hydroxy-5beta-cholanoic acid is an abundant nonamidated sulfate. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2007 Feb 1;846(1-2):69-77. Epub 2006 Sep 1. [PubMed:16949895 ]
  7. St-Pierre MV, Kullak-Ublick GA, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ: Transport of bile acids in hepatic and non-hepatic tissues. J Exp Biol. 2001 May;204(Pt 10):1673-86. [PubMed:11316487 ]
  8. Claudel T, Staels B, Kuipers F: The Farnesoid X receptor: a molecular link between bile acid and lipid and glucose metabolism. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Oct;25(10):2020-30. Epub 2005 Jul 21. [PubMed:16037564 ]
  9. Chiang JY: Bile acid regulation of hepatic physiology: III. Bile acids and nuclear receptors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Mar;284(3):G349-56. [PubMed:12576301 ]
  10. Davis RA, Miyake JH, Hui TY, Spann NJ: Regulation of cholesterol-7alpha-hydroxylase: BAREly missing a SHP. J Lipid Res. 2002 Apr;43(4):533-43. [PubMed:11907135 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfonation of steroids and bile acids in the liver and adrenal glands.
Gene Name:
SULT2A1
Uniprot ID:
Q06520
Molecular weight:
33779.57
Reactions
Phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate + Lithocholic acid glycine conjugate → Adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate + Sulfolithocholylglycinedetails
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine and glutamine, although much less efficiently. Can conjugate numerous substrates to form a variety of N-acylglycines, with a preference for benzoyl-CoA over phenylacetyl-CoA as acyl donors. Thereby detoxify xenobiotics, such as benzoic acid or salicylic acid, and endogenous organic acids, such as isovaleric acid.
Gene Name:
GLYAT
Uniprot ID:
Q6IB77
Molecular weight:
18506.33
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glutamine. Can use phenylacetyl-CoA as an acyl donor.
Gene Name:
GLYATL1
Uniprot ID:
Q969I3
Molecular weight:
35100.895
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers the acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine. Conjugates numerous substrates, such as arachidonoyl-CoA and saturated medium and long-chain acyl-CoAs ranging from chain-length C8:0-CoA to C18:0-CoA, to form a variety of N-acylglycines. Shows a preference for monounsaturated fatty acid oleoyl-CoA (C18:1-CoA) as an acyl donor. Does not exhibit any activity toward C22:6-CoA and chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA, nor toward serine or alanine.
Gene Name:
GLYATL2
Uniprot ID:
Q8WU03
Molecular weight:
34277.055
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Acyltransferase which transfers the acyl group to the N- terminus of glycine
Gene Name:
GLYATL3
Uniprot ID:
Q5SZD4
Molecular weight:
32703.3