Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Choline (HMDB00097)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2005-11-16 08:48:42 -0700
Update Date 2013-02-08 17:07:53 -0700
HMDB ID HMDB00097
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Choline
Description Choline is a basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism. Choline is now considered to be an essential vitamin. While humans can synthesize small amounts (by converting phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine), it must be consumed in the diet to maintain health. Required levels are between 425 mg/day (female) and 550 mg/day (male). Milk, eggs, liver and peanuts are especially rich in choline. Most choline is found in phospholipids, namely phosphatidylcholine or lecithin. Choline can be oxidized to form betaine, which is a methyl source for many reactions (i.e. conversion of homocysteine e to methionine). Lack of sufficient amounts of choline in the diet can lead to a fatty liver condition and general liver damage. This arises from the lack of VLDL, which is necessary to transport fats away from the liver. Choline deficiency also leads to elevated serum levels of alanine amino transferase and is associated with increased incidence of liver cancer.
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. (2-Hydroxyethyl)trimethyl ammonium
  2. (2-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium
  3. (beta-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium
  4. 2-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-ethanaminium
  5. 2-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium
  6. Bilineurine
  7. Biocolina
  8. Biocoline
  9. Choline
  10. Choline cation
  11. Choline ion
  12. Cholinum
  13. Hepacholine
  14. Hormocline
  15. Lipotril
  16. N,N,N-Trimethylethanol-ammonium
  17. N,N,N-Trimethylethanolammonium
  18. Neocolina
  19. Paresan
Chemical Formula C5H14NO
Average Molecular Weight 104.1708
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 104.107539075
IUPAC Name (2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylazanium
Traditional IUPAC Name choline
CAS Registry Number 62-49-7
SMILES C[N+](C)(C)CCO
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/C5H14NO/c1-6(2,3)4-5-7/h7H,4-5H2,1-3H3/q+1
InChI Key OEYIOHPDSNJKLS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
Class Alcohols and Polyols
Sub Class Cholines
Other Descriptors
  • Pesticides(KEGG)
  • a small molecule(Cyc)
  • cholines(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Primary Alcohol
  • Quaternary Ammonium Salt
Direct Parent Cholines
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Food
  • Plant
Biofunction
  • Component of Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Component of Glycosphingolipid metabolism
  • Essential vitamins
Application Not Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
Physical Properties
State Solid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point 302 - 303 °C (chloride salt) Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility Not Available Not Available
LogP Not Available Not Available
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
Water Solubility 3.61 g/L ALOGPS
LogP -3.59 ALOGPS
LogP -4.7 ChemAxon
LogS -1.59 ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic) 13.97 ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic) -3.2 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 1 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 1 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 20.23 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 2 ChemAxon
Refractivity 42.19 ChemAxon
Polarizability 12.57 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 1 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge 1 ChemAxon
Spectra
1H NMR Spectrum
13C NMR Spectrum
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 10
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 25
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 40
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Muscle
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Bladder
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Testes
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Epidermis
  • Brain
  • Myelin
  • Prostate
  • Nerve Cells
  • Platelet
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Basal Ganglia
  • Hippocampus
  • Temporal Lobe
  • Thalamus
Pathways
Name SMPDB Link KEGG Link
Betaine Metabolism SMP00123 map00260 Link_out
Methionine Metabolism SMP00033 map00270 Link_out
Phospholipid Biosynthesis SMP00025 map00564 Link_out
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
6.0 +/- 0.3 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
27.5 +/- 3.3 uM Newborn (0-30 days old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
10.6 +/- 1.9 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
6.8 +/- 0.3 uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
14.5 +/- 5.3 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Breast Milk Detected and Quantified
116 +/- 22 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
3 +/- 1 uM Not Specified Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
8.3 (7.0-13.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Saliva Detected and Quantified
>10 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected but not Quantified
Not Applicable Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
3.5 (1.4-6.1) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
5.27 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
  • Shaykhutdino...
Urine Detected and Quantified
6.3 (0.72-28.5) umol/mmol creatinine Children (1-13 year old) Male Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 9.7 +/- 4.5 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Heart Transplant
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 170.0 +/- 70.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Spina bifida
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 1.46 +/- 0.54 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Vascular dementia
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 140.0 +/- 180.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Spina bifida
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 2.5 +/- 1.0 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Alzheimer's disease
Urine Detected and Quantified 3.0 (0.0-8.0) umol/mmol creatinine Not Specified Both Lung cancer
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Spina Bifida
  • Pal K, Sharma U, Gupta DK, Pratap A, Jagannathan NR: Metabolite profile of cerebrospinal fluid in patients with spina bifida: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Spine. 2005 Feb 1;30(3):E68-72. Pubmed: 15681999 Link_out
      Lung Cancer
      • Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Eisner R, Young N, Gautam B, Hau DD, Psychogios N, Dong E, Bouatra S, Mandal R, Sinelnikov I, Xia J, Jia L, Cruz JA, Lim E, Sobsey CA, Shrivastava S, Huang P, Liu P, Fang L, Peng J, Fradette R, Cheng D, Tzur D, Clements M, Lewis A, De Souza A, Zuniga A, Dawe M, Xiong Y, Clive D, Greiner R, Nazyrova A, Shaykhutdinov R, Li L, Vogel HJ, Forsythe I: HMDB: a knowledgebase for the human metabolome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Oct 25. Pubmed: 18953024 Link_out
          Multi-infarct dementia
          • Walter A, Korth U, Hilgert M, Hartmann J, Weichel O, Hilgert M, Fassbender K, Schmitt A, Klein J: Glycerophosphocholine is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer patients. Neurobiol Aging. 2004 Nov-Dec;25(10):1299-303. Pubmed: 15465626 Link_out
              Alzheimer's disease
              • Walter A, Korth U, Hilgert M, Hartmann J, Weichel O, Hilgert M, Fassbender K, Schmitt A, Klein J: Glycerophosphocholine is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer patients. Neurobiol Aging. 2004 Nov-Dec;25(10):1299-303. Pubmed: 15465626 Link_out
                  Associated OMIM IDs
                  DrugBank ID Not Available
                  DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
                  Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
                  Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
                  FoodDB ID FDB000710
                  KNApSAcK ID C00007298 Link_out
                  Chemspider ID 299 Link_out
                  KEGG Compound ID C00114 Link_out
                  BioCyc ID CPD-563 Link_out
                  BiGG ID 33910 Link_out
                  Wikipedia Link Choline Link_out
                  NuGOwiki Link HMDB00097 Link_out
                  Metagene Link HMDB00097 Link_out
                  METLIN ID 56 Link_out
                  PubChem Compound 305 Link_out
                  PDB ID CHT Link_out
                  ChEBI ID 15354 Link_out
                  References
                  Synthesis Reference Hasegawa, Yoichi; Hyoda, Shunji; Sawada, Hirotoshi; Baba, Masakatsu. Preparation of high-purity organic carboxylic acid choline salts and choline. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (1999), 9 pp.
                  Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
                  General References
                  1. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436 Link_out
                  2. Kohlmeier M, da Costa KA, Fischer LM, Zeisel SH: Genetic variation of folate-mediated one-carbon transfer pathway predicts susceptibility to choline deficiency in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 1;102(44):16025-30. Epub 2005 Oct 18. Pubmed: 16236726 Link_out
                  3. Babb SM, Ke Y, Lange N, Kaufman MJ, Renshaw PF, Cohen BM: Oral choline increases choline metabolites in human brain. Psychiatry Res. 2004 Jan 15;130(1):1-9. Pubmed: 14972364 Link_out
                  4. Pal K, Sharma U, Gupta DK, Pratap A, Jagannathan NR: Metabolite profile of cerebrospinal fluid in patients with spina bifida: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Spine. 2005 Feb 1;30(3):E68-72. Pubmed: 15681999 Link_out
                  5. Farsad M, Schiavina R, Castellucci P, Nanni C, Corti B, Martorana G, Canini R, Grigioni W, Boschi S, Marengo M, Pettinato C, Salizzoni E, Monetti N, Franchi R, Fanti S: Detection and localization of prostate cancer: correlation of (11)C-choline PET/CT with histopathologic step-section analysis. J Nucl Med. 2005 Oct;46(10):1642-9. Pubmed: 16204714 Link_out
                  6. Yanagawa T, Watanabe H, Inoue T, Ahmed AR, Tomiyoshi K, Shinozaki T, Oriuchi N, Endo K, Takagishi K: Carbon-11 choline positron emission tomography in musculoskeletal tumors: comparison with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2003 Mar-Apr;27(2):175-82. Pubmed: 12703009 Link_out
                  7. Zeisel SH: Nutritional importance of choline for brain development. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Dec;23(6 Suppl):621S-626S. Pubmed: 15640516 Link_out
                  8. Walter A, Korth U, Hilgert M, Hartmann J, Weichel O, Hilgert M, Fassbender K, Schmitt A, Klein J: Glycerophosphocholine is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer patients. Neurobiol Aging. 2004 Nov-Dec;25(10):1299-303. Pubmed: 15465626 Link_out
                  9. Garner SC, Chou SC, Mar MH, Coleman RA, Zeisel SH: Characterization of choline metabolism and secretion by human placental trophoblasts in culture. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Jul 1;1168(3):358-64. Pubmed: 8323976 Link_out
                  10. Rumpel H, Ho GL, Chan LL, Lim WE, Chong VF: Concomitant diminishing magnetization-transfer effect and increasing choline level in radiation-induced temporal-lobe changes. Australas Radiol. 2002 Sep;46(3):340-4. Pubmed: 12196251 Link_out
                  11. Zeisel SH: Choline: critical role during fetal development and dietary requirements in adults. Annu Rev Nutr. 2006;26:229-50. Pubmed: 16848706 Link_out
                  12. Ozarda Ilcol Y, Ozyurt G, Kilicturgay S, Uncu G, Ulus IH: The decline in serum choline concentration in humans during and after surgery is associated with the elevation of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin and beta-endorphin concentrations. Neurosci Lett. 2002 May 10;324(1):41-4. Pubmed: 11983290 Link_out
                  13. Van Hove JL, Lazeyras F, Zeisel SH, Bottiglieri T, Hyland K, Charles HC, Gray L, Jaeken J, Kahler SG: One-methyl group metabolism in non-ketotic hyperglycinaemia: mildly elevated cerebrospinal fluid homocysteine levels. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1998 Dec;21(8):799-811. Pubmed: 9870205 Link_out
                  14. Nicholson JK, Foxall PJ, Spraul M, Farrant RD, Lindon JC: 750 MHz 1H and 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy of human blood plasma. Anal Chem. 1995 Mar 1;67(5):793-811. Pubmed: 7762816 Link_out
                  15. Chen CY, Li CW, Kuo YT, Jaw TS, Wu DK, Jao JC, Hsu JS, Liu GC: Early response of hepatocellular carcinoma to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization: choline levels and MR diffusion constants--initial experience. Radiology. 2006 May;239(2):448-56. Epub 2006 Mar 28. Pubmed: 16569781 Link_out
                  16. Buchman AL, Ament ME, Sohel M, Dubin M, Jenden DJ, Roch M, Pownall H, Farley W, Awal M, Ahn C: Choline deficiency causes reversible hepatic abnormalities in patients receiving parenteral nutrition: proof of a human choline requirement: a placebo-controlled trial. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2001 Sep-Oct;25(5):260-8. Pubmed: 11531217 Link_out
                  17. da Costa KA, Badea M, Fischer LM, Zeisel SH: Elevated serum creatine phosphokinase in choline-deficient humans: mechanistic studies in C2C12 mouse myoblasts. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):163-70. Pubmed: 15213044 Link_out
                  18. Katz-Brull R, Margalit R, Degani H: Differential routing of choline in implanted breast cancer and normal organs. Magn Reson Med. 2001 Jul;46(1):31-8. Pubmed: 11443708 Link_out
                  19. Ilcol YO, Donmez O, Yavuz M, Dilek K, Yurtkuran M, Ulus IH: Free choline and phospholipid-bound choline concentrations in serum and dialysate during peritoneal dialysis in children and adults. Clin Biochem. 2002 Jun;35(4):307-13. Pubmed: 12135694 Link_out
                  20. Jacob RA, Jenden DJ, Allman-Farinelli MA, Swendseid ME: Folate nutriture alters choline status of women and men fed low choline diets. J Nutr. 1999 Mar;129(3):712-7. Pubmed: 10082779 Link_out

                  Enzymes
                  Name: Choline O-acetyltransferase
                  Reactions:
                  Acetyl-CoA + Choline unknown Coenzyme A + Acetylcholine details
                  Gene Name: CHAT
                  Uniprot ID: P28329 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Phospholipase D2
                  Reactions:
                  A phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown Choline + a phosphatidate details
                  Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown Phosphatidate + Choline details
                  Gene Name: PLD2
                  Uniprot ID: O14939 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Phospholipase D1
                  Reactions:
                  A phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown Choline + a phosphatidate details
                  Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown Phosphatidate + Choline details
                  Gene Name: PLD1
                  Uniprot ID: Q13393 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Choline dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
                  Reactions:
                  Choline + acceptor unknown Betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptor details
                  Choline + Acceptor unknown Betaine aldehyde + Reduced acceptor details
                  Gene Name: CHDH
                  Uniprot ID: Q8NE62 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Acetylcholinesterase
                  Reactions:
                  Acetylcholine + Water unknown Choline + Acetic acid details
                  Gene Name: ACHE
                  Uniprot ID: P22303 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Cholinesterase
                  Reactions:
                  An acylcholine + Water unknown Choline + a carboxylate details
                  Gene Name: BCHE
                  Uniprot ID: P06276 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase B
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PCYT1B
                  Uniprot ID: Q9Y5K3 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PCYT1A
                  Uniprot ID: P49585 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Choline/ethanolamine kinase
                  Reactions:
                  Adenosine triphosphate + Choline unknown ADP + Phosphorylcholine details
                  Gene Name: CHKB
                  Uniprot ID: Q9Y259 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Choline kinase alpha
                  Reactions:
                  Adenosine triphosphate + Choline unknown ADP + Phosphorylcholine details
                  Gene Name: CHKA
                  Uniprot ID: P35790 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Alcohol dehydrogenase class-3
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: ADH5
                  Uniprot ID: P11766 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: ADH1B
                  Uniprot ID: P00325 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Alcohol dehydrogenase class 4 mu/sigma chain
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: ADH7
                  Uniprot ID: P40394 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Alcohol dehydrogenase 1A
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: ADH1A
                  Uniprot ID: P07327 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Alcohol dehydrogenase 6
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: ADH6
                  Uniprot ID: P28332 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: ADH1C
                  Uniprot ID: P00326 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Phosphoethanolamine/phosphocholine phosphatase
                  Reactions:
                  Phosphorylcholine + Water unknown Choline + Phosphoric acid details
                  Gene Name: PHOSPHO1
                  Uniprot ID: Q8TCT1 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Choline/ethanolaminephosphotransferase 1
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: CEPT1
                  Uniprot ID: Q9Y6K0 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Phospholipase D3
                  Reactions:
                  A phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown Choline + a phosphatidate details
                  Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown Phosphatidate + Choline details
                  Gene Name: PLD3
                  Uniprot ID: Q8IV08 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Phospholipase D4
                  Reactions:
                  A phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown Choline + a phosphatidate details
                  Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown Phosphatidate + Choline details
                  Gene Name: PLD4
                  Uniprot ID: Q96BZ4 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase 1
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: GDE1
                  Uniprot ID: Q9NZC3 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Phospholipase D1 variant
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: Not Available
                  Uniprot ID: Q59EA4 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Phospholipase D6
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLD6
                  Uniprot ID: Q8N2A8 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Glycerophosphocholine phosphodiesterase GPCPD1
                  Reactions:
                  Glycerophosphocholine + Water unknown Choline + Glycerol 3-phosphate details
                  Gene Name: GPCPD1
                  Uniprot ID: Q9NPB8 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Transporters
                  Name: Choline transporter-like protein 1
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: SLC44A1
                  Uniprot ID: Q8WWI5 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: High affinity choline transporter 1
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: SLC5A7
                  Uniprot ID: Q9GZV3 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Solute carrier family 22 member 1
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: SLC22A1
                  Uniprot ID: O15245 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Choline transporter-like protein 4
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: SLC44A4
                  Uniprot ID: Q53GD3 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Choline transporter-like protein 2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: SLC44A2
                  Uniprot ID: Q8IWA5 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Choline transporter-like protein 3
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: SLC44A3
                  Uniprot ID: Q8N4M1 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA