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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-06-11 20:48:15 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00142
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameFormic acid
DescriptionFormic acid is the simplest carboxylic acid. Formate is an intermediate in normal metabolism. It takes part in the metabolism of one-carbon compounds and its carbon may appear in methyl groups undergoing transmethylation. It is eventually oxidized to carbon dioxide. Formate is typically produced as a byproduct in the production of acetate. It is responsible for both metabolic acidosis and disrupting mitochondrial electron transport and energy production by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase activity, the terminal electron acceptor of the electron transport chain. Cell death from cytochrome oxidase inhibition by formate is believed to result partly from depletion of ATP, reducing energy concentrations so that essential cell functions cannot be maintained. Furthermore, inhibition of cytochrome oxidase by formate may also cause cell death by increased production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) secondary to the blockade of the electron transport chain. In nature, formic acid is found in the stings and bites of many insects of the order Hymenoptera, including bees and ants. The principal use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. When sprayed on fresh hay or other silage, it arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain its nutritive value longer.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Add-F
  2. Ameisensaure
  3. Aminate
  4. Aminic acid
  5. Bilorin
  6. Collo-Bueglatt
  7. Collo-Didax
  8. Formate
  9. Formira
  10. Formisoton
  11. Formylate
  12. Formylic acid
  13. Hydrogen carboxylate
  14. Hydrogen carboxylic acid
  15. Methanoate
  16. Methanoic acid
  17. Methanoic acid monomer
  18. Myrmicyl
  19. Sodium Formate
  20. Sybest
  21. Wonderbond Hardener M 600L
Chemical FormulaCH2O2
Average Molecular Weight46.0254
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight46.005479308
IUPAC Nameformic acid
Traditional IUPAC Nameformic acid
CAS Registry Number64-18-6
SMILES
OC=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/CH2O2/c2-1-3/h1H,(H,2,3)
InChI KeyBDAGIHXWWSANSR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids and Derivatives
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassCarboxylic Acid Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Saturated fatty acids(KEGG)
  • Straight chain fatty acids(KEGG)
  • Straight chain fatty acids(Lipidmaps)
  • monocarboxylic acid(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentCarboxylic Acids
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Drug metabolite
  • Microbial
  • Toxin/Pollutant
Biofunction
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point8.4 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-0.54HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility477 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.47ALOGPS
logP-0.27ChemAxon
logS1.02ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.27ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity8.15ChemAxon
Polarizability3.37ChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Fibroblasts
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Most Tissues
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Stratum Corneum
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Folate MetabolismSMP00053map00670
Pterine BiosynthesisSMP00005map00790
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified224.5 +/- 119.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified121.7 +/- 97.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified106.5 +/- 91.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified32.8 +/- 13.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified32 +/- 16 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1-244 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1-96 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified44.2 +/- 22.8 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified17 +/- 8.11 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified>0.65 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified43.47-195.63 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified26.8 (6.9-120.9) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.82 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified20.39 +/- 11.84 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified27.593 +/- 25.421 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified55.42 (14.60 – 120.70) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Lorena Ivona ŞTEF...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified19.8 +/- 6.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedHeart Transplant details
BloodDetected and Quantified171.7 +/- 73.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Methanol poisoning
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1630 (543 - 2717) uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Formic acid intoxication
details
BloodDetected and Quantified600.0 (400.0-17100.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMethanol poisoning details
UrineDetected and Quantified79.1 +/- 27.8 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothMethyl formate exposure details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0006 - 0.0081 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothADPKD details
UrineDetected and Quantified20.0 +/- 11.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothLung cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified64.96 +/- 62.14 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Methanol poisoning
details
UrineDetected and Quantified92.45 (20.06 – 524.35) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothType 1 diabetes Mellitus
    • Lorena Ivona ŞTEF...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Lung Cancer
  1. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Eisner R, Young N, Gautam B, Hau DD, Psychogios N, Dong E, Bouatra S, Mandal R, Sinelnikov I, Xia J, Jia L, Cruz JA, Lim E, Sobsey CA, Shrivastava S, Huang P, Liu P, Fang L, Peng J, Fradette R, Cheng D, Tzur D, Clements M, Lewis A, De Souza A, Zuniga A, Dawe M, Xiong Y, Clive D, Greiner R, Nazyrova A, Shaykhutdinov R, Li L, Vogel HJ, Forsythe I: HMDB: a knowledgebase for the human metabolome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Oct 25. Pubmed: 18953024
Methanol poisoning
  1. Sejersted OM, Jacobsen D, Ovrebo S, Jansen H: Formate concentrations in plasma from patients poisoned with methanol. Acta Med Scand. 1983;213(2):105-10. Pubmed: 6837328
  2. Baumann K, Angerer J: Occupational chronic exposure to organic solvents. VI. Formic acid concentration in blood and urine as an indicator of methanol exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1979 Jan 15;42(3-4):241-9. Pubmed: 422265
Methyl formate exposure
  1. Berode M, Sethre T, Laubli T, Savolainen H: Urinary methanol and formic acid as indicators of occupational exposure to methyl formate. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2000 Aug;73(6):410-4. Pubmed: 11007345
Formic acid intoxication
  1. Moore DF, Bentley AM, Dawling S, Hoare AM, Henry JA: Folinic acid and enhanced renal elimination in formic acid intoxication. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1994;32(2):199-204. Pubmed: 8145360
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00489
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012804
KNApSAcK IDC00001182
Chemspider ID278
KEGG Compound IDC00058
BioCyc IDFORMATE
BiGG ID33693
Wikipedia LinkFormic acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00142
Metagene LinkHMDB00142
METLIN ID3202
PubChem Compound284
PDB IDFMT
ChEBI ID30751
References
Synthesis Reference Finholt, Albert E.; Jacobson, Eugene C. The reduction of carbon dioxide to formic acid with lithium aluminum hydride. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1952), 74 3943-4.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Nicholson JK, Foxall PJ, Spraul M, Farrant RD, Lindon JC: 750 MHz 1H and 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy of human blood plasma. Anal Chem. 1995 Mar 1;67(5):793-811. Pubmed: 7762816
  2. Dunne VG, Bhattachayya S, Besser M, Rae C, Griffin JL: Metabolites from cerebrospinal fluid in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage correlate with vasospasm and clinical outcome: a pattern-recognition 1H NMR study. NMR Biomed. 2005 Feb;18(1):24-33. Pubmed: 15455468
  3. Bales JR, Higham DP, Howe I, Nicholson JK, Sadler PJ: Use of high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for rapid multi-component analysis of urine. Clin Chem. 1984 Mar;30(3):426-32. Pubmed: 6321058
  4. Ohmori S, Sumii I, Toyonaga Y, Nakata K, Kawase M: High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of formate as benzimidazole in biological samples. J Chromatogr. 1988 Apr 8;426(1):15-24. Pubmed: 3384868
  5. Dal Pra I, Chiarini A, Boschi A, Freddi G, Armato U: Novel dermo-epidermal equivalents on silk fibroin-based formic acid-crosslinked three-dimensional nonwoven devices with prospective applications in human tissue engineering/regeneration/repair. Int J Mol Med. 2006 Aug;18(2):241-7. Pubmed: 16820930
  6. Igeta Y, Kawarabayashi T, Sato M, Yamada N, Matsubara E, Ishiguro K, Kanai M, Tomidokoro Y, Osuga J, Okamoto K, Hirai S, Shoji M: Apolipoprotein E accumulates with the progression of A beta deposition in transgenic mice. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1997 Nov;56(11):1228-35. Pubmed: 9370233
  7. Kerns W 2nd, Tomaszewski C, McMartin K, Ford M, Brent J: Formate kinetics in methanol poisoning. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2002;40(2):137-43. Pubmed: 12126185
  8. Nagasawa H, Wada M, Koyama S, Kawanami T, Kurita K, Kato T: [A case of methanol intoxication with optic neuropathy visualized on STIR sequence of MR images] Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2005 Jul;45(7):527-30. Pubmed: 16119839
  9. Foulon V, Sniekers M, Huysmans E, Asselberghs S, Mahieu V, Mannaerts GP, Van Veldhoven PP, Casteels M: Breakdown of 2-hydroxylated straight chain fatty acids via peroxisomal 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase: a revised pathway for the alpha-oxidation of straight chain fatty acids. J Biol Chem. 2005 Mar 18;280(11):9802-12. Epub 2005 Jan 11. Pubmed: 15644336
  10. Iwamoto N, Nishiyama E, Ohwada J, Arai H: Distribution of amyloid deposits in the cerebral white matter of the Alzheimer's disease brain: relationship to blood vessels. Acta Neuropathol (Berl). 1997 Apr;93(4):334-40. Pubmed: 9113198
  11. Ferrari LA, Arado MG, Nardo CA, Giannuzzi L: Post-mortem analysis of formic acid disposition in acute methanol intoxication. Forensic Sci Int. 2003 Apr 23;133(1-2):152-8. Pubmed: 12742704
  12. Tasaka Y, Nakaya F, Matsumoto H, Iwamoto Y, Omori Y: Pancreatic amylin content in human diabetic subjects and its relation to diabetes. Pancreas. 1995 Oct;11(3):303-8. Pubmed: 8577686
  13. D'Andrea MR, Reiser PA, Polkovitch DA, Gumula NA, Branchide B, Hertzog BM, Schmidheiser D, Belkowski S, Gastard MC, Andrade-Gordon P: The use of formic acid to embellish amyloid plaque detection in Alzheimer's disease tissues misguides key observations. Neurosci Lett. 2003 May 15;342(1-2):114-8. Pubmed: 12727331
  14. Berode M, Sethre T, Laubli T, Savolainen H: Urinary methanol and formic acid as indicators of occupational exposure to methyl formate. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2000 Aug;73(6):410-4. Pubmed: 11007345
  15. Lehmann P, Kligman AM: In vivo removal of the horny layer with formic acid. Br J Dermatol. 1983 Sep;109(3):313-20. Pubmed: 6615718
  16. Bloomer JC, Clarke SE, Chenery RJ: Determination of P4501A2 activity in human liver microsomes using [3-14C-methyl]caffeine. Xenobiotica. 1995 Sep;25(9):917-27. Pubmed: 8553685
  17. Grady S, Osterloh J: Improved enzymic assay for serum formate with colorimetric endpoint. J Anal Toxicol. 1986 Jan-Feb;10(1):1-5. Pubmed: 3754027
  18. Baumann K, Angerer J: Occupational chronic exposure to organic solvents. VI. Formic acid concentration in blood and urine as an indicator of methanol exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1979 Jan 15;42(3-4):241-9. Pubmed: 422265
  19. Ferry DG, Temple WA, McQueen EG: Methanol monitoring. Comparison of urinary methanol concentration with formic acid excretion rate as a measure of occupational exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1980;47(2):155-63. Pubmed: 7440001

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes C14-demethylation of lanosterol; it transforms lanosterol into 4,4'-dimethyl cholesta-8,14,24-triene-3-beta-ol.
Gene Name:
CYP51A1
Uniprot ID:
Q16850
Molecular weight:
57277.81
Reactions
Obtusifoliol + Oxygen + NADPH → Delta 8,14 -Sterol + Formic acid + NADP + Waterdetails
Lanosterin + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion → 4,4-Dimethylcholesta-8,14,24-trienol + Formic acid + NADP + Waterdetails
Obtusifoliol + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion → Delta 8,14 -Sterol + Formic acid + NADP + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in carboxylesterase activity
Specific function:
Serine hydrolase involved in the detoxification of formaldehyde.
Gene Name:
ESD
Uniprot ID:
P10768
Molecular weight:
31462.545
Reactions
S-Formylglutathione + Water → Glutathione + Formic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds
Specific function:
Catalyzes the deacetylation of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA) to produce acetate and L-aspartate. NAA occurs in high concentration in brain and its hydrolysis NAA plays a significant part in the maintenance of intact white matter. In other tissues it act as a scavenger of NAA from body fluids.
Gene Name:
ASPA
Uniprot ID:
P45381
Molecular weight:
35734.79
Reactions
N-Formyl-L-aspartate + Water → Formic acid + L-Aspartic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds
Specific function:
Plays an important role in deacetylating mercapturic acids in kidney proximal tubules (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACY3
Uniprot ID:
Q96HD9
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
N-Formyl-L-aspartate + Water → Formic acid + L-Aspartic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in formate-tetrahydrofolate ligase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MTHFD1
Uniprot ID:
P11586
Molecular weight:
101530.36
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Formic acid + Tetrahydrofolic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + 10-Formyltetrahydrofolatedetails
General function:
Involved in GTP cyclohydrolase I activity
Specific function:
Positively regulates nitric oxide synthesis in umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). May be involved in dopamine synthesis. May modify pain sensitivity and persistence. Isoform GCH-1 is the functional enzyme, the potential function of the enzymatically inactive isoforms remains unknown.
Gene Name:
GCH1
Uniprot ID:
P30793
Molecular weight:
27902.855
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Water → Formic acid + 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(erythro-1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-dihydropteridine triphosphatedetails
Formamidopyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate + Water → 2,5-Diaminopyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate + Formic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Removes the formyl group from the N-terminal Met of newly synthesized proteins (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PDF
Uniprot ID:
Q9HBH1
Molecular weight:
27013.25
Reactions
Formyl-L-methionyl peptide + Water → Formic acid + methionyl peptidedetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular weight:
56848.42
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits low testosterone 6-beta-hydroxylase activity.
Gene Name:
CYP3A43
Uniprot ID:
Q9HB55
Molecular weight:
57756.285
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Participates in the metabolism of an as-yet-unknown biologically active molecule that is a participant in eye development.
Gene Name:
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q16678
Molecular weight:
60845.33
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID:
P33260
Molecular weight:
55710.075
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
May be involved in the metabolism of various pneumotoxicants including naphthalene. Is able to dealkylate ethoxycoumarin, propoxycoumarin, and pentoxyresorufin but possesses no activity toward ethoxyresorufin and only trace dearylation activity toward benzyloxyresorufin. Bioactivates 3-methylindole (3MI) by dehydrogenation to the putative electrophile 3-methylene-indolenine.
Gene Name:
CYP2F1
Uniprot ID:
P24903
Molecular weight:
55500.64
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP4X1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N118
Molecular weight:
58874.62
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular weight:
56277.81
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular weight:
57108.065
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Active in the metabolic activation of hexamethylphosphoramide, N,N-dimethylaniline, 2'-methoxyacetophenone, N-nitrosomethylphenylamine, and the tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. Possesses phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A13
Uniprot ID:
Q16696
Molecular weight:
56687.095
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular weight:
57525.03
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP4B1
Uniprot ID:
P13584
Molecular weight:
58990.64
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP4Z1
Uniprot ID:
Q86W10
Molecular weight:
59085.45
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular weight:
57882.48
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Has a potential importance for extrahepatic xenobiotic metabolism.
Gene Name:
CYP2S1
Uniprot ID:
Q96SQ9
Molecular weight:
55816.205
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme metabolizes arachidonic acid predominantly via a NADPH-dependent olefin epoxidation to all four regioisomeric cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. One of the predominant enzymes responsible for the epoxidation of endogenous cardiac arachidonic acid pools.
Gene Name:
CYP2J2
Uniprot ID:
P51589
Molecular weight:
57610.165
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2A7
Uniprot ID:
P20853
Molecular weight:
56424.735
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular weight:
56517.005
General function:
Involved in formate-tetrahydrofolate ligase activity
Specific function:
May provide the missing metabolic reaction required to link the mitochondria and the cytoplasm in the mammalian model of one-carbon folate metabolism in embryonic an transformed cells complementing thus the enzymatic activities of MTHFD2 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MTHFD1L
Uniprot ID:
Q6UB35
Molecular weight:
105888.19
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Formic acid + Tetrahydrofolic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + 10-Formyltetrahydrofolatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MTHFD2
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z650
Molecular weight:
26849.1
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-formyl-L-kynurenine to L-kynurenine, the second step in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation. Kynurenine may be further oxidized to nicotinic acid, NAD(H) and NADP(H). Required for elimination of toxic metabolites (By similarity).
Gene Name:
AFMID
Uniprot ID:
Q63HM1
Molecular weight:
33991.5
Reactions
L-Formylkynurenine + Water → Formic acid + L-Kynureninedetails
Formylanthranilic acid + Water → Formic acid + 2-Aminobenzoic aciddetails
5-Hydroxy-N-formylkynurenine + Water → 5-Hydroxykynurenine + Formic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
A0N0X8
Molecular weight:
58164.8
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
Q6NWU0
Molecular weight:
55729.9
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of formate and 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate (KMTB) from 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene (DHK-MTPene). Also down-regulates cell migration mediated by MMP14. Necessary for hepatitis C virus replication in an otherwise non-permissive cell line.
Gene Name:
ADI1
Uniprot ID:
Q9BV57
Molecular weight:
21498.23
Reactions
1,2-Dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene + Oxygen → 2-Oxo-4-methylthiobutanoic acid + Formic aciddetails
1,2-Dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene + Oxygen → 3-Methylthiopropionic acid + Formic acid + Carbon monoxidedetails