You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:50 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 20:09:43 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0014707
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB14707
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCephalexin
DescriptionCephalexin is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of cephaloridine or cephalothin, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. [PubChem]Cephalexin, like the penicillins, is a beta-lactam antibiotic. By binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, it inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that cephalexin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(6R,7R)-7-{[(2R)-2-amino-2-phenylacetyl]amino}-3-methyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acidChEBI
7-(D-alpha-aminophenylacetamido)Desacetoxycephalosporanic acidChEBI
7-beta-(D-alpha-amino-alpha-phenylacetylamino)-3-Methyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acidChEBI
CefalexinChEBI
CefalexinaChEBI
CefalexineChEBI
CefalexinumChEBI
CelexinChEBI
CepastarChEBI
CepexinChEBI
CephacillinChEBI
CeporexinChEBI
CEXChEBI
(6R,7R)-7-{[(2R)-2-amino-2-phenylacetyl]amino}-3-methyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylateGenerator
7-(D-a-aminophenylacetamido)DesacetoxycephalosporanateGenerator
7-(D-a-aminophenylacetamido)Desacetoxycephalosporanic acidGenerator
7-(D-alpha-aminophenylacetamido)DesacetoxycephalosporanateGenerator
7-(D-α-aminophenylacetamido)desacetoxycephalosporanateGenerator
7-(D-α-aminophenylacetamido)desacetoxycephalosporanic acidGenerator
7-b-(D-a-amino-a-phenylacetylamino)-3-Methyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylateGenerator
7-b-(D-a-amino-a-phenylacetylamino)-3-Methyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acidGenerator
7-beta-(D-alpha-amino-alpha-phenylacetylamino)-3-Methyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylateGenerator
7-β-(D-α-amino-α-phenylacetylamino)-3-methyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylateGenerator
7-β-(D-α-amino-α-phenylacetylamino)-3-methyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acidGenerator
CefalessinaHMDB
Cephalexin 1-hydrateHMDB
Cephalexin hydrateHMDB
Cephalexin monohydrateHMDB
CephalexineHMDB
CephalexinumHMDB
Cephalexin dihydrideMeSH
Cephalexin hydrochlorideMeSH
Cephalexin, (6R-(6alpha,7beta))-isomerMeSH
Cephalexin, monosodium salt, (6R-(6alpha,7beta))-isomerMeSH
Cephalexin monohydrochlorideMeSH
Cephalexin monohydrochloride, monohydrateMeSH
Cephalexin, (6R-(6alpha,7beta(s*)))-isomerMeSH
Cephalexin, monosodium saltMeSH
PalitrexMeSH
Cephalexin hemihydrateMeSH
Hydrochloride, cephalexinMeSH
Monohydrochloride, cephalexinMeSH
Monosodium salt cephalexinMeSH
Cephalexin, (6R-(6alpha,7alpha(r*)))-isomerMeSH
CeporexineMeSH
Dihydride, cephalexinMeSH
Hemihydrate, cephalexinMeSH
Monohydrate cephalexin monohydrochlorideMeSH
Monohydrate, cephalexinMeSH
Monohydrochloride, monohydrate cephalexinMeSH
Chemical FormulaC16H17N3O4S
Average Molecular Weight347.389
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight347.093976737
IUPAC Name(6R,7R)-7-[(2R)-2-amino-2-phenylacetamido]-3-methyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional Namecephalexin
CAS Registry Number15686-71-2
SMILES
[H][C@]12SCC(C)=C(N1C(=O)[C@H]2NC(=O)[C@H](N)C1=CC=CC=C1)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C16H17N3O4S/c1-8-7-24-15-11(14(21)19(15)12(8)16(22)23)18-13(20)10(17)9-5-3-2-4-6-9/h2-6,10-11,15H,7,17H2,1H3,(H,18,20)(H,22,23)/t10-,11-,15-/m1/s1
InChI KeyZAIPMKNFIOOWCQ-UEKVPHQBSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cephalosporins. These are compounds containing a 1,2-thiazine fused to a 2-azetidinone to for a oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid moiety or a derivative thereof.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassLactams
Sub ClassBeta lactams
Direct ParentCephalosporins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cephalosporin
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid amide
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Phenylacetamide
  • Aralkylamine
  • Meta-thiazine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azetidine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Azacycle
  • Thioether
  • Hemithioaminal
  • Dialkylthioether
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Primary amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point326.8 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.3 g/LNot Available
LogP0Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.3 g/LALOGPS
logP0.55ALOGPS
logP-2.1ChemAxon
logS-3.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.44ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area112.73 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity88.97 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability32.52 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-268bac07b4777b149217View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-1900000000-05009b17787cf8ff6e6dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0ab9-0900000000-e1976a2fc84f1a3ef783View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-1912000000-5d8b84d77328a68693b2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-2910000000-9f1b122dccd5dbbc51f5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9800000000-79dee94f80734fda674fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0934000000-513ac73d3fbd8c59475eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a5i-2932000000-79d8b675da05679abbc8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-054o-9710000000-f0722ea9e4937ee90457View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00567 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00567 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00567
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID25541
KEGG Compound IDC06895
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCefalexin
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound27447
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID3534
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular weight:
62751.1
References
  1. Ganapathy ME, Huang W, Rajan DP, Carter AL, Sugawara M, Iseki K, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: beta-lactam antibiotics as substrates for OCTN2, an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jan 21;275(3):1699-707. [PubMed:10636865 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products
Gene Name:
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID:
P46059
Molecular weight:
78805.3
References
  1. Liang R, Fei YJ, Prasad PD, Ramamoorthy S, Han H, Yang-Feng TL, Hediger MA, Ganapathy V, Leibach FH: Human intestinal H+/peptide cotransporter. Cloning, functional expression, and chromosomal localization. J Biol Chem. 1995 Mar 24;270(12):6456-63. [PubMed:7896779 ]
  2. Wenzel U, Gebert I, Weintraut H, Weber WM, Clauss W, Daniel H: Transport characteristics of differently charged cephalosporin antibiotics in oocytes expressing the cloned intestinal peptide transporter PepT1 and in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 May;277(2):831-9. [PubMed:8627565 ]
  3. Covitz KM, Amidon GL, Sadee W: Human dipeptide transporter, hPEPT1, stably transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells. Pharm Res. 1996 Nov;13(11):1631-4. [PubMed:8956326 ]
  4. Han HK, Rhie JK, Oh DM, Saito G, Hsu CP, Stewart BH, Amidon GL: CHO/hPEPT1 cells overexpressing the human peptide transporter (hPEPT1) as an alternative in vitro model for peptidomimetic drugs. J Pharm Sci. 1999 Mar;88(3):347-50. [PubMed:10052994 ]
  5. Guo A, Hu P, Balimane PV, Leibach FH, Sinko PJ: Interactions of a nonpeptidic drug, valacyclovir, with the human intestinal peptide transporter (hPEPT1) expressed in a mammalian cell line. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Apr;289(1):448-54. [PubMed:10087037 ]
  6. Luckner P, Brandsch M: Interaction of 31 beta-lactam antibiotics with the H+/peptide symporter PEPT2: analysis of affinity constants and comparison with PEPT1. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005 Jan;59(1):17-24. [PubMed:15567297 ]
  7. Terada T, Saito H, Mukai M, Inui K: Recognition of beta-lactam antibiotics by rat peptide transporters, PEPT1 and PEPT2, in LLC-PK1 cells. Am J Physiol. 1997 Nov;273(5 Pt 2):F706-11. [PubMed:9374833 ]
  8. Ganapathy ME, Brandsch M, Prasad PD, Ganapathy V, Leibach FH: Differential recognition of beta -lactam antibiotics by intestinal and renal peptide transporters, PEPT 1 and PEPT 2. J Biol Chem. 1995 Oct 27;270(43):25672-7. [PubMed:7592745 ]
  9. Tamai I, Nakanishi T, Hayashi K, Terao T, Sai Y, Shiraga T, Miyamoto K, Takeda E, Higashida H, Tsuji A: The predominant contribution of oligopeptide transporter PepT1 to intestinal absorption of beta-lactam antibiotics in the rat small intestine. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1997 Aug;49(8):796-801. [PubMed:9379359 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides
Gene Name:
SLC15A2
Uniprot ID:
Q16348
Molecular weight:
81782.8
References
  1. Liu W, Liang R, Ramamoorthy S, Fei YJ, Ganapathy ME, Hediger MA, Ganapathy V, Leibach FH: Molecular cloning of PEPT 2, a new member of the H+/peptide cotransporter family, from human kidney. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 May 4;1235(2):461-6. [PubMed:7756356 ]
  2. Ganapathy ME, Brandsch M, Prasad PD, Ganapathy V, Leibach FH: Differential recognition of beta -lactam antibiotics by intestinal and renal peptide transporters, PEPT 1 and PEPT 2. J Biol Chem. 1995 Oct 27;270(43):25672-7. [PubMed:7592745 ]
  3. Terada T, Saito H, Mukai M, Inui K: Recognition of beta-lactam antibiotics by rat peptide transporters, PEPT1 and PEPT2, in LLC-PK1 cells. Am J Physiol. 1997 Nov;273(5 Pt 2):F706-11. [PubMed:9374833 ]
  4. Luckner P, Brandsch M: Interaction of 31 beta-lactam antibiotics with the H+/peptide symporter PEPT2: analysis of affinity constants and comparison with PEPT1. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005 Jan;59(1):17-24. [PubMed:15567297 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of p- aminohippurate (PAH), ochratoxin (OTA), acyclovir (ACV), 3'-azido- 3-'deoxythymidine (AZT), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro- phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), hippurate (HA), indoleacetate (IA), indoxyl sulfate (IS) and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2- furanpropionate (CMPF), cidofovir, adefovir, 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) guanine (PMEG), 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) diaminopurine (PMEDAP) and edaravone sulfate. PAH uptake is inhibited by p- chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (PCMBS), diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), sulindac, diclofenac, carprofen, glutarate and okadaic acid. PAH uptake is inhibited by benzothiazolylcysteine (BTC), S-chlorotrifluoroethylcysteine (CTFC), cysteine S-conjugates S-dichlorovinylcysteine (DCVC), furosemide, steviol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore A23187, benzylpenicillin, furosemide, indomethacin, bumetamide, losartan, probenecid, phenol red, urate, and alpha-ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular weight:
61815.8
References
  1. Jung KY, Takeda M, Shimoda M, Narikawa S, Tojo A, Kim DK, Chairoungdua A, Choi BK, Kusuhara H, Sugiyama Y, Sekine T, Endou H: Involvement of rat organic anion transporter 3 (rOAT3) in cephaloridine-induced nephrotoxicity: in comparison with rOAT1. Life Sci. 2002 Mar 8;70(16):1861-74. [PubMed:12005172 ]
  2. Jariyawat S, Sekine T, Takeda M, Apiwattanakul N, Kanai Y, Sophasan S, Endou H: The interaction and transport of beta-lactam antibiotics with the cloned rat renal organic anion transporter 1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Aug;290(2):672-7. [PubMed:10411577 ]
  3. Uwai Y, Saito H, Inui K: Rat renal organic anion transporter rOAT1 mediates transport of urinary-excreted cephalosporins, but not of biliary-excreted cefoperazone. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2002;17(2):125-9. [PubMed:15618660 ]