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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-10-20 22:44:49 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00161
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Alanine
DescriptionAlanine is a nonessential amino acid made in the body from the conversion of the carbohydrate pyruvate or the breakdown of DNA and the dipeptides carnosine and anserine. It is highly concentrated in muscle and is one of the most important amino acids released by muscle, functioning as a major energy source. Plasma alanine is often decreased when the BCAA (Branched Chain Amino Acids) are deficient. This finding may relate to muscle metabolism. Alanine is highly concentrated in meat products and other high-protein foods like wheat germ and cottage cheese. Alanine is an important participant as well as regulator in glucose metabolism. Alanine levels parallel blood sugar levels in both diabetes and hypoglycemia, and alanine reduces both severe hypoglycemia and the ketosis of diabetes. It is an important amino acid for lymphocyte reproduction and immunity. Alanine therapy has helped dissolve kidney stones in experimental animals. Normal alanine metabolism, like that of other amino acids, is highly dependent upon enzymes that contain vitamin B6. Alanine, like GABA, taurine and glycine, is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. http://www.dcnutrition.com/AminoAcids/).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2S)-2-Aminopropanoic acidChEBI
(S)-2-Aminopropanoic acidChEBI
(S)-AlanineChEBI
AChEBI
AlaChEBI
ALANINEChEBI
L-2-Aminopropionic acidChEBI
L-AlaninChEBI
L-alpha-AlanineChEBI
(2S)-2-AminopropanoateGenerator
(S)-2-AminopropanoateGenerator
L-2-AminopropionateGenerator
L-a-AlanineGenerator
L-α-alanineGenerator
(S)-(+)-AlanineHMDB
(S)-2-amino-PropanoateHMDB
(S)-2-amino-Propanoic acidHMDB
2-AminopropanoateHMDB
2-Aminopropanoic acidHMDB
2-AminopropionateHMDB
2-Aminopropionic acidHMDB
2-AmmoniopropanoateHMDB
2-Ammoniopropanoic acidHMDB
a-AlanineHMDB
a-AminopropionateHMDB
a-Aminopropionic acidHMDB
alpha-AlanineHMDB
alpha-AminopropanoateHMDB
alpha-Aminopropanoic acidHMDB
alpha-AminopropionateHMDB
alpha-Aminopropionic acidHMDB
L-(+)-AlanineHMDB
L-2-AminopropanoateHMDB
L-2-Aminopropanoic acidHMDB
L-a-AminopropionateHMDB
L-a-Aminopropionic acidHMDB
L-alpha-AminopropionateHMDB
L-alpha-Aminopropionic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC3H7NO2
Average Molecular Weight89.0932
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight89.047678473
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-aminopropanoic acid
Traditional NameL-alanine
CAS Registry Number56-41-7
SMILES
C[C@H](N)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H7NO2/c1-2(4)3(5)6/h2H,4H2,1H3,(H,5,6)/t2-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=QNAYBMKLOCPYGJ-REOHCLBHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentL-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Alanine and aspartate metabolism
  • Component of Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Component of Glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Component of Tryptophan metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point300 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility204 mg/mLHuman Metabolome Project
LogP-2.85SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility447.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3ALOGPS
logP-2.8ChemAxon
logS0.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity20.5 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability8.49 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-014i-0900000000-c7f6dbace291e8305a4eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-014i-0900000000-381ddf4d9ea77be0b8a5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-01b9-6900000000-6a7c1bb2915e5dd0791fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-014i-1900000000-84b389f82562c29a8148View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-96b54b269c91ab21be08View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-a8008305399aa1097e1aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-7253c912562200edc231View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6M) , Positivesplash10-00kf-9000000000-72694f3a1a5de3b49790View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-55d0139f513946f76461View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-5b0dff13a98daf782205View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-37db595fcf7364600bc9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-5129e160acf979ac549eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-11c20eba8c5ad41d806cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-df7c7d6a6ae2d6bccefeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-32477244247613182214View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-000f-9002000000-4873ce0cdcac54d68186View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-8193842b36c819ca3ec6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
2-Hydroxyglutric Aciduria (D And L Form)SMP00136Not Available
3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00721Not Available
4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00243Not Available
Alanine MetabolismSMP00055map00250
Amikacin PathwaySMP00253Not Available
Arbekacin Action PathwaySMP00713Not Available
ArgininemiaSMP00357Not Available
Argininosuccinic AciduriaSMP00003Not Available
Azithromycin PathwaySMP00247Not Available
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase DeficiencySMP00002Not Available
Chloramphenicol Action PathwaySMP00729Not Available
Citrullinemia Type ISMP00001Not Available
Clarithromycin PathwaySMP00248Not Available
Clindamycin PathwaySMP00249Not Available
Clomocycline PathwaySMP00262Not Available
Demeclocycline PathwaySMP00290Not Available
Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (DHPD)SMP00179Not Available
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00242Not Available
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00484Not Available
Doxycycline PathwaySMP00291Not Available
Erythromycin PathwaySMP00250Not Available
Gentamicin PathwaySMP00254Not Available
Glucose-Alanine CycleSMP00127Not Available
Glutamate MetabolismSMP00072map00250
Glutaminolysis and CancerSMP02298Not Available
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004map00260
HomocarnosinosisSMP00385Not Available
Hyperglycinemia, non-ketoticSMP00485Not Available
Hyperinsulinism-Hyperammonemia SyndromeSMP00339Not Available
Josamycin Action PathwaySMP00731Not Available
Kanamycin PathwaySMP00255Not Available
Lactic AcidemiaSMP00313Not Available
Lincomycin Action PathwaySMP00728Not Available
Lymecycline PathwaySMP00295Not Available
Methacycline Action PathwaySMP00727Not Available
Minocycline PathwaySMP00292Not Available
Neomycin PathwaySMP00256Not Available
Netilmicin PathwaySMP00257Not Available
Non Ketotic HyperglycinemiaSMP00223Not Available
Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency (OTC Deficiency)SMP00205Not Available
Oxytetracycline PathwaySMP00293Not Available
Paromomycin Action PathwaySMP00714Not Available
Primary Hyperoxaluria Type ISMP00352Not Available
Pyruvate Carboxylase DeficiencySMP00350Not Available
Rolitetracycline Action PathwaySMP00726Not Available
Roxithromycin PathwaySMP00251Not Available
SarcosinemiaSMP00244Not Available
Selenoamino Acid MetabolismSMP00029map00450
Spectinomycin PathwaySMP00258Not Available
Streptomycin PathwaySMP00259Not Available
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00567Not Available
Telithromycin PathwaySMP00252Not Available
Tetracycline PathwaySMP00294Not Available
Tigecycline Action PathwaySMP00712Not Available
Tobramycin Action PathwaySMP00711Not Available
Transcription/TranslationSMP00019Not Available
Troleandomycin Action PathwaySMP00730Not Available
Tryptophan MetabolismSMP00063map00380
Urea CycleSMP00059map00330
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified97-455 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified134-416 uMInfant (1 - 3 months old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified148-475 uMChildren (3 months - 6 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified193-545 uMChildren (6 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified333.0 (259.0-407.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified320 +/- 87 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified375.0 +/- 50.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified369.0 +/- 88.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified427.2 +/- 84.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified585.0 +/- 22.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified231 +/- 67.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified46 +/- 27 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified37.8 +/- 6.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified30.8 +/- 8.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified26.3 +/- 7.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified27.0 (10.0-44.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified4.23 +/- 0.64 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified11-53.5 uMChildren (0 - 10 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified10.5-49.5 uMAdolescent (>11 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified23.2 +/- 5.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedBoth
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified137.272 +/- 93.0486 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected and Quantified4451.518 +/- 2351.470 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified17.0 +/- 9.27 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified18.8 +/- 20.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified17.4 +/- 4.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified14.0 +/- 3.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1-263 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1-65 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified20.7 +/- 6.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified>10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified145.27 +/- 108.41 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified19.2 +/- 5.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified57.54 +/- 42.59 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified30.5 +/- 39.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified26 (7-137) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified23 (4-116) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified27 (<1-96) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified25 (<1-81) uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified39.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified9-19 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified16.84-56.15 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified18.72 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.0 (1.0-3.5) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.3 +/- 5.6 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified22.0 +/- 11.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified22.0 +/- 10.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified21.8 (7.1-43.1) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified65.012 +/- 27.635 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified33.5 +/- 14.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified34.3 +/- 11.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified19.46 +/- 5.32 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified10-20 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified21.7 (7.2-47.4) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified85.59 - 284.69 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified81.97 - 239.91 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (1 - 6 months old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified39.57 - 187.91 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (6 months - <1 year old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified45.45 - 150.26 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 2 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified35.95 - 132.73 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (2 - 4 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified16.96 - 105.48 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (4 - 13 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified16.05 - 77.33 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13 - 21 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified16.05 - 77.33 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>21 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified73.1768 +/- 22.3291 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified40.8 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified113.35 +/- 69.81 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified13.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified340 +/- 126.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart Transplant details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
BloodDetected and Quantified274.0 (250.0-298.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDengue fever details
BloodDetected and Quantified296.0 (277.0-316.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Epilepsy
details
BloodDetected and Quantified392 +/- 111 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleSchizophrenia details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Bothcolorectal cancer details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1000.00 (800.00-1200.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothLeigh's syndrome details
BloodDetected and Quantified291.00 (143.00-439.00) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLeigh's syndrome, subacute necrotizing encephalopathy, SNE details
BloodDetected and Quantified589.0 +/- 15.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Heart failure
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified46.1 +/- 13.5 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Leukemia
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified34.8 +/- 7.8 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedLeukemia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.16 (0.13-0.18) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Meningitis
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified19.2 (16.1-22.3) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothTuberculosis details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified4.04 +/- 0.57 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Cryptosporidium infection
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothIrritable Bowel Syndrome details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Crohn’s Disease
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative Colitis
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified40.50 +/- 13.83 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothOral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothOral leukoplakia (OLK) details
SalivaDetected and Quantified36.63 +/- 16.68 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified33.94 +/- 19.76 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified23.0 +/- 8.42 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothTemporomandibular joint disorder (TMD)
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothOral cancer details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)FemaleBreast cancer details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPancreatic cancer details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPeriodontal diseases details
UrineDetected and Quantified23 (10-55) umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedBothLung cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified51 +/- 42.068 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified58.4882 +/- 31.7251 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified63.2791 +/- 72.6382 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified76.3 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothParaquat poisoning details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Dengue fever
  1. Klassen P, Furst P, Schulz C, Mazariegos M, Solomons NW: Plasma free amino acid concentrations in healthy Guatemalan adults and in patients with classic dengue. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Mar;73(3):647-52. [11237944 ]
Epilepsy
  1. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [14992292 ]
Schizophrenia
  1. Do KQ, Lauer CJ, Schreiber W, Zollinger M, Gutteck-Amsler U, Cuenod M, Holsboer F: gamma-Glutamylglutamine and taurine concentrations are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of drug-naive patients with schizophrenic disorders. J Neurochem. 1995 Dec;65(6):2652-62. [7595563 ]
  2. Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Hagenfeldt L, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Plasma amino acids in relation to cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites in schizophrenic patients and healthy controls. Br J Psychiatry. 1985 Sep;147:276-82. [2415198 ]
  3. Cai HL, Li HD, Yan XZ, Sun B, Zhang Q, Yan M, Zhang WY, Jiang P, Zhu RH, Liu YP, Fang PF, Xu P, Yuan HY, Zhang XH, Hu L, Yang W, Ye HS: Metabolomic analysis of biochemical changes in the plasma and urine of first-episode neuroleptic-naive schizophrenia patients after treatment with risperidone. J Proteome Res. 2012 Aug 3;11(8):4338-50. doi: 10.1021/pr300459d. Epub 2012 Jul 26. [22800120 ]
Heart failure
  1. Norrelund H, Wiggers H, Halbirk M, Frystyk J, Flyvbjerg A, Botker HE, Schmitz O, Jorgensen JO, Christiansen JS, Moller N: Abnormalities of whole body protein turnover, muscle metabolism and levels of metabolic hormones in patients with chronic heart failure. J Intern Med. 2006 Jul;260(1):11-21. [16789974 ]
Leukemia
  1. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [15911239 ]
Lung Cancer
  1. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Eisner R, Young N, Gautam B, Hau DD, Psychogios N, Dong E, Bouatra S, Mandal R, Sinelnikov I, Xia J, Jia L, Cruz JA, Lim E, Sobsey CA, Shrivastava S, Huang P, Liu P, Fang L, Peng J, Fradette R, Cheng D, Tzur D, Clements M, Lewis A, De Souza A, Zuniga A, Dawe M, Xiong Y, Clive D, Greiner R, Nazyrova A, Shaykhutdinov R, Li L, Vogel HJ, Forsythe I: HMDB: a knowledgebase for the human metabolome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Oct 25. [18953024 ]
Meningitis
  1. Wevers RA, Engelke U, Wendel U, de Jong JG, Gabreels FJ, Heerschap A: Standardized method for high-resolution 1H-NMR of cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem. 1995 May;41(5):744-51. [7729054 ]
Tuberculosis
  1. Wevers RA, Engelke U, Wendel U, de Jong JG, Gabreels FJ, Heerschap A: Standardized method for high-resolution 1H-NMR of cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem. 1995 May;41(5):744-51. [7729054 ]
Paraquat poisoning
  1. Bairaktari E, Katopodis K, Siamopoulos KC, Tsolas O: Paraquat-induced renal injury studied by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of urine. Clin Chem. 1998 Jun;44(6 Pt 1):1256-61. [9625050 ]
Leigh's syndrome, subacute necrotizing encephalopathy, SNE
  1. MetaGene [Link]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB00160
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB000556
KNApSAcK IDC00001332
Chemspider ID5735
KEGG Compound IDC00041
BioCyc IDL-ALPHA-ALANINE
BiGG ID33629
Wikipedia Link2-Aminopropanoic acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00161
Metagene LinkHMDB00161
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5950
PDB IDALA
ChEBI ID16977
References
Synthesis ReferenceChibata I; Kakimoto T; Kato J Enzymatic production of L-alanine by Pseudomonas dacunhae. Applied microbiology (1965), 13(5), 638-45.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
  2. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [12097436 ]
  3. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. [6696735 ]
  4. Bairaktari E, Katopodis K, Siamopoulos KC, Tsolas O: Paraquat-induced renal injury studied by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of urine. Clin Chem. 1998 Jun;44(6 Pt 1):1256-61. [9625050 ]
  5. Wevers RA, Engelke U, Wendel U, de Jong JG, Gabreels FJ, Heerschap A: Standardized method for high-resolution 1H-NMR of cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem. 1995 May;41(5):744-51. [7729054 ]
  6. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. [6198473 ]
  7. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [15911239 ]
  8. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. [12297216 ]
  9. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [14992292 ]
  10. Klassen P, Furst P, Schulz C, Mazariegos M, Solomons NW: Plasma free amino acid concentrations in healthy Guatemalan adults and in patients with classic dengue. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Mar;73(3):647-52. [11237944 ]
  11. Iioka H, Hisanaga H, Moriyama IS, Akada S, Shimamoto T, Yamada Y, Ichijo M: Characterization of human placental activity for transport of L-alanine, using brush border (microvillous) membrane vesicles. Placenta. 1992 Mar-Apr;13(2):179-90. [1631030 ]
  12. Saklatvala J: Hydrolysis of the elastase substrate succinyltrialanine nitroanilide by a metal-dependent enzyme in rheumatoid synovial fluid. J Clin Invest. 1977 May;59(5):794-801. [16038 ]
  13. Stahl A, Frick A, Imler M, Schlienger JL: Semiautomated enzymic microassay for plasma L-alanine. Enzyme. 1979;24(5):294-301. [41707 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-alanine.
Gene Name:
ABAT
Uniprot ID:
P80404
Molecular weight:
56438.405
References
  1. Amadasi A, Bertoldi M, Contestabile R, Bettati S, Cellini B, di Salvo ML, Borri-Voltattorni C, Bossa F, Mozzarelli A: Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzymes as targets for therapeutic agents. Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(12):1291-324. [17504214 ]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine (L-Kyn) and L-3-hydroxykynurenine (L-3OHKyn) into anthranilic acid (AA) and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OHAA), respectively. Has a preference for the L-3-hydroxy form. Also has cysteine-conjugate-beta-lyase activity.
Gene Name:
KYNU
Uniprot ID:
Q16719
Molecular weight:
34634.47
Reactions
L-Kynurenine + Water → 2-Aminobenzoic acid + L-Alaninedetails
L-3-Hydroxykynurenine + Water → 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid + L-Alaninedetails
L-Formylkynurenine + Water → Formylanthranilic acid + L-Alaninedetails
References
  1. Christensen M, Duno M, Lund AM, Skovby F, Christensen E: Xanthurenic aciduria due to a mutation in KYNU encoding kynureninase. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2007 Apr;30(2):248-55. Epub 2007 Mar 1. [17334708 ]
  2. Lima S, Khristoforov R, Momany C, Phillips RS: Crystal structure of Homo sapiens kynureninase. Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 13;46(10):2735-44. Epub 2007 Feb 15. [17300176 ]
General function:
Involved in transaminase activity
Specific function:
Can metabolize asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) via transamination to alpha-keto-delta-(NN-dimethylguanidino) valeric acid (DMGV). ADMA is a potent inhibitor of nitric-oxide (NO) synthase, and this activity provides mechanism through which the kidney regulates blood pressure.
Gene Name:
AGXT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYV1
Molecular weight:
57155.905
Reactions
L-Alanine + Glyoxylic acid → Pyruvic acid + Glycinedetails
(R)-b-aminoisobutyric acid + Pyruvic acid → 2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoic acid + L-Alaninedetails
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Okuno E, Ishikawa T, Kawai J, Kido R: Alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities in liver of Suncus murinus (insectivora). Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1988;90(4):773-8. [2907870 ]
  4. Takada Y, Mori T, Noguchi T: The effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase isoenzymes in rat liver. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1984 Feb 15;229(1):1-6. [6703688 ]
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the attachment of alanine to tRNA(Ala) in a two-step reaction: alanine is first activated by ATP to form Ala-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Ala). Also edits incorrectly charged tRNA(Ala) via its editing domain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
AARS
Uniprot ID:
P49588
Molecular weight:
106809.525
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Alanine + tRNA(Ala) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-alanyl-tRNA(Ala)details
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Alanine + tRNA(Ala) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Alanyl-tRNAdetails
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Nagan MC, Beuning P, Musier-Forsyth K, Cramer CJ: Importance of discriminator base stacking interactions: molecular dynamics analysis of A73 microhelix(Ala) variants. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jul 1;28(13):2527-34. [10871402 ]
  4. McClain WH, Gabriel K, Schneider J: Specific function of a G.U wobble pair from an adjacent helical site in tRNA(Ala) during recognition by alanyl-tRNA synthetase. RNA. 1996 Feb;2(2):105-9. [8601277 ]
  5. Buechter DD, Schimmel P: Minor groove recognition of the critical acceptor helix base pair by an appended module of a class II tRNA synthetase. Biochemistry. 1995 May 9;34(18):6014-9. [7742303 ]
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AGXT
Uniprot ID:
P21549
Molecular weight:
43009.535
Reactions
L-Serine + Pyruvic acid → Hydroxypyruvic acid + L-Alaninedetails
L-Alanine + Glyoxylic acid → Pyruvic acid + Glycinedetails
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Salido EC, Li XM, Lu Y, Wang X, Santana A, Roy-Chowdhury N, Torres A, Shapiro LJ, Roy-Chowdhury J: Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase-deficient mice, a model for primary hyperoxaluria that responds to adenoviral gene transfer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 28;103(48):18249-54. Epub 2006 Nov 16. [17110443 ]
  4. Amoroso A, Pirulli D, Florian F, Puzzer D, Boniotto M, Crovella S, Zezlina S, Spano A, Mazzola G, Savoldi S, Ferrettini C, Berutti S, Petrarulo M, Marangella M: AGXT gene mutations and their influence on clinical heterogeneity of type 1 primary hyperoxaluria. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001 Oct;12(10):2072-9. [11562405 ]
  5. Pirulli D, Puzzer D, Ferri L, Crovella S, Amoroso A, Ferrettini C, Marangella M, Mazzola G, Florian F: Molecular analysis of hyperoxaluria type 1 in Italian patients reveals eight new mutations in the alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase gene. Hum Genet. 1999 Jun;104(6):523-5. [10453743 ]
General function:
Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate. Participates in cellular nitrogen metabolism and also in liver gluconeogenesis starting with precursors transported from skeletal muscles (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GPT
Uniprot ID:
P24298
Molecular weight:
54636.415
Reactions
L-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid → Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
References
  1. Miyashita Y, Dolferus R, Ismond KP, Good AG: Alanine aminotransferase catalyses the breakdown of alanine after hypoxia in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2007 Mar;49(6):1108-21. Epub 2007 Feb 22. [17319845 ]
  2. Gray S, Wang B, Orihuela Y, Hong EG, Fisch S, Haldar S, Cline GW, Kim JK, Peroni OD, Kahn BB, Jain MK: Regulation of gluconeogenesis by Kruppel-like factor 15. Cell Metab. 2007 Apr;5(4):305-12. [17403374 ]
  3. Taracha E, Habrat B, Chrapusta SJ, Lehner M, Wislowska A, Woronowicz BT, Bogulas M, Charewicz J, Markuszewski C, Plaznik A: Combining markers of nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity for improved monitoring and detection of chronic alcohol abuse. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44(12):1446-52. [17163821 ]
  4. Chen CH, Lee RP, Wu WT, Liao KW, Hsu N, Hsu BG: Fluvastatin ameliorates endotoxin induced multiple organ failure in conscious rats. Resuscitation. 2007 Jul;74(1):166-74. Epub 2007 Mar 13. [17353078 ]
General function:
Involved in N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase activity
Specific function:
Pattern receptor that binds to murein peptidoglycans (PGN) of Gram-positive bacteria. Has bactericidal activity towards Gram-positive bacteria. May kill Gram-positive bacteria by interfering with peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Binds also to Gram-negative bacteria, and has bacteriostatic activity towards Gram-negative bacteria. Plays a role in innate immunity.
Gene Name:
PGLYRP1
Uniprot ID:
O75594
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
N-Acetylmuramoyl-Ala + Water → N-Acetylmuramate + L-Alaninedetails
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the removal of elemental sulfur from cysteine to produce alanine. It supplies the inorganic sulfur for iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters. May be involved in the biosynthesis of molybdenum cofactor.
Gene Name:
NFS1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y697
Molecular weight:
44361.485
Reactions
L-Cysteine + acceptor → L-Alanine + S-sulfanyl-acceptordetails
[Enzyme]-cysteine + L-Cysteine → [Enzyme]-S-sulfanylcysteine + L-Alaninedetails
References
  1. You D, Wang L, Yao F, Zhou X, Deng Z: A novel DNA modification by sulfur: DndA is a NifS-like cysteine desulfurase capable of assembling DndC as an iron-sulfur cluster protein in Streptomyces lividans. Biochemistry. 2007 May 22;46(20):6126-33. Epub 2007 May 1. [17469805 ]
  2. Zeng J, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Zhang X, Xia L, Liu J, Qiu G: Expression, purification and characterization of a cysteine desulfurase, IscS, from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Biotechnol Lett. 2007 Dec;29(12):1983-90. Epub 2007 Jul 28. [17660944 ]
General function:
Involved in sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific function:
Transporter for alanine, serine, cysteine, and threonine. Exhibits sodium dependence
Gene Name:
SLC1A4
Uniprot ID:
P43007
Molecular weight:
55722.5
References
  1. Zhang Z, Papageorgiou G, Corrie JE, Grewer C: Pre-steady-state currents in neutral amino acid transporters induced by photolysis of a new caged alanine derivative. Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 27;46(12):3872-80. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [17311416 ]
  2. Takasaki C, Miura E, Watanabe M: Segmental and complementary expression of L-serine biosynthetic enzyme 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and neutral amino acid transporter ASCT1 in the mouse kidney. Biomed Res. 2007 Apr;28(2):61-9. [17510490 ]
  3. Zhang Z, Grewer C: The sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 mediates an anion leak conductance that is differentially inhibited by transported substrates. Biophys J. 2007 Apr 1;92(7):2621-32. Epub 2007 Jan 19. [17237199 ]
  4. Pinho MJ, Pinto V, Serrao MP, Jose PA, Soares-da-Silva P: Underexpression of the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporter ASCT2 in the spontaneously hypertensive rat kidney. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007 Jul;293(1):R538-47. Epub 2007 May 2. [17475673 ]
  5. Wu Y, Shen D, Chen Z, Clayton S, Vadgama JV: Taxol induced apoptosis regulates amino acid transport in breast cancer cells. Apoptosis. 2007 Mar;12(3):593-612. Epub 2006 Dec 29. [17195090 ]
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate.
Gene Name:
GPT2
Uniprot ID:
Q8TD30
Molecular weight:
46982.6
Reactions
L-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid → Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Yang RZ, Blaileanu G, Hansen BC, Shuldiner AR, Gong DW: cDNA cloning, genomic structure, chromosomal mapping, and functional expression of a novel human alanine aminotransferase. Genomics. 2002 Mar;79(3):445-50. [11863375 ]
  4. Jadhao SB, Yang RZ, Lin Q, Hu H, Anania FA, Shuldiner AR, Gong DW: Murine alanine aminotransferase: cDNA cloning, functional expression, and differential gene regulation in mouse fatty liver. Hepatology. 2004 May;39(5):1297-302. [15122758 ]
  5. Rajamohan F, Nelms L, Joslin DL, Lu B, Reagan WJ, Lawton M: cDNA cloning, expression, purification, distribution, and characterization of biologically active canine alanine aminotransferase-1. Protein Expr Purif. 2006 Jul;48(1):81-9. Epub 2006 Jan 30. [16495081 ]
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the decomposition of L-selenocysteine to L-alanine and elemental selenium (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SCLY
Uniprot ID:
Q96I15
Molecular weight:
48793.15
Reactions
Selenocysteine + reduced acceptor → Hydrogen selenide + L-Alanine + acceptordetails
Selenocysteine + Reduced acceptor → Hydrogen selenide + L-Alanine + Acceptordetails
General function:
Involved in transaminase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent breakdown of 5-phosphohydroxy-L-lysine, converting it to ammonia, inorganic phosphate and 2-aminoadipate semialdehyde.
Gene Name:
AGXT2L2
Uniprot ID:
Q8IUZ5
Molecular weight:
49710.245
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Sulfurates the molybdenum cofactor. Sulfation of molybdenum is essential for xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and aldehyde oxidase (ADO) enzymes in which molybdenum cofactor is liganded by 1 oxygen and 1 sulfur atom in active form. In vitro, the C-terminal domain is able to reduce N-hydroxylated prodrugs, such as benzamidoxime.
Gene Name:
MOCOS
Uniprot ID:
Q96EN8
Molecular weight:
98118.965
Reactions
Molybdopterin + L-Cysteine + Hydrogen Ion → thio-molybdenum cofactor + L-Alanine + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase activity
Specific function:
Pattern receptor that binds to murein peptidoglycans (PGN) of Gram-positive bacteria. Has bactericidal activity towards Gram-positive bacteria. May kill Gram-positive bacteria by interfering with peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Binds also to Gram-negative bacteria, and has bacteriostatic activity towards Gram-negative bacteria. Plays a role in innate immunity.
Gene Name:
PGLYRP3
Uniprot ID:
Q96LB9
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
N-Acetylmuramoyl-Ala + Water → N-Acetylmuramate + L-Alaninedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Pattern receptor that binds to murein peptidoglycans (PGN) of Gram-positive bacteria. Has bactericidal activity towards Gram-positive bacteria. May kill Gram-positive bacteria by interfering with peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Binds also to Gram-negative bacteria, and has bacteriostatic activity towards Gram-negative bacteria. Plays a role in innate immunity.
Gene Name:
PGLYRP4
Uniprot ID:
Q96LB8
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
N-Acetylmuramoyl-Ala + Water → N-Acetylmuramate + L-Alaninedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the attachment of alanine to tRNA(Ala) in a two-step reaction: alanine is first activated by ATP to form Ala-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Ala). Also edits incorrectly charged tRNA(Ala) via its editing domain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
AARS2
Uniprot ID:
Q5JTZ9
Molecular weight:
107325.46
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Alanine + tRNA(Ala) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-alanyl-tRNA(Ala)details
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Alanine + tRNA(Ala) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Alanyl-tRNAdetails
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Nagan MC, Beuning P, Musier-Forsyth K, Cramer CJ: Importance of discriminator base stacking interactions: molecular dynamics analysis of A73 microhelix(Ala) variants. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jul 1;28(13):2527-34. [10871402 ]
  4. McClain WH, Gabriel K, Schneider J: Specific function of a G.U wobble pair from an adjacent helical site in tRNA(Ala) during recognition by alanyl-tRNA synthetase. RNA. 1996 Feb;2(2):105-9. [8601277 ]
  5. Buechter DD, Schimmel P: Minor groove recognition of the critical acceptor helix base pair by an appended module of a class II tRNA synthetase. Biochemistry. 1995 May 9;34(18):6014-9. [7742303 ]
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
May play a scavenger role by digesting biologically active peptidoglycan (PGN) into biologically inactive fragments. Has no direct bacteriolytic activity.
Gene Name:
PGLYRP2
Uniprot ID:
Q96PD5
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
N-Acetylmuramoyl-Ala + Water → N-Acetylmuramate + L-Alaninedetails

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of small and large neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, threonine, cysteine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when associated with SLC3A2/4F2hc. Acts as an amino acid exchanger. Has higher affinity for L-phenylalanine than LAT1 but lower affinity for glutamine and serine. L-alanine is transported at physiological concentrations. Plays a role in basolateral (re)absorption of neutral amino acids. Involved in the uptake of methylmercury (MeHg) when administered as the L-cysteine or D,L-homocysteine complexes, and hence plays a role in metal ion homeostasis and toxicity. Involved in the cellular activity of small molecular weight nitrosothiols, via the stereoselective transport of L-nitrosocysteine (L-CNSO) across the transmembrane. Plays an essential role in the reabsorption of neutral amino acids from the epithelial cells to the bloodstream in the kidney
Gene Name:
SLC7A8
Uniprot ID:
Q9UHI5
Molecular weight:
58381.1
References
  1. Broer S, Broer A, Hansen JT, Bubb WA, Balcar VJ, Nasrallah FA, Garner B, Rae C: Alanine metabolism, transport, and cycling in the brain. J Neurochem. 2007 Sep;102(6):1758-70. Epub 2007 May 14. [17504263 ]
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Sodium-dependent amino acid/proton antiporter. Mediates electrogenic cotransport of glutamine and sodium ions in exchange for protons. Also recognizes histidine, asparagine and alanine. May mediate amino acid transport in either direction under physiological conditions. May play a role in nitrogen metabolism and synaptic transmission
Gene Name:
SLC38A3
Uniprot ID:
Q99624
Molecular weight:
55772.4
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Neutral amino acid/proton symporter. Has a pH-dependent electrogenic transport activity for small amino acids such as glycine, alanine and proline. Besides small apolar L-amino acids, it also recognize their D-enantiomers and selected amino acid derivatives such as gamma-aminobutyric acid
Gene Name:
SLC36A1
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z2H8
Molecular weight:
53075.0
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Miyauchi S, Abbot EL, Zhuang L, Subramanian R, Ganapathy V, Thwaites DT: Isolation and function of the amino acid transporter PAT1 (slc36a1) from rabbit and discrimination between transport via PAT1 and system IMINO in renal brush-border membrane vesicles. Mol Membr Biol. 2005 Nov-Dec;22(6):549-59. [16373326 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Molecular weight:
55492.1
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [11278508 ]