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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:02:10 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00172
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Isoleucine
DescriptionBranched chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids whose carbon structure is marked by a branch point. These three amino acids are critical to human life and are particularly involved in stress, energy and muscle metabolism. BCAA supplementation as therapy, both oral and intravenous, in human health and disease holds great promise. "BCAA" denotes valine, isoleucine and leucine which are branched chain essential amino acids. Despite their structural similarities, the branched amino acids have different metabolic routes, with valine going solely to carbohydrates, leucine solely to fats and isoleucine to both. The different metabolism accounts for different requirements for these essential amino acids in humans: 12 mg/kg, 14 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg of valine, leucine and isoleucine respectively. Furthermore, these amino acids have different deficiency symptoms. Valine deficiency is marked by neurological defects in the brain, while isoleucine deficiency is marked by muscle tremors. BCAA are decreased in patients with liver disease, such as hepatitis, hepatic coma, cirrhosis, extrahepatic biliary atresia or portacaval shunt; aromatic amino acids (AAA)-tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine, as well as methionine-are increased in these conditions. Valine, in particular, has been established as a useful supplemental therapy to the ailing liver. All the BCAA probably compete with AAA for absorption into the brain. Supplemental BCAA with vitamin B6 and zinc help normalize the BCAA:AAA ratio. The BCAA are not without side effects. Leucine alone, for example, exacerbates pellagra and can cause psychosis in pellagra patients by increasing excretion of niacin in the urine. Leucine may lower brain serotonin and dopamine. A dose of 3 g of isoleucine added to the niacin regime has cleared leucine-aggravated psychosis in schizophrenic patients. Isoleucine may have potential as an antipsychotic treatment. Leucine is more highly concentrated in foods than other amino acids. A cup of milk contains 800 mg of leucine and only 500 mg of isoleucine and valine. A cup of wheat germ has about 1.6 g of leucine and 1 g of isoleucine and valine. The ratio evens out in eggs and cheese. One egg and an ounce of most cheeses each contain about 400 mg of leucine and 400 mg of valine and isoleucine. The ratio of leucine to other BCAA is greatest in pork, where leucine is 7 to 8 g and the other BCAA together are only 3 to 4 g. (http://www.dcnutrition.com).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2S,3S)-2-amino-3-Methylpentanoic acidChEBI
2-amino-3-Methylvaleric acidChEBI
alpha-amino-beta-Methylvaleric acidChEBI
IChEBI
IleChEBI
ISOLEUCINEChEBI
(2S,3S)-2-amino-3-MethylpentanoateGenerator
2-amino-3-MethylvalerateGenerator
a-amino-b-MethylvalerateGenerator
a-amino-b-Methylvaleric acidGenerator
alpha-amino-beta-MethylvalerateGenerator
α-amino-β-methylvalerateGenerator
α-amino-β-methylvaleric acidGenerator
(2S,3S)-2-amino-3-Methyl-pentanoateHMDB
(2S,3S)-2-amino-3-Methyl-pentanoic acidHMDB
(2S,3S)-a-amino-b-Methyl-N-valerateHMDB
(2S,3S)-a-amino-b-Methyl-N-valeric acidHMDB
(2S,3S)-a-amino-b-MethylvalerateHMDB
(2S,3S)-a-amino-b-Methylvaleric acidHMDB
(2S,3S)-Alph-amino-beta-methylvalerateHMDB
(2S,3S)-Alph-amino-beta-methylvaleric acidHMDB
(2S,3S)-alpha-amino-beta-Merthyl-N-valerateHMDB
(2S,3S)-alpha-amino-beta-Merthyl-N-valeric acidHMDB
(2S,3S)-alpha-amino-beta-MerthylvalerateHMDB
(2S,3S)-alpha-amino-beta-Merthylvaleric acidHMDB
(2S,3S)-alpha-amino-beta-Methyl-N-valerateHMDB
(2S,3S)-alpha-amino-beta-Methyl-N-valeric acidHMDB
(2S,3S)-alpha-amino-beta-MethylvalerateHMDB
(2S,3S)-alpha-amino-beta-Methylvaleric acidHMDB
(S)-IsoleucineHMDB
(S,S)-IsoleucineHMDB
2-amino-3-MethylpentanoateHMDB
2-amino-3-Methylpentanoic acidHMDB
2S,3S-IsoleucineHMDB
erythro-L-IsoleucineHMDB
iso-LeucineHMDB
L-(+)-IsoleucineHMDB
L-IleHMDB
[S-(R*,r*)]-2-amino-3-methylpentanoateHMDB
[S-(R*,r*)]-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H13NO2
Average Molecular Weight131.1729
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight131.094628665
IUPAC Name(2S,3S)-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid
Traditional NameL-isoleucine
CAS Registry Number73-32-5
SMILES
CC[C@H](C)[C@H](N)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H13NO2/c1-3-4(2)5(7)6(8)9/h4-5H,3,7H2,1-2H3,(H,8,9)/t4-,5-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=AGPKZVBTJJNPAG-WHFBIAKZSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentL-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Branched fatty acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Food
  • Plant
Biofunction
  • Component of Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Component of Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Essential amino acids
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point285.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility35 mg/mLHuman Metabolome Project
LogP-1.70HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility114.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.7ALOGPS
logP-1.5ChemAxon
logS-0.06ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.79ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.59ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity34.09 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability14.11 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0a4i-0930000000-e78f845bb2a8d4736476View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-de9162d149073d0e2a37View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0a4i-0920000000-599e61f8ccdb6525c7a9View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-742e44c426c0d6c2a9acView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-05fr-8910000000-dbb33e0f02ac2ca5feddView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-9300000000-8a23b3e62231eb65f80fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00ko-9000000000-ac7e71578d7e1d0e8ce9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-052f-9000000000-2586d4a089921dd977edView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-5b11521ff6a631376d2bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-3c352f229e4067fcd489View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-8a7ef48fc0c1b6f845c2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0920000000-2e11aa1c7a5defc386dbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-b63ac9cf06eda4c54a81View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-e5b0c8c6b09f541d6dbfView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-d89d16d5c2242e44ec63View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-5de583142c7bdb381c8fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-8c75bde35c4a4073ee65View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-233a9862f616afea2d17View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-001i-1900000000-375f35065b82b13e6d6eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-00dl-9000000000-d0d4a9f90fe2aca74483View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-0018f47571feaf232ff8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-001r-7900000000-278dc67396114be331baView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-e26c042aa6231eeca071View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-014r-9000000000-b6c1752fd3fbccb3d1c5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-05mo-9000000000-0569c3162621252ed0a8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-3d52b5d56d3fab45276eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-720554d58264a9cfdb67View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-004r-9000000000-34d4d4cb7042da231eb4View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
2-Methyl-3-Hydroxybutryl CoA Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00137Not Available
3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase DeficiencySMP00138Not Available
3-hydroxyisobutyric acid dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00521Not Available
3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduriaSMP00522Not Available
3-Methylcrotonyl Coa Carboxylase Deficiency Type ISMP00237Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type ISMP00139Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IIISMP00140Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IVSMP00141Not Available
Amikacin PathwaySMP00253Not Available
Arbekacin Action PathwaySMP00713Not Available
Azithromycin PathwaySMP00247Not Available
Beta-Ketothiolase DeficiencySMP00173Not Available
Chloramphenicol Action PathwaySMP00729Not Available
Clarithromycin PathwaySMP00248Not Available
Clindamycin PathwaySMP00249Not Available
Clomocycline PathwaySMP00262Not Available
Demeclocycline PathwaySMP00290Not Available
Doxycycline PathwaySMP00291Not Available
Erythromycin PathwaySMP00250Not Available
Gentamicin PathwaySMP00254Not Available
Isobutyryl-coa dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00523Not Available
Isovaleric acidemiaSMP00524Not Available
Isovaleric AciduriaSMP00238Not Available
Josamycin Action PathwaySMP00731Not Available
Kanamycin PathwaySMP00255Not Available
Lincomycin Action PathwaySMP00728Not Available
Lymecycline PathwaySMP00295Not Available
Maple Syrup Urine DiseaseSMP00199Not Available
Methacycline Action PathwaySMP00727Not Available
Methylmalonate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00384Not Available
Methylmalonic AciduriaSMP00200Not Available
Minocycline PathwaySMP00292Not Available
Neomycin PathwaySMP00256Not Available
Netilmicin PathwaySMP00257Not Available
Oxytetracycline PathwaySMP00293Not Available
Paromomycin Action PathwaySMP00714Not Available
Propionic AcidemiaSMP00236Not Available
Rolitetracycline Action PathwaySMP00726Not Available
Roxithromycin PathwaySMP00251Not Available
Spectinomycin PathwaySMP00258Not Available
Streptomycin PathwaySMP00259Not Available
Telithromycin PathwaySMP00252Not Available
Tetracycline PathwaySMP00294Not Available
Tigecycline Action PathwaySMP00712Not Available
Tobramycin Action PathwaySMP00711Not Available
Transcription/TranslationSMP00019Not Available
Troleandomycin Action PathwaySMP00730Not Available
Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine DegradationSMP00032map00280
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified40.0 +/- 20.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified69.0 +/- 13.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified64.0 +/- 13.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified84.0 +/- 18.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified44.0 +/- 6.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified81.0 +/- 18.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified56.0 +/- 12.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified20-90 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified25-87 uMInfant (1 - 3 months old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified25-100 uMChildren (3 months - 6 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified35-100 uMChildren (6 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified62.0 (48.0-76.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified60.7 +/- 18.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified7.9 +/- 3.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified7.0 +/- 5.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified3.9 +/- 1.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified5.5 +/- 0.64 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified8.4 +/- 2.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified8.4 +/- 2.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified4.3 +/- 3.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.2-7.5 uMChildren (0 - 10 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.3-9.3 uMAdolescent (>11 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified5.77 (3.30-8.24) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified13.5 (8.8-18.2) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified23.30 (9.41–37.19) ppmInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified16.29 (6.96–25.62) ppmInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified23.93 (12.68–35.18) ppmInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified24.853 +/- 27.140 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified1470 +/- 620 nmol/g of fecesAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified6.60 +/- 9.47 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0890 +/- 0.330 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified5.4 +/- 5.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified9.0 +/- 3.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2.3 +/- 3.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified25.53 +/- 17.89 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified6.0 +/- 5.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified>10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2.36 +/- 2.74 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.93 +/- 3.136 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.64 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.05-16.78 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.579 (0.789-2.368) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified1.3 (0.4-2.6) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.0086 - 0.0339 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified1.41 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
      • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
    details
    UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified3.75 +/- 2.75 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.94 +/- 0.67 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
      • Geigy Scientific ...
      • West Cadwell, N.J...
      • Basel, Switzerlan...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified1.8 +/- 1.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
      • Geigy Scientific ...
      • West Cadwell, N.J...
      • Basel, Switzerlan...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified3.0 +/- 1.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
      • Geigy Scientific ...
      • West Cadwell, N.J...
      • Basel, Switzerlan...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified3.55 +/- 1.85 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified1.3 (0.5-2.7) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.9 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified3.7308 +/- 1.4276 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    Normal
      • Mordechai, Hien, ...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0 - 6.11 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
    Normal
      • BC Children's Hos...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0 - 5.09 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (1 - 6 months old)Both
    Normal
      • BC Children's Hos...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0 - 6.11 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (6 months - <1 year old)Both
    Normal
      • BC Children's Hos...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0 - 6.11 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 2 years old)Both
    Normal
      • BC Children's Hos...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0 - 16.62 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (2 - 4 years old)Both
    Normal
      • BC Children's Hos...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0 - 6.11 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (4 - 13 years old)Both
    Normal
      • BC Children's Hos...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0 - 4.07 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13 - 21 years old)Both
    Normal
      • BC Children's Hos...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0 - 4.07 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>21 years old)Both
    Normal
      • BC Children's Hos...
    details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Oesophageal cancer
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified44.6 +/- 21.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart Transplant details
    BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Colorectal cancer
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified1495.2 +/- 373.0 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
    BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Pancreatic
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified40.3 (38.0-42.6) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Epilepsy
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified42.7 (38.1-47.3) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Epilepsy
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified58.5 (26.00-91.00) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMaple syrup urine disease details
    BloodDetected and Quantified6100.00 (200.00-12000.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothMaple syrup urine disease (MSUD) details
    BloodDetected and Quantified166.0 +/- 5.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Heart failure
    details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified6.0 +/- 0.65 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.4 +/- 0.65 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified7.1 +/- 4.2 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
    Leukemia
    details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified5.9 +/- 4.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedLeukemia details
    FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Irritable bowel syndrome
    details
    FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Ulcerative colitis
    details
    FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
    Cryptosporidium infection
    details
    FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Crohn’s Disease
    details
    FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Ulcerative Colitis
    details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothOral cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)FemaleBreast cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPancreatic cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPeriodontal diseases details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified0.83 +/- 0.21 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothOral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothOral leukoplakia (OLK) details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified1.22 +/- 0.30 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified1.54 +/- 0.98 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
    UrineDetected and Quantified4.211 +/- 5.162 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    Eosinophilic esophagitis
      • Mordechai, Hien, ...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.0053 - 0.0143 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothADPKD details
    UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.13 +/- 0.04 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
    UrineDetected and Quantified3.0408 +/- 2.1926 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    Eosinophilic esophagitis
      • Mordechai, Hien, ...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified2.8234 +/- 1.7792 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    Gastroesophageal reflux disease
      • Mordechai, Hien, ...
    details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    Alzheimer's disease
    1. Fonteh AN, Harrington RJ, Tsai A, Liao P, Harrington MG: Free amino acid and dipeptide changes in the body fluids from Alzheimer's disease subjects. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):213-24. Epub 2006 Oct 10. [17031479 ]
    Epilepsy
    1. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [14992292 ]
    Schizophrenia
    1. Do KQ, Lauer CJ, Schreiber W, Zollinger M, Gutteck-Amsler U, Cuenod M, Holsboer F: gamma-Glutamylglutamine and taurine concentrations are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of drug-naive patients with schizophrenic disorders. J Neurochem. 1995 Dec;65(6):2652-62. [7595563 ]
    Heart failure
    1. Norrelund H, Wiggers H, Halbirk M, Frystyk J, Flyvbjerg A, Botker HE, Schmitz O, Jorgensen JO, Christiansen JS, Moller N: Abnormalities of whole body protein turnover, muscle metabolism and levels of metabolic hormones in patients with chronic heart failure. J Intern Med. 2006 Jul;260(1):11-21. [16789974 ]
    Leukemia
    1. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [15911239 ]
    Maple syrup urine disease
    1. MetaGene [Link]
    Associated OMIM IDs
    DrugBank IDDB00167
    DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB012397
    KNApSAcK IDC00001374
    Chemspider ID6067
    KEGG Compound IDC00407
    BioCyc IDILE
    BiGG ID34887
    Wikipedia LinkIle
    NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00172
    Metagene LinkHMDB00172
    METLIN ID5193
    PubChem Compound6306
    PDB IDILE
    ChEBI ID17191
    References
    Synthesis Reference Marvel, C. S. L-Isoleucine. Organic Syntheses (1941), 21 60-4.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
    General References
    1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
    2. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [12097436 ]
    3. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. [6696735 ]
    4. Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. [12834252 ]
    5. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. [6198473 ]
    6. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [15911239 ]
    7. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. [12297216 ]
    8. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [14992292 ]
    9. He XY, Yang SY: Roles of type 10 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in intracrinology and metabolism of isoleucine and fatty acids. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2006 Mar;6(1):95-102. [16611167 ]
    10. Vaalasti A, Suomalainen H, Kuokkanen K, Rechardt L: Neuropeptides in cutaneous neurofibromas of von Recklinghausen's disease. J Cutan Pathol. 1990 Dec;17(6):371-3. [1981573 ]
    11. Eriste E, Norberg A, Bonetto V, Nepomuceno D, Lovenberg TW, Sillard R, Jornvall H: A C-terminally elongated form of PHI from porcine intestine. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Nov 15;56(7-8):709-13. [11212317 ]
    12. Jalan R, Olde Damink SW, Lui HF, Glabus M, Deutz NE, Hayes PC, Ebmeier K: Oral amino acid load mimicking hemoglobin results in reduced regional cerebral perfusion and deterioration in memory tests in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Metab Brain Dis. 2003 Mar;18(1):37-49. [12603081 ]
    13. Hervieu G, Segretain D, Nahon JL: Developmental and stage-dependent expression of melanin-concentrating hormone in mammalian germ cells. Biol Reprod. 1996 Jun;54(6):1161-72. [8724342 ]
    14. Suk FM, Lin MH, Newman M, Pan S, Chen SH, Liu JD, Shih C: Replication advantage and host factor-independent phenotypes attributable to a common naturally occurring capsid mutation (I97L) in human hepatitis B virus. J Virol. 2002 Dec;76(23):12069-77. [12414948 ]
    15. De Miranda J, Panizzutti R, Foltyn VN, Wolosker H: Cofactors of serine racemase that physiologically stimulate the synthesis of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor coagonist D-serine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Oct 29;99(22):14542-7. Epub 2002 Oct 22. [12393813 ]
    16. Blomstrand E, Eliasson J, Karlsson HK, Kohnke R: Branched-chain amino acids activate key enzymes in protein synthesis after physical exercise. J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1 Suppl):269S-73S. [16365096 ]
    17. Sato T, Shimada Y, Nagasawa N, Nakanishi S, Jingami H: Amino acid mutagenesis of the ligand binding site and the dimer interface of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1. Identification of crucial residues for setting the activated state. J Biol Chem. 2003 Feb 7;278(6):4314-21. Epub 2002 Nov 19. [12444084 ]
    18. Edvinsson L: Innervation and effects of dilatory neuropeptides on cerebral vessels. New aspects. Blood Vessels. 1991;28(1-3):35-45. [2001478 ]

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine.
    Gene Name:
    BCAT1
    Uniprot ID:
    P54687
    Molecular weight:
    38644.77
    Reactions
    L-Isoleucine + Oxoglutaric acid → 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    References
    1. Goto M, Miyahara I, Hayashi H, Kagamiyama H, Hirotsu K: Crystal structures of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase complexed with glutamate and glutarate: true reaction intermediate and double substrate recognition of the enzyme. Biochemistry. 2003 Apr 8;42(13):3725-33. [12667063 ]
    2. Chen CD, Huang TF, Lin CH, Guan HH, Hsieh YC, Lin YH, Huang YC, Liu MY, Chang WC, Chen CJ: Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of branched-chain aminotransferase from Deinococcus radiodurans. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2007 Jun 1;63(Pt 6):492-4. Epub 2007 May 5. [17554170 ]
    3. Beck HC: Branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase mutant of Staphylococcus carnosus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005 Feb 1;243(1):37-44. [15667998 ]
    4. Thage BV, Rattray FP, Laustsen MW, Ardo Y, Barkholt V, Houlberg U: Purification and characterization of a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase from Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei CHCC 2115. J Appl Microbiol. 2004;96(3):593-602. [14962140 ]
    5. Madsen SM, Beck HC, Ravn P, Vrang A, Hansen AM, Israelsen H: Cloning and inactivation of a branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase gene from Staphylococcus carnosus and characterization of the enzyme. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002 Aug;68(8):4007-14. [12147502 ]
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. May also function as a transporter of branched chain alpha-keto acids.
    Gene Name:
    BCAT2
    Uniprot ID:
    O15382
    Molecular weight:
    33776.315
    Reactions
    L-Isoleucine + Oxoglutaric acid → 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    References
    1. Berger BJ, English S, Chan G, Knodel MH: Methionine regeneration and aminotransferases in Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis. J Bacteriol. 2003 Apr;185(8):2418-31. [12670965 ]
    General function:
    Involved in nucleotide binding
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    IARS
    Uniprot ID:
    P41252
    Molecular weight:
    144496.915
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Isoleucine + tRNA(Ile) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-isoleucyl-tRNA(Ile)details
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Isoleucine + tRNA(Ile) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Isoleucyl-tRNA(Ile)details
    References
    1. Crasto CF, Forrest AK, Karoli T, March DR, Mensah L, O'Hanlon PJ, Nairn MR, Oldham MD, Yue W, Banwell MG, Easton CJ: Synthesis and activity of analogues of the isoleucyl tRNA synthetase inhibitor SB-203207. Bioorg Med Chem. 2003 Jul 3;11(13):2687-94. [12788342 ]
    2. Wang P, Tang Y, Tirrell DA: Incorporation of trifluoroisoleucine into proteins in vivo. J Am Chem Soc. 2003 Jun 11;125(23):6900-6. [12783542 ]
    3. Mock ML, Michon T, van Hest JC, Tirrell DA: Stereoselective incorporation of an unsaturated isoleucine analogue into a protein expressed in E. coli. Chembiochem. 2006 Jan;7(1):83-7. [16397872 ]
    4. Fukunaga R, Fukai S, Ishitani R, Nureki O, Yokoyama S: Crystal structures of the CP1 domain from Thermus thermophilus isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase and its complex with L-valine. J Biol Chem. 2004 Feb 27;279(9):8396-402. Epub 2003 Dec 12. [14672940 ]
    5. Pezo V, Metzgar D, Hendrickson TL, Waas WF, Hazebrouck S, Doring V, Marliere P, Schimmel P, De Crecy-Lagard V: Artificially ambiguous genetic code confers growth yield advantage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jun 8;101(23):8593-7. Epub 2004 May 26. [15163798 ]
    General function:
    Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
    Specific function:
    Has greatest activity toward short branched chain acyl-CoA derivative such as (s)-2-methylbutyryl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA, and 2-methylhexanoyl-CoA as well as toward short straight chain acyl-CoAs such as butyryl-CoA and hexanoyl-CoA. Can use valproyl-CoA as substrate and may play a role in controlling the metabolic flux of valproic acid in the development of toxicity of this agent.
    Gene Name:
    ACADSB
    Uniprot ID:
    P45954
    Molecular weight:
    47485.035
    References
    1. Korman SH, Andresen BS, Zeharia A, Gutman A, Boneh A, Pitt JJ: 2-ethylhydracrylic aciduria in short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: application to diagnosis and implications for the R-pathway of isoleucine oxidation. Clin Chem. 2005 Mar;51(3):610-7. Epub 2004 Dec 22. [15615815 ]
    2. Madsen PP, Kibaek M, Roca X, Sachidanandam R, Krainer AR, Christensen E, Steiner RD, Gibson KM, Corydon TJ, Knudsen I, Wanders RJ, Ruiter JP, Gregersen N, Andresen BS: Short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency due to an IVS3+3A>G mutation that causes exon skipping. Hum Genet. 2006 Feb;118(6):680-90. Epub 2005 Nov 30. [16317551 ]
    3. Korman SH: Inborn errors of isoleucine degradation: a review. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Dec;89(4):289-99. Epub 2006 Sep 6. [16950638 ]
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Lysosomal L-amino-acid oxidase with highest specific activity with phenylalanine. May play a role in lysosomal antigen processing and presentation (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    IL4I1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q96RQ9
    Molecular weight:
    65327.26
    Reactions
    L-Isoleucine + Water + Oxygen → 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in nucleotide binding
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    IARS2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9NSE4
    Molecular weight:
    113790.565
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Isoleucine + tRNA(Ile) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-isoleucyl-tRNA(Ile)details
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Isoleucine + tRNA(Ile) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Isoleucyl-tRNA(Ile)details
    References
    1. Wang P, Tang Y, Tirrell DA: Incorporation of trifluoroisoleucine into proteins in vivo. J Am Chem Soc. 2003 Jun 11;125(23):6900-6. [12783542 ]
    2. Fukunaga R, Fukai S, Ishitani R, Nureki O, Yokoyama S: Crystal structures of the CP1 domain from Thermus thermophilus isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase and its complex with L-valine. J Biol Chem. 2004 Feb 27;279(9):8396-402. Epub 2003 Dec 12. [14672940 ]
    3. Zhu B, Zhao MW, Eriani G, Wang ED: A present-day aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase with ancestral editing properties. RNA. 2007 Jan;13(1):15-21. Epub 2006 Nov 9. [17095543 ]
    4. Fukunaga R, Yokoyama S: Crystal structure of leucyl-tRNA synthetase from the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii reveals a novel editing domain orientation. J Mol Biol. 2005 Feb 11;346(1):57-71. Epub 2004 Dec 19. [15663927 ]
    5. Fukunaga R, Yokoyama S: Structural basis for substrate recognition by the editing domain of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase. J Mol Biol. 2006 Jun 16;359(4):901-12. Epub 2006 Apr 25. [16697013 ]

    Transporters

    General function:
    Involved in transmembrane transport
    Specific function:
    Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells
    Gene Name:
    SLC16A10
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8TF71
    Molecular weight:
    55492.1
    References
    1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [11278508 ]