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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:02:10 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00177
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB03412
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Histidine
DescriptionHistidine is an alpha-amino acid with an imidazole functional group. It is one of the 22 proteinogenic amino acids. Histidine was first isolated by German physician Albrecht Kossel in 1896. Histidine is an essential amino acid in humans and other mammals. It was initially thought that it was only essential for infants, but longer-term studies established that it is also essential for adults. Infants four to six months old require 33 mg/kg of histidine. It is not clear how adults make small amounts of histidine, and dietary sources probably account for most of the histidine in the body. Histidine is a precursor for histamine and carnosine biosynthesis. Inborn errors of histidine metabolism exist and are marked by increased histidine levels in the blood. Elevated blood histidine is accompanied by a wide range of symptoms, from mental and physical retardation to poor intellectual functioning, emotional instability, tremor, ataxia and psychosis. Histidine and other imidazole compounds have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-secretory properties (PMID: 9605177 ). The efficacy of L-histidine in protecting inflamed tissue is attributed to the capacity of the imidazole ring to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by cells during acute inflammatory response (PMID: 9605177 ). Histidine, when administered in therapeutic quantities is able to inhibit cytokines and growth factors involved in cell and tissue damage (US patent 6150392). Histidine in medical therapies has its most promising trials in rheumatoid arthritis where up to 4.5 g daily have been used effectively in severely affected patients. Arthritis patients have been found to have low serum histidine levels, apparently because of very rapid removal of histidine from their blood (PMID: 1079527 ). Other patients besides arthritis patients that have been found to be low in serum histidine are those with chronic renal failure. Urinary levels of histidine are reduced in pediatric patients with pneumonia. (PMID: 2084459 ). Asthma patients exhibit increased serum levels of histidine over normal controls (PMID: 23517038 ). Serum histidine levels are lower and are negatively associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women (PMID: 23361591 ). Histidine supplementation has been shown to reduce insulin resistance, reduce BMI and fat mass and suppress inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women with metabolic syndrome. Histidine appears to suppress pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, possibly via the NF-κB pathway, in adipocytes (PMID: 23361591 ). Low plasma concentrations of histidine are associated with protein-energy wasting, inflammation, oxidative stress, and greater mortality in chronic kidney disease patients (PMID: 18541578 ). Histidine may have many other possible functions because it is the precursor of the ubiquitous neurohormone-neurotransmitter histamine. Histidine increases histamine in the blood and probably in the brain. Low blood histamine with low serum histidine occurs in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Low blood histamine also occurs in some manic, schizophrenic, high copper and hyperactive groups of psychiatric patients. Histidine is a useful therapy in all patients with low histamine levels. (http://www.dcnutrition.com ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. (S)-1H-Imidazole-4-alanine
  2. (S)-2-Amino-3-(4-imidazolyl)propionsaeure
  3. (S)-4-(2-Amino-2-carboxyethyl)imidazole
  4. (S)-a-Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propanoate
  5. (S)-a-Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propanoic acid
  6. (S)-alpha-Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propanoate
  7. (S)-alpha-Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propanoic acid
  8. (S)-alpha-Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propionate
  9. (S)-alpha-Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propionic acid
  10. (S)-Histidine
  11. (S)1H-Imidazole-4-alanine
  12. 3-(1H-Imidazol-4-yl)-L-Alanine
  13. Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propanoate
  14. Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propanoic acid
  15. Amino-4-imidazoleproprionate
  16. Amino-4-imidazoleproprionic acid
  17. Glyoxaline-5-alanine
  18. His
  19. Histidine
  20. L-(-)-Histidine
Chemical FormulaC6H9N3O2
Average Molecular Weight155.1546
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight155.069476547
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)propanoic acid
Traditional NameL-histidine
CAS Registry Number71-00-1
SMILES
N[C@@H](CC1=CNC=N1)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H9N3O2/c7-5(6(10)11)1-4-2-8-3-9-4/h2-3,5H,1,7H2,(H,8,9)(H,10,11)/t5-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=HNDVDQJCIGZPNO-YFKPBYRVSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as d-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the D-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentD-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • D-alpha-amino acid
  • Imidazolyl carboxylic acid derivative
  • Aralkylamine
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Component of Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Component of Histidine metabolism
  • Component of Nitrogen metabolism
  • Essential amino acid
  • Essential amino acids
  • semi-essential amino acids
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point287 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility45.6 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-3.32CHMELIK,J ET AL. (1991)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility71.3 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3.1ALOGPS
logP-3.6ChemAxon
logS-0.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.85ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.44ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area92 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity38.06 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability14.67 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-1zf1000000-43b9b035189af65e19cbView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-2z70000000-fc3ecec9d4ff3aa8cb09View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-1z70000000-8284a673a35f7ac2241fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-yz70000000-a3231b1a418b5798ecacView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-6z90000000-227e8116769731104e82View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-8zg8500000-31605fd50ecc1f5be0edView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-3z00000000-21530fac9975dc1edc7cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-ze00000000-a946c375931adb366aaeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-z300000000-61a3602d80bc0d54c579View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z11000000-7d63b501889c2628f4f0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-1z00000000-d4ccd4e44ca818b4cb17View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-1z00000000-811aee5724fe0999c134View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-8z00000000-052753eb699ae7cb4cb9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z21000000-3e145a05e6a71a0a2f56View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-1z00000000-143a4b9d88183bc5abe7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-1z00000000-a8c213472da676a241f2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-1z00000000-dfdf9562f155abb5fdebView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0ytzdd7521-8434b5b9e7e5700c2353View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-2z00000000-aaaaadcecd4cd7c94e1eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0z00000000-90c4cbd09d7abc003013View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0z00000000-1381708d18c24486773dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0pznea7521-eb62fc608270d1151707View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-2z00000000-3450566ff38e6506a70fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-tz00000000-124509a66476629ce10aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0z00000000-efa6a21b1be16fda0802View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0z00000000-137840e69da48c6114e4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-fz00000000-06d50e90c797793a72d7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-z600000000-de7c9eb8068ef4f39f85View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-z000000000-ebf778679d4c6d6a6057View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-z000000000-08d0188684283d1b2372View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0z00000000-46c2f608d27f0381a039View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Amikacin PathwaySMP00253Not Available
Ammonia RecyclingSMP00009map00910
Arbekacin Action PathwaySMP00713Not Available
Azithromycin PathwaySMP00247Not Available
Beta-Alanine MetabolismSMP00007map00410
Carnosinuria, carnosinemiaSMP00493Not Available
Chloramphenicol Action PathwaySMP00729Not Available
Clarithromycin PathwaySMP00248Not Available
Clindamycin PathwaySMP00249Not Available
Clomocycline PathwaySMP00262Not Available
Demeclocycline PathwaySMP00290Not Available
Doxycycline PathwaySMP00291Not Available
Erythromycin PathwaySMP00250Not Available
GABA-Transaminase DeficiencySMP00351Not Available
Gentamicin PathwaySMP00254Not Available
Histidine MetabolismSMP00044map00340
HistidinemiaSMP00191Not Available
Josamycin Action PathwaySMP00731Not Available
Kanamycin PathwaySMP00255Not Available
Lincomycin Action PathwaySMP00728Not Available
Lymecycline PathwaySMP00295Not Available
Methacycline Action PathwaySMP00727Not Available
Methylhistidine MetabolismSMP00715Not Available
Minocycline PathwaySMP00292Not Available
Neomycin PathwaySMP00256Not Available
Netilmicin PathwaySMP00257Not Available
Oxytetracycline PathwaySMP00293Not Available
Paromomycin Action PathwaySMP00714Not Available
Rolitetracycline Action PathwaySMP00726Not Available
Roxithromycin PathwaySMP00251Not Available
Spectinomycin PathwaySMP00258Not Available
Streptomycin PathwaySMP00259Not Available
Telithromycin PathwaySMP00252Not Available
Tetracycline PathwaySMP00294Not Available
Tigecycline Action PathwaySMP00712Not Available
Tobramycin Action PathwaySMP00711Not Available
Transcription/TranslationSMP00019Not Available
Troleandomycin Action PathwaySMP00730Not Available
Ureidopropionase deficiencySMP00492Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified75.0 +/- 20.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified86.0 +/- 10.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified89.0 +/- 11.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified83.0 +/- 14.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified143.1 +/- 27.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified32-107 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified20-83 uMInfant (1 - 3 months old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified22-108 uMChildren (3 months - 6 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified35-106 uMChildren (6 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified82.0 (72.0-92.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified131.2 +/- 37.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified20.3 +/- 6.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified14.0 +/- 8.0 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified20.7 +/- 7.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified16.8 +/- 2.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified18.6 +/- 3.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified16.4 +/- 6.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified10.9 (10.4-11.4) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0-17 uMChildren (0 - 10 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified4.6-23 uMAdolescent (>11 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified11.9 +/- 1.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0.80 (0.61–0.99) ppmInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified1.07 (0.57–1.57) ppmInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0.45 (0.21–0.69) ppmInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified24.99 +/- 12.94 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified6.02 +/- 4.39 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified9.93 +/- 9.50 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified<0.25 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified<0.25 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified9.4 +/- 4.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified18.67 +/- 10.20 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified8.2 +/- 1.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified>10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified45.22 - 167.55 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified40.70 - 194.35 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (1 - 6 months old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified52.01 - 157.83 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (6 months - <1 year old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified49.18 - 163.03 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 2 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified38.44 - 144.83 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (2 - 4 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified24.19 - 122.67 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (4 - 13 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified14.47 - 86.72 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13 - 21 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified14.47 - 86.72 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>21 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified101.9 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified25.79-212.81 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified87.2 (23.0-151.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified47.12 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
      • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.0036 - 0.0376 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified43 (17-90) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified2.2 (1.18-3.4) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
      • Geigy Scientific ...
      • West Cadwell, N.J...
      • Basel, Switzerlan...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified31.0 +/- 15.0 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal
      • Geigy Scientific ...
      • West Cadwell, N.J...
      • Basel, Switzerlan...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified85.0 +/- 33.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
      • Geigy Scientific ...
      • West Cadwell, N.J...
      • Basel, Switzerlan...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified62.0 +/- 28.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
      • Geigy Scientific ...
      • West Cadwell, N.J...
      • Basel, Switzerlan...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified60.75 +/- 27.45 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified45.6 (21.7-71.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified88 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified190.3063 +/- 67.9627 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    Normal
      • Mordechai, Hien, ...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified194.90 +/- 144.31 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified62.585 +/- 67.649 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    Normal
      • Mordechai, Hien, ...
    details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    BloodDetected and Quantified46.1 +/- 17.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart Transplant details
    BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
    BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Colorectal cancer
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified88.00 (56.00-120.00) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHistidinemia details
    BloodDetected and Quantified885.00 (290.00-1420.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothHistidinemia details
    BloodDetected and Quantified116.68 +/- 18.15 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
    BloodDetected and Quantified67.0 (64.0-70.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDengue fever details
    BloodDetected and Quantified80.5 +/- 4.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Epilepsy
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified107.0 +/- 6.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Epilepsy
    details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified21.4 +/- 6.6 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedLeukemia details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified10.3 +/- 3.7 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
    Leukemia
    details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified13.00 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHistidinemia details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified95.00 (48.00-142.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothHistidinemia details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified130.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHistidinemia details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified14.4 +/- 6.32 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothProgressive dementia details
    FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
    Treated celiac disease
    details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothOral cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)FemaleBreast cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPancreatic cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPeriodontal diseases details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified16.96 +/- 7.43 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified23.31 +/- 8.62 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified17.50 +/- 4.53 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
    UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)FemaleEpithelial ovarian cancer details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.0033 - 0.0186 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothADPKD details
    UrineDetected and Quantified30.5 +/- 4.3 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
    UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
    UrineDetected and Quantified1696.84 (339.37-3054.30) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothHistidinuria details
    UrineDetected and Quantified145.1681 +/- 74.4203 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    Eosinophilic esophagitis
      • Mordechai, Hien, ...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified103.2581 +/- 61.6795 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    Gastroesophageal reflux disease
      • Mordechai, Hien, ...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified105.3 +/- 12.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both3-Hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HL) deficency details
    UrineDetected and Quantified65.5 +/- 11.3 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both3-Hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HL) deficency details
    UrineDetected and Quantified52.9 +/- 12.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothArgininosuccinic aciduria (ASL) details
    UrineDetected and Quantified154.3 +/- 13.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothPropionic acidemia details
    UrineDetected and Quantified52 +/- 29 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothTyrosinemia I details
    UrineDetected and Quantified37.9 +/- 9.8 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothTyrosinemia I details
    UrineDetected and Quantified62.6 +/- 12.3 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothPhenylketonuria details
    UrineDetected and Quantified68 +/- 19.9 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothPhenylketonuria details
    UrineDetected and Quantified171.8 +/- 4.3 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothMaple syrup urine disease details
    UrineDetected and Quantified180.1 +/- 12.4 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothAminoaciduria details
    UrineDetected and Quantified64.206 +/- 58.48 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    Eosinophilic esophagitis
      • Mordechai, Hien, ...
    details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    Alzheimer's disease
    1. Fonteh AN, Harrington RJ, Tsai A, Liao P, Harrington MG: Free amino acid and dipeptide changes in the body fluids from Alzheimer's disease subjects. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):213-24. Epub 2006 Oct 10. [17031479 ]
    Dengue fever
    1. Klassen P, Furst P, Schulz C, Mazariegos M, Solomons NW: Plasma free amino acid concentrations in healthy Guatemalan adults and in patients with classic dengue. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Mar;73(3):647-52. [11237944 ]
    Epilepsy
    1. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [14992292 ]
    Histidinemia
    1. Wevers RA, Engelke U, Wendel U, de Jong JG, Gabreels FJ, Heerschap A: Standardized method for high-resolution 1H-NMR of cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem. 1995 May;41(5):744-51. [7729054 ]
    2. MetaGene [Link]
    3. MetaGene [Link]
    Leukemia
    1. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [15911239 ]
    Associated OMIM IDs
    DrugBank IDDB00117
    DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB011856
    KNApSAcK IDC00001363
    Chemspider ID6038
    KEGG Compound IDC00135
    BioCyc IDHIS
    BiGG ID33985
    Wikipedia LinkL-Histidine
    NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00177
    Metagene LinkHMDB00177
    METLIN ID21
    PubChem Compound6274
    PDB ID1KAH
    ChEBI ID15971
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceAurelio Luigi; Brownlee Robert T C; Hughes Andrew B A novel synthesis of N-methyl asparagine, arginine, histidine, and tryptophan. Organic letters (2002), 4(21), 3767-9.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
    General References
    1. Xiao B, Jing C, Kelly G, Walker PA, Muskett FW, Frenkiel TA, Martin SR, Sarma K, Reinberg D, Gamblin SJ, Wilson JR: Specificity and mechanism of the histone methyltransferase Pr-Set7. Genes Dev. 2005 Jun 15;19(12):1444-54. Epub 2005 Jun 2. [15933069 ]
    2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
    3. Shoemaker JD, Elliott WH: Automated screening of urine samples for carbohydrates, organic and amino acids after treatment with urease. J Chromatogr. 1991 Jan 2;562(1-2):125-38. [2026685 ]
    4. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [12097436 ]
    5. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. [6696735 ]
    6. Wevers RA, Engelke U, Wendel U, de Jong JG, Gabreels FJ, Heerschap A: Standardized method for high-resolution 1H-NMR of cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem. 1995 May;41(5):744-51. [7729054 ]
    7. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. [6198473 ]
    8. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [15911239 ]
    9. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. [12297216 ]
    10. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [14992292 ]
    11. Klassen P, Furst P, Schulz C, Mazariegos M, Solomons NW: Plasma free amino acid concentrations in healthy Guatemalan adults and in patients with classic dengue. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Mar;73(3):647-52. [11237944 ]
    12. Mukerji SK, Pimstone NR, Gandhi SN, Tan KT: Biochemical diagnosis and monitoring therapeutic modulation of disease activity in an unusual case of congenital erythropoietic porphyria. Clin Chem. 1985 Dec;31(12):1946-51. [4064282 ]
    13. Churchill D, Yacoub JM, Siu KP, Symes A, Gault MH: Toxic nephropathy after low-dose methoxyflurane anesthesia: drug interaction with secobarbital? Can Med Assoc J. 1976 Feb 21;114(4):326-8, 333. [1253070 ]
    14. Sieja K, Stanosz S, von Mach-Szczypinski J, Olewniczak S, Stanosz M: Concentration of histamine in serum and tissues of the primary ductal breast cancers in women. Breast. 2005 Jun;14(3):236-41. Epub 2005 Jan 21. [15927833 ]
    15. Masini E, Fabbroni V, Giannini L, Vannacci A, Messerini L, Perna F, Cortesini C, Cianchi F: Histamine and histidine decarboxylase up-regulation in colorectal cancer: correlation with tumor stage. Inflamm Res. 2005 Apr;54 Suppl 1:S80-1. [15928846 ]
    16. Xiao YP, Han CB, Mao XY, Li JY, Xu L, Ren CS, Xin Y: Relationship between abnormality of FHIT gene and EBV infection in gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Jun 7;11(21):3212-6. [15929169 ]
    17. Mason AB, Halbrooks PJ, James NG, Connolly SA, Larouche JR, Smith VC, MacGillivray RT, Chasteen ND: Mutational analysis of C-lobe ligands of human serum transferrin: insights into the mechanism of iron release. Biochemistry. 2005 Jun 7;44(22):8013-21. [15924420 ]
    18. Janknecht R, Hipskind RA, Houthaeve T, Nordheim A, Stunnenberg HG: Identification of multiple SRF N-terminal phosphorylation sites affecting DNA binding properties. EMBO J. 1992 Mar;11(3):1045-54. [1547771 ]
    19. Peterson JW, Boldogh I, Popov VL, Saini SS, Chopra AK: Anti-inflammatory and antisecretory potential of histidine in Salmonella-challenged mouse small intestine. Lab Invest. 1998 May;78(5):523-34. [9605177 ]
    20. Gerber DA: Low free serum histidine concentration in rheumatoid arthritis. A measure of disease activity. J Clin Invest. 1975 Jun;55(6):1164-73. [1079527 ]
    21. Hemler RJ, Hoogeveen JH, Kraaier V, Van Huffelen AC, Wieneke GH, Hijman R, Glerum JH: A pharmacological model of cerebral ischemia. The effects of indomethacin on cerebral blood flow velocity, quantitative EEG and cognitive functions. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1990 Nov;12(9):641-3. [2084459 ]
    22. Feng RN, Niu YC, Sun XW, Li Q, Zhao C, Wang C, Guo FC, Sun CH, Li Y: Histidine supplementation improves insulin resistance through suppressed inflammation in obese women with the metabolic syndrome: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia. 2013 May;56(5):985-94. doi: 10.1007/s00125-013-2839-7. Epub 2013 Jan 30. [23361591 ]
    23. Watanabe M, Suliman ME, Qureshi AR, Garcia-Lopez E, Barany P, Heimburger O, Stenvinkel P, Lindholm B: Consequences of low plasma histidine in chronic kidney disease patients: associations with inflammation, oxidative stress, and mortality. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):1860-6. [18541578 ]
    24. Jung J, Kim SH, Lee HS, Choi GS, Jung YS, Ryu DH, Park HS, Hwang GS: Serum metabolomics reveals pathways and biomarkers associated with asthma pathogenesis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2013 Apr;43(4):425-33. doi: 10.1111/cea.12089. [23517038 ]
    25. Effective method for the amelioration and prevention of tissue and cellular damage [Link]

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
    Gene Name:
    DDC
    Uniprot ID:
    P20711
    Molecular weight:
    53893.755
    Reactions
    L-Histidine → Histamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in metallopeptidase activity
    Specific function:
    Preferential hydrolysis of the beta-Ala-|-His dipeptide (carnosine), and also anserine, Xaa-|-His dipeptides and other dipeptides including homocarnosine
    Gene Name:
    CNDP1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q96KN2
    Molecular weight:
    56691.6
    General function:
    Involved in protein methyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Methylates (mono and asymmetric dimethylation) the guanidino nitrogens of arginyl residues in some proteins
    Gene Name:
    PRMT3
    Uniprot ID:
    O60678
    Molecular weight:
    59902.7
    General function:
    Involved in nucleotide binding
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    HARS2
    Uniprot ID:
    P49590
    Molecular weight:
    56887.865
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Histidine + tRNA(His) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-histidyl-tRNA(His)details
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Histidine + tRNA(His) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Histidyl-tRNA(His)details
    General function:
    Involved in nucleotide binding
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    HARS
    Uniprot ID:
    P12081
    Molecular weight:
    52719.54
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Histidine + tRNA(His) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-histidyl-tRNA(His)details
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Histidine + tRNA(His) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Histidyl-tRNA(His)details
    References
    1. Nagatoyo Y, Iwaki J, Suzuki S, Kuno A, Hasegawa T: Molecular recognition of histidine tRNA by histidyl-tRNA synthetase from hyperthermophilic archaeon, Aeropyrum pernix K1. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser (Oxf). 2005;(49):307-8. [17150756 ]
    2. Rosen AE, Brooks BS, Guth E, Francklyn CS, Musier-Forsyth K: Evolutionary conservation of a functionally important backbone phosphate group critical for aminoacylation of histidine tRNAs. RNA. 2006 Jul;12(7):1315-22. Epub 2006 Jun 1. [16741232 ]
    General function:
    Involved in histidine ammonia-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    HAL
    Uniprot ID:
    P42357
    Molecular weight:
    49122.09
    Reactions
    L-Histidine → Urocanic acid + Ammoniadetails
    References
    1. Viergutz S, Retey J: Kinetic analysis of the reactions catalyzed by histidine and phenylalanine ammonia lyases. Chem Biodivers. 2004 Feb;1(2):296-302. [17191848 ]
    2. Lambrecht NW, Yakubov I, Sachs G: Fasting-induced changes in ECL cell gene expression. Physiol Genomics. 2007 Oct 22;31(2):183-92. Epub 2007 May 29. [17536021 ]
    3. Watts KT, Mijts BN, Lee PC, Manning AJ, Schmidt-Dannert C: Discovery of a substrate selectivity switch in tyrosine ammonia-lyase, a member of the aromatic amino acid lyase family. Chem Biol. 2006 Dec;13(12):1317-26. [17185227 ]
    4. Katona A, Tosa MI, Paizs C, Retey J: Inhibition of histidine ammonia lyase by heteroaryl-alanines and acrylates. Chem Biodivers. 2006 May;3(5):502-8. [17193285 ]
    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the biosynthesis of histamine from histidine.
    Gene Name:
    HDC
    Uniprot ID:
    P19113
    Molecular weight:
    74139.825
    Reactions
    L-Histidine → Histamine + CO(2)details
    L-Histidine → Histamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    References
    1. Landete JM, Pardo I, Ferrer S: Histamine, histidine, and growth-phase mediated regulation of the histidine decarboxylase gene in lactic acid bacteria isolated from wine. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006 Jul;260(1):84-90. [16790022 ]
    2. Fernandez M, del Rio B, Linares DM, Martin MC, Alvarez MA: Real-time polymerase chain reaction for quantitative detection of histamine-producing bacteria: use in cheese production. J Dairy Sci. 2006 Oct;89(10):3763-9. [16960050 ]
    3. Nitta Y, Kikuzaki H, Ueno H: Food components inhibiting recombinant human histidine decarboxylase activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jan 24;55(2):299-304. [17227057 ]
    4. Kitamura Y, Das AK, Murata Y, Maeyama K, Dev S, Wakayama Y, Kalubi B, Takeda N, Fukui H: Dexamethasone suppresses histamine synthesis by repressing both transcription and activity of HDC in allergic rats. Allergol Int. 2006 Sep;55(3):279-86. [17075268 ]
    5. Castellani ML, Kempuraj D, Frydas S, Theoharides TC, Simeonidou I, Conti P, Vecchiet J: Inhibitory effect of quercetin on tryptase and MCP-1 chemokine release, and histidine decarboxylase mRNA transcription by human mast cell-1 cell line. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2006;13(3):179-86. Epub 2006 Dec 21. [17191019 ]
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the synthesis of carnosine and homocarnosine. Carnosine is synthesized more efficiently than homocarnosine.
    Gene Name:
    CARNS1
    Uniprot ID:
    A5YM72
    Molecular weight:
    101318.725
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Histidine + Beta-Alanine → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Carnosinedetails
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Histidine + Beta-Alanine → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Carnosinedetails
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Histidine + Gamma-Aminobutyric acid → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Homocarnosinedetails
    General function:
    Not Available
    Specific function:
    N5-glutamine methyltransferase responsible for the methylation of the GGQ triplet of the mitochondrial translation release factor MTRF1L.
    Gene Name:
    HEMK1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9Y5R4
    Molecular weight:
    Not Available
    Reactions
    L-Histidine + S-Adenosylmethionine → 3-Methylhistidine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
    General function:
    Not Available
    Specific function:
    Probable methyltransferase (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    METTL2B
    Uniprot ID:
    Q6P1Q9
    Molecular weight:
    Not Available
    Reactions
    L-Histidine + S-Adenosylmethionine → 3-Methylhistidine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
    General function:
    Not Available
    Specific function:
    Probable methyltransferase (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    METTL6
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8TCB7
    Molecular weight:
    Not Available
    Reactions
    L-Histidine + S-Adenosylmethionine → 3-Methylhistidine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
    General function:
    Not Available
    Specific function:
    Methyltransferase that may act on DNA.
    Gene Name:
    WBSCR22
    Uniprot ID:
    O43709
    Molecular weight:
    Not Available
    Reactions
    L-Histidine + S-Adenosylmethionine → 3-Methylhistidine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails

    Transporters

    General function:
    Amino acid transport and metabolism
    Specific function:
    Sodium-dependent amino acid/proton antiporter. Mediates electrogenic cotransport of glutamine and sodium ions in exchange for protons. Also recognizes histidine, asparagine and alanine. May mediate amino acid transport in either direction under physiological conditions. May play a role in nitrogen metabolism and synaptic transmission
    Gene Name:
    SLC38A3
    Uniprot ID:
    Q99624
    Molecular weight:
    55772.4
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
    3. Eppig JJ, Pendola FL, Wigglesworth K, Pendola JK: Mouse oocytes regulate metabolic cooperativity between granulosa cells and oocytes: amino acid transport. Biol Reprod. 2005 Aug;73(2):351-7. Epub 2005 Apr 20. [15843493 ]
    General function:
    Involved in transmembrane transport
    Specific function:
    Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells
    Gene Name:
    SLC16A10
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8TF71
    Molecular weight:
    55492.1
    References
    1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [11278508 ]
    2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. [11827462 ]