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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-08-17 21:44:08 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00292
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameXanthine
DescriptionXanthine is a purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed.).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2,6-DioxopurineMetaCyc
1H-Purine-2,6-diolHMDB
2,6(1,3)-PurinedionHMDB
2,6-DihydroxypurineHMDB
3,7-dihydro-1H-Purine-2,6-dioneHMDB
3,7-Dihydropurine-2,6-dioneHMDB
9H-Purine-2,6(1H,3H)-dioneHMDB
9H-Purine-2,6-diolHMDB
DioxopurineHMDB
IsoxanthineHMDB
PseudoxanthineHMDB
Purine-2,6(1H,3H)-dioneHMDB
Purine-2,6-diolHMDB
Xanthic oxideHMDB
XanthinHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H4N4O2
Average Molecular Weight152.1109
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight152.033425392
IUPAC Name2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
Traditional Namexanthine
CAS Registry Number69-89-6
SMILES
O=C1NC2=C(NC=N2)C(=O)N1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H4N4O2/c10-4-2-3(7-1-6-2)8-5(11)9-4/h1H,(H3,6,7,8,9,10,11)
InChI KeyInChIKey=LRFVTYWOQMYALW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkaloids and derivatives. These are naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Also some synthetic compounds of similar structure are attributed to alkaloids. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and more rarely other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassNot Available
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAlkaloids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Xanthine
  • Purinone
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Hydroxypyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrimidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Purine metabolism
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point> 300 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.069 mg/mL at 16 °C; 9.5 mg/mL (sodium salt)MERCK INDEX (1996); Human Metabolome Project (salt)
LogP-0.73HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.91 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.65ALOGPS
logP-0.21ChemAxon
logS-1.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.95ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area86.88 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity36.92 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability12.7 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0f6t-0924000000-9b80e0a2a60c73ca0180View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0udi-0900000000-a70539989d121bfacee0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-6900000000-b047b06406308dbaeda8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9300000000-ed480ed920c3e9b576ecView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0zfr-0900000000-efb049914c9bce596267View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-2e9e069e2df414aed037View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0w29-0900000000-fa52193346bc456d89e8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a5i-9400000000-bbf70998e8b7515cb440View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-566d663553ce4f0ec207View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0zfr-1900000000-d0a5d2c0f89f8d42d903View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-351d9f8ee3470f911829View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0udi-7900000000-2d5ab5d5db8ff4981467View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Bladder
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Testes
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)SMP00535Not Available
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencySMP00144Not Available
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencySMP00167Not Available
AICA-RibosiduriaSMP00168Not Available
Azathioprine PathwaySMP00427Not Available
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeSMP00365Not Available
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)SMP00364Not Available
Mercaptopurine PathwaySMP00428Not Available
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeSMP00536Not Available
Molybdenum Cofactor DeficiencySMP00203Not Available
Myoadenylate deaminase deficiencySMP00537Not Available
Purine MetabolismSMP00050map00230
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencySMP00210Not Available
Thioguanine PathwaySMP00430Not Available
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)SMP00220Not Available
Xanthinuria type ISMP00512Not Available
Xanthinuria type IISMP00513Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified5.00 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.27 +/- 0.78 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.35 +/- 0.19 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.91 +/- 0.45 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.07 +/- 0.21 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.45 (2.7-8.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.99 +/- 0.48 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified5.20 (4.33-6.07) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified13 +/- 7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.32 +/- 1.72 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.88 +/- 0.31 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.81+/- 0.58 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.58 +/- 0.39 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.6 (2.2-3.75) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3-62 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified52.591 +/- 67.878 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified2.2 +/- 0.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLesch-Nyhan syndrome details
BloodDetected and Quantified51.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart Transplant details
BloodDetected and Quantified25.00 (10.00-40.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothXanthinuria Type I details
BloodDetected and Quantified6.37 +/- 1.95 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified5.17 (3.64-6.70) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Hydrocephalus
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified9.90 (7.46-12.3) uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Hydrocephalus
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.30 (2.10-2.50) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDegenerative disc disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.9 (1.3-4.6) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothXanthinuria type 1 details
UrineDetected and Quantified131.5 (65.7-197.00) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothXanthinuria Type I details
UrineDetected and Quantified37.779 +/- 61.348 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Canavan disease
  1. Tavazzi B, Lazzarino G, Leone P, Amorini AM, Bellia F, Janson CG, Di Pietro V, Ceccarelli L, Donzelli S, Francis JS, Giardina B: Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic separation of purines, pyrimidines, N-acetylated amino acids, and dicarboxylic acids for the chemical diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. Clin Biochem. 2005 Nov;38(11):997-1008. Epub 2005 Sep 1. [16139832 ]
Degenerative disc disease
  1. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. [6656991 ]
Hydrocephalus
  1. Castro-Gago M, Rodriguez IN, Rodriguez-Nunez A, Guitian JP, Rocamonde SL, Rodriguez-Segade S: Therapeutic criteria in hydrocephalic children. Childs Nerv Syst. 1989 Dec;5(6):361-3. [2611770 ]
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
  1. Harkness RA, McCreanor GM, Watts RW: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and its pathogenesis: purine concentrations in plasma and urine with metabolite profiles in CSF. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1988;11(3):239-52. [3148065 ]
Xanthinuria type 1
  1. MetaGene [Link]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB02134
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00499
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB001977
KNApSAcK IDC00019660
Chemspider ID1151
KEGG Compound IDC00385
BioCyc IDXANTHINE
BiGG ID34825
Wikipedia LinkXanthine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00292
Metagene LinkHMDB00292
METLIN ID82
PubChem Compound1188
PDB IDXAN
ChEBI ID17712
References
Synthesis ReferenceProcedure for the production of xanthine and xanthine-like materials. Fr. (1967), 4 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
  2. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. [6656991 ]
  3. Liu Z, Li T, Wang E: Simultaneous determination of guanine, uric acid, hypoxanthine and xanthine in human plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric detection. Analyst. 1995 Aug;120(8):2181-4. [7677251 ]
  4. Ihara H, Shino Y, Morita Y, Kawaguchi E, Hashizume N, Yoshida M: Is skeletal muscle damaged by the oxidative stress following anaerobic exercise? J Clin Lab Anal. 2001;15(5):239-43. [11574951 ]
  5. Niklasson F: Simultaneous liquid-chromatographic determination of hypoxanthine, xanthine, urate, and creatinine in cerebrospinal fluid, with direct injection. Clin Chem. 1983 Aug;29(8):1543-6. [6872216 ]
  6. Castro-Gago M, Rodriguez IN, Rodriguez-Nunez A, Guitian JP, Rocamonde SL, Rodriguez-Segade S: Therapeutic criteria in hydrocephalic children. Childs Nerv Syst. 1989 Dec;5(6):361-3. [2611770 ]
  7. Kaya M, Moriwaki Y, Ka T, Inokuchi T, Yamamoto A, Takahashi S, Tsutsumi Z, Tsuzita J, Oku Y, Yamamoto T: Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of purine bases (uric acid, hypoxanthine, and xanthine) and oxypurinol after rigorous exercise. Metabolism. 2006 Jan;55(1):103-7. [16324927 ]
  8. Gudbjornsson B, Zak A, Niklasson F, Hallgren R: Hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate in synovial fluid from patients with inflammatory arthritides. Ann Rheum Dis. 1991 Oct;50(10):669-72. [1958086 ]
  9. Teeuwen HW, Elbers EL, van Rossum JM: Rapid and sensitive gas-chromatographic determination of caffeine in blood plasma, saliva, and xanthine beverages. Mol Biol Rep. 1991 Feb;15(1):1-7. [1875916 ]
  10. Becker MA, Kisicki J, Khosravan R, Wu J, Mulford D, Hunt B, MacDonald P, Joseph-Ridge N: Febuxostat (TMX-67), a novel, non-purine, selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, is safe and decreases serum urate in healthy volunteers. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004 Oct;23(8-9):1111-6. [15571211 ]
  11. Kawasaki N, Tanimoto T, Tanaka A, Hayakawa T, Miyasaka N: Determination of non-protein-bound iron in human synovial fluid by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1994 Jun 17;656(2):436-40. [7987499 ]
  12. Cooper N, Khosravan R, Erdmann C, Fiene J, Lee JW: Quantification of uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine in human serum by HPLC for pharmacodynamic studies. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2006 Jun 6;837(1-2):1-10. Epub 2006 May 2. [16631418 ]
  13. Kiss A, Barenyi M, Csontai A: Xanthine stone in the urinary bladder of a male child. Urol Int. 1999;63(4):242-4. [10743702 ]
  14. Kjaergaard N, Moller-Petersen JF, Kristiansen FV, Petersen PL, Ekelund S, Skovbo P: Xanthine and hypoxanthine in amniotic fluid during pregnancy. Dan Med Bull. 1990 Dec;37(6):559-60. [2127397 ]
  15. Wiley DM, Szabo I, Maguire MH, Finley BE, Bennett TL: Measurement of hypoxanthine and xanthine in late-gestation human amniotic fluid by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection. J Chromatogr. 1990 Nov 30;533:73-86. [2081781 ]
  16. Ginsburg I: Could synergistic interactions among reactive oxygen species, proteinases, membrane-perforating enzymes, hydrolases, microbial hemolysins and cytokines be the main cause of tissue damage in infectious and inflammatory conditions? Med Hypotheses. 1998 Oct;51(4):337-46. [9824842 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular weight:
146422.99
Reactions
Hypoxanthine + NAD + Water → Xanthine + NADHdetails
Xanthine + Water + Oxygen → Uric acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Hypoxanthine + NAD + Water → Xanthine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Hypoxanthine + Oxygen + Water → Xanthine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Xanthine + NAD + Water → Uric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Converts guanine to guanosine monophosphate, and hypoxanthine to inosine monophosphate. Transfers the 5-phosphoribosyl group from 5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate onto the purine. Plays a central role in the generation of purine nucleotides through the purine salvage pathway.
Gene Name:
HPRT1
Uniprot ID:
P00492
Molecular weight:
24579.155
Reactions
Xanthylic acid + Pyrophosphate → Xanthine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of guanine, producing xanthine and ammonia (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GDA
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2T3
Molecular weight:
52836.65
Reactions
Guanine + Water → Xanthine + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Involved in purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity
Specific function:
The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and pentose-1-phosphate.
Gene Name:
PNP
Uniprot ID:
P00491
Molecular weight:
32117.69
Reactions
Xanthosine + Phosphoric acid → Xanthine + Ribose 1-phosphatedetails