Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-08-15 21:24:16 UTC
Update Date2013-02-08 18:19:07 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00547
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameMagnesium
DescriptionMagnesium salts are essential in nutrition, being required for the activity of many enzymes, especially those concerned with oxidative phosphorylation. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. It is a component of both intra- and extracellular fluids and is excreted in the urine and feces. Deficiency causes irritability of the nervous system with tetany, vasodilatation, convulsions, tremors, depression, and psychotic behavior. Magnesium ion in large amounts is an ionic laxative, and magnesium sulfate (Epsom salts) is sometimes used for this purpose. So-called "milk of magnesia" is a water suspension of one of the few insoluble magnesium compounds, magnesium hydroxide; the undissolved particles give rise to its appearance and name. Milk of magnesia is a mild base, and is commonly used as an antacid.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Magnesium
  2. Magnesium ions
Chemical FormulaMg
Average Molecular Weight24.305
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight23.985041898
IUPAC Namemagnesium(2+) ion
Traditional IUPAC Namemagnesium
CAS Registry Number7439-95-4
SMILES
[Mg++]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/Mg/q+2
InChI KeyJLVVSXFLKOJNIY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Metal Compounds
ClassHomogeneous Alkaline Earth Metal Compounds
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • a cation(Cyc)
  • divalent metal cation(ChEBI)
  • magnesium cation(ChEBI)
  • monoatomic dication(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentHomogeneous Alkaline Earth Metal Compounds
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Enzyme co-factor
  • Essential minerals
  • Protein component
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point651 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.57ChemAxon
physiological charge2ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count0ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area0ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity0ChemAxon
polarizability1.78ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Erythrocyte
  • Hair
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Lymphocyte
  • Muscle
  • Platelet
  • Skeletal Muscle
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
BloodDetected and Quantified717 +/- 74.3 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified850.00 (700.00-1000.00) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified700.0 +/- 130.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified780.0 +/- 50.0 uMChildren (1-13 year old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified833.0 +/- 208.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified833.0 +/- 250.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified954 +/- 207 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified890.0 (550.0-1230.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
UrineDetected and Quantified262 (42-1189) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified355.0 +/- 98.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
UrineDetected and Quantified289.0 +/- 92.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
BloodDetected and Quantified1534 +/- 242 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMultiple sclerosis
BloodDetected and Quantified793 +/- 134 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothParkinson's disease
BloodDetected and Quantified220.00 (150.00-300.00) uMChildren (1-13 year old)BothPrimary Hypomagnesemia
BloodDetected and Quantified763 +/- 100 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  • Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. Pubmed: 16244393
Multiple sclerosis
  • Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. Pubmed: 16244395
Parkinson's disease
  • Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. Pubmed: 16244392
Primary hypomagnesemia
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003518
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID865
KEGG Compound IDC00305
BioCyc ID13-HYDROXY-MAGNESIUM-PROTOPORP
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkMagnesium
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00547
Metagene LinkHMDB00547
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound888
PDB IDMG
ChEBI ID18420
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Rakicioglu N, Samur G, Topcu A, Topcu AA: The effect of Ramadan on maternal nutrition and composition of breast milk. Pediatr Int. 2006 Jun;48(3):278-83. Pubmed: 16732795
  2. Fowler AJ, Moskowitz DG, Wong A, Cohen SP, Williams ML, Heyman MB: Nutritional status and gastrointestinal structure and function in children with ichthyosis and growth failure. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2004 Feb;38(2):164-9. Pubmed: 14734878
  3. Siqueira WL, de Oliveira E, Mustacchi Z, Nicolau J: Electrolyte concentrations in saliva of children aged 6-10 years with Down syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004 Jul;98(1):76-9. Pubmed: 15243474
  4. Abbasciano V, Sartori S, Trevisani L, Girometti R, Ranzini M, Nielsen I, Mazzotta D, Vecchiatti G, Bononi A, Guglielmini C: Comparison of magnesium concentration in serum, erythrocytes and gastric tissue in two groups of patients affected by chronic gastritis, Helicobacter pylori negative and positive. Magnes Res. 2003 Dec;16(4):281-6. Pubmed: 14979638
  5. Kielczykowska M, Pasternak K, Musik I: The influence of lithium on calcium and magnesium homeostasis in serum and tissues of rats. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska [Med]. 2003;58(2):281-4. Pubmed: 15323205
  6. Resnick LM, Barbagallo M, Bardicef M, Bardicef O, Sorokin Y, Evelhoch J, Dominguez LJ, Mason BA, Cotton DB: Cellular-free magnesium depletion in brain and muscle of normal and preeclamptic pregnancy: a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study. Hypertension. 2004 Sep;44(3):322-6. Epub 2004 Jul 19. Pubmed: 15262910
  7. Korycinska A, Dabrowski W, Rzecki Z, Dragan M, Pozarowski P, Wronska J, Stazka J, Pasternak K, Rolinski J: The degree of lymphocytic mitochondrial transmembrane potential and blood magnesium concentrations during coronary artery bypass grafting. Magnes Res. 2005 Dec;18(4):253-60. Pubmed: 16548140
  8. Wang FJ, Cao J, Ma LP, Jin ZX: [Study on cellular and serum concentration of calcium and magnesium in peripheral blood cells of cirrhosis] Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2004 Mar;12(3):144-7. Pubmed: 15059297
  9. Kedzierska E: [Concentrations of selected bioelements and toxic metals and their influence on health status of children and youth residing in Szczecin] Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2003;49:131-43. Pubmed: 15552844
  10. Mendez DR, Corbett R, Macias C, Laptook A: Total and ionized plasma magnesium concentrations in children after traumatic brain injury. Pediatr Res. 2005 Mar;57(3):347-52. Epub 2004 Dec 7. Pubmed: 15585675
  11. Bologa C, Rusu M, Ianovici N, Tetraru C, Hurjui J, Petris O, Lionte C: [Role of calcium and magnesium ions in cerebrospinal fluid in alcoholic-traumatic coma] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2003 Oct-Dec;107(4):809-12. Pubmed: 14756024
  12. Nielsen FH, Milne DB: A moderately high intake compared to a low intake of zinc depresses magnesium balance and alters indices of bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 May;58(5):703-10. Pubmed: 15116072
  13. Miyamoto Y, Yamamoto H, Murakami H, Kamiyama N, Fukuda M: Studies on cerebrospinal fluid ionized calcium and magnesium concentrations in convulsive children. Pediatr Int. 2004 Aug;46(4):394-7. Pubmed: 15310301
  14. Guo H, Lee JD, Guo M, Lu Y, Tang F, Ueda T: Status of intracellular and extracellular magnesium concentration in patients with cardiac syndrome X. Acta Cardiol. 2005 Jun;60(3):259-63. Pubmed: 15999464
  15. Wang W, Kumar P, Minhas S, Ralph D: Proposals or findings for a new approach about how to define and diagnose premature ejaculation. Eur Urol. 2005 Sep;48(3):418-23. Pubmed: 15967566
  16. Guo H, Cheng J, Lee JD, Ueda T, Shan J, Wang J: Relationship between the degree of intracellular magnesium deficiency and the frequency of chest pain in women with variant angina. Herz. 2004 May;29(3):299-303. Pubmed: 15167956
  17. Bryant RE, Crouse R, Deagen JT: Zinc, iron, copper, selenium, lactoferrin, and ferritin in human pus. Am J Med Sci. 2004 Feb;327(2):73-6. Pubmed: 14770022
  18. Gortzak-Uzan L, Mezad D, Smolin A, Friger M, Huleihel M, Hallak M: Increasing amniotic fluid magnesium concentrations with stable maternal serum levels: a prospective clinical trial. J Reprod Med. 2005 Nov;50(11):817-20. Pubmed: 16419627
  19. Postnikova LB, Alekseeva OP, Kubysheva NI, Gorshkova TN, Ishanova OS: [Significance of biochemical parameters of saliva in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at exacerbation] Klin Lab Diagn. 2004 Oct;(10):16-8. Pubmed: 15584394
  20. Simsek E, Karabay M, Kocabay K: Assessment of magnesium status in newly diagnosed diabetic children: measurement of erythrocyte magnesium level and magnesium tolerance testing. Turk J Pediatr. 2005 Apr-Jun;47(2):132-7. Pubmed: 16052852

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 463 proteins in total.

Enzymes

Gene Name:
CMPK1
Uniprot ID:
P30085
Gene Name:
NT5C1B
Uniprot ID:
Q96P26
Gene Name:
NT5C1A
Uniprot ID:
Q9BXI3
Gene Name:
ALPPL2
Uniprot ID:
P10696
Gene Name:
NME1
Uniprot ID:
P15531
Gene Name:
NME7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5B8
Gene Name:
NME2
Uniprot ID:
P22392
Gene Name:
NME3
Uniprot ID:
Q13232
Gene Name:
NME6
Uniprot ID:
O75414
Gene Name:
FDFT1
Uniprot ID:
P37268
Gene Name:
COMT
Uniprot ID:
P21964
Gene Name:
ARSA
Uniprot ID:
P15289
Gene Name:
PGLS
Uniprot ID:
O95336
Gene Name:
PPAT
Uniprot ID:
Q06203
Gene Name:
BPNT1
Uniprot ID:
O95861
Gene Name:
INPP1
Uniprot ID:
P49441
Gene Name:
ADPGK
Uniprot ID:
Q9BRR6
Gene Name:
ITPA
Uniprot ID:
Q9BY32
Gene Name:
DNASE1
Uniprot ID:
P24855
Gene Name:
PRPS1L1
Uniprot ID:
P21108
Gene Name:
ACSL4
Uniprot ID:
O60488
Gene Name:
ACSL1
Uniprot ID:
P33121
Gene Name:
FHIT
Uniprot ID:
P49789
Gene Name:
ACSL6
Uniprot ID:
Q9UKU0
Gene Name:
NUDT5
Uniprot ID:
Q9UKK9
Gene Name:
PRPS1
Uniprot ID:
P60891
Gene Name:
PRPS2
Uniprot ID:
P11908
Gene Name:
ADK
Uniprot ID:
P55263
Gene Name:
ACSL5
Uniprot ID:
Q9ULC5
Gene Name:
ACSL3
Uniprot ID:
O95573

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 463 proteins in total.