Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Potassium (HMDB00586)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2006-08-15 16:06:05 -0600
Update Date 2013-05-29 13:27:52 -0600
HMDB ID HMDB00586
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Potassium
Description Potassium is an essential electrolyte. Potassium balance is crucial for regulating the excitability of nerves and muscles and so critical for regulating contractility of cardiac muscle. Although the most important changes seen in the presence of deranged potassium are cardiac, smooth muscle is also affected with increasing muscle weakness, a feature of both hyperkalaemia and hypokalaemia. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Potassium (K+) is a positively charged electrolyte, cation, which is present throughout the body in both intracellular and extracellular fluids. The majority of body potassium, >90%, are intracellular. It moves freely from intracellular fluid (ICF) to extracellular fluid (ECF) and vice versa when adenosine triphosphate increases the permeability of the cell membrane. It is mainly replaced inside or outside the cells by another cation, sodium (Na+). The movement of potassium into or out of the cells is linked to certain body hormones and also to certain physiological states. Standard laboratory tests measure ECF potassium. Potassium enters the body rapidly during food ingestion. Insulin is produced when a meal is eaten; this causes the temporary movement of potassium from ECF to ICF. Over the ensuing hours, the kidneys excrete the ingested potassium and homeostasis is returned. In the critically ill patient, suffering from hyperkalaemia, this mechanism can be manipulated beneficially by administering high concentration (50%) intravenous glucose. Insulin can be added to the glucose, but glucose alone will stimulate insulin production and cause movement of potassium from ECF to ICF. The stimulation of alpha receptors causes increased movement of potassium from ICF to ECF. A noradrenaline infusion can elevate serum potassium levels. An adrenaline infusion, or elevated adrenaline levels, can lower serum potassium levels. Metabolic acidosis causes a rise in extracellular potassium levels. In this situation, excess of hydrogen ions (H+) are exchanged for intracellular potassium ions, probably as a result of the cellular response to a falling blood pH. Metabolic alkalosis causes the opposite effect, with potassium moving into the cells. (PMID: 17883675 Link_out).
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. K+
  2. Kalium
  3. Potassium
  4. Potassium (ion)
  5. Potassium (K+)
  6. Potassium cation
  7. Potassium ion
  8. Potassium ion (K+)
  9. Potassium ion (K1+)
  10. Potassium ion(+)
  11. Potassium ion(1+)
  12. Potassium monocation
  13. Potassium(+)
  14. Potassium(1+)
  15. Potassium(1+) ion
  16. Potassium(I) cation
Chemical Formula K
Average Molecular Weight 39.0983
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 38.963706861
IUPAC Name potassium
Traditional IUPAC Name potassium
CAS Registry Number 7440-09-7
SMILES [K+]
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/K/q+1
InChI Key NPYPAHLBTDXSSS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Inorganic Compounds
Super Class Homogeneous Metal Compounds
Class Homogeneous Alkali Metal Compounds
Sub Class N/A
Other Descriptors
  • a cation(Cyc)
  • alkali metal cation(ChEBI)
  • elemental potassium(ChEBI)
  • monoatomic monocation(ChEBI)
  • monovalent inorganic cation(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct Parent Homogeneous Alkali Metal Compounds
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
Biofunction
  • Essential minerals
Application Not Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Golgi apparatus
Physical Properties
State Solid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point 63.2 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility Not Available Not Available
LogP Not Available Not Available
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
LogP 0.2 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 0 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 0 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 0 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 0 ChemAxon
Refractivity 0 ChemAxon
Polarizability 1.78 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 1 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge 1 ChemAxon
Spectra
Not Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Golgi apparatus
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location Not Available
Pathways
Name SMPDB Link KEGG Link
Lactose Degradation SMP00457 Not Available
Trehalose Degradation SMP00467 Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
4500.00 (3500.00-5500.00) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
4600.0 +/- 500.0 uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Comment Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
4200.0 (3600.0-4800.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
4100.0 (3600.0-4600.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Comment Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
4560.0 +/- 560.0 uM Newborn (0-30 days old) Not Specified Comment Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
2960.0 (2620.0-3300.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
2163 +/- 274 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
3593.14 (553.33-8078.58) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
4605.2 (2631.5 - 6578.9) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Urine Detected and Quantified
4407.8 +/- 131.5 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
5460.00 +/- 197.00 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 2750.00 (2500.00-3000.00) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Renal tubular acidosis
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Renal tubular acidosis, distal, RTA type 1
      Associated OMIM IDs
      • 179800 Link_out (Renal tubular acidosis, distal, RTA type 1)
      DrugBank ID DB01345 Link_out
      DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
      Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
      Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
      FoodDB ID FDB003521
      KNApSAcK ID Not Available
      Chemspider ID Not Available
      KEGG Compound ID C00238 Link_out
      BioCyc ID K%2b Link_out
      BiGG ID 34349 Link_out
      Wikipedia Link Potassium Link_out
      NuGOwiki Link HMDB00586 Link_out
      Metagene Link HMDB00586 Link_out
      METLIN ID 3197 Link_out
      PubChem Compound Not Available
      PDB ID Not Available
      ChEBI ID 26216 Link_out
      References
      Synthesis Reference Alberti, Augusto. Recovering potassium salts from the refuse liquor of the manufacture of tartaric acid. (1910), US 957295 19100510 CAN 4:13164 AN 1910:13164
      Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
      General References
      1. Schaafsma A, de Vries PJ, Saris WH: Delay of natural bone loss by higher intakes of specific minerals and vitamins. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2001 May;41(4):225-49. Pubmed: 11401244 Link_out
      2. Preuss HG: Diet, genetics and hypertension. J Am Coll Nutr. 1997 Aug;16(4):296-305. Pubmed: 9263178 Link_out
      3. Beede DK: Mineral and water nutrition. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 1991 Jul;7(2):373-90. Pubmed: 1893277 Link_out
      4. Brooks G: Potassium additive algorithm for use in continuous renal replacement therapy. Nurs Crit Care. 2006 Nov-Dec;11(6):273-80. Pubmed: 17883675 Link_out

      Enzymes

      Show all enzymes and transporters Important Only showing the first 50 enzymes. There are 55 enzymes in total.

      Name: 2-oxoisovalerate dehydrogenase subunit alpha, mitochondrial
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: BCKDHA
      Uniprot ID: P12694 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: S-adenosylmethionine synthase isoform type-2
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: MAT2A
      Uniprot ID: P31153 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: S-adenosylmethionine synthase isoform type-1
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: MAT1A
      Uniprot ID: Q00266 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: PKM
      Uniprot ID: P14618 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Pyruvate kinase isozymes R/L
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: PKLR
      Uniprot ID: P30613 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: IMPDH2
      Uniprot ID: P12268 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 1
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: IMPDH1
      Uniprot ID: P20839 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Pyridoxal kinase
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: PDXK
      Uniprot ID: O00764 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-3
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: ATP1B3
      Uniprot ID: P54709 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-2
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: ATP1B2
      Uniprot ID: P14415 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-1
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: ATP1B1
      Uniprot ID: P05026 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Potassium-transporting ATPase alpha chain 2
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: ATP12A
      Uniprot ID: P54707 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Protein ATP1B4
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: ATP1B4
      Uniprot ID: Q9UN42 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: ATP1A1
      Uniprot ID: P05023 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-3
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: ATP1A3
      Uniprot ID: P13637 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: ATP4B
      Uniprot ID: P51164 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Potassium-transporting ATPase alpha chain 1
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: ATP4A
      Uniprot ID: P20648 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-2
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: ATP1A2
      Uniprot ID: P50993 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNMA1
      Uniprot ID: Q12791 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNH2
      Uniprot ID: Q12809 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Calcium-binding protein p22
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: CHP
      Uniprot ID: Q99653 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: GABBR1
      Uniprot ID: Q9UBS5 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Inward rectifier potassium channel 2
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNJ2
      Uniprot ID: P63252 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 1
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNQ1
      Uniprot ID: P51787 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 1
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNJ1
      Uniprot ID: P48048 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Calsenilin
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNIP3
      Uniprot ID: Q9Y2W7 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 11
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNJ11
      Uniprot ID: Q14654 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Steroidogenic factor 1
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NR5A1
      Uniprot ID: Q13285 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-4
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: ATP1A4
      Uniprot ID: Q13733 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Kv channel-interacting protein 1
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNIP1
      Uniprot ID: Q9NZI2 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Kv channel-interacting protein 2
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNIP2
      Uniprot ID: Q9NS61 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Calcium-activated potassium channel subunit beta-3
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNMB3
      Uniprot ID: Q9NPA1 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E member 3
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNE3
      Uniprot ID: Q9Y6H6 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 1
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNH1
      Uniprot ID: O95259 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADPH-dependent diflavin oxidoreductase 1
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDOR1
      Uniprot ID: Q9UHB4 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Acyl-coenzyme A synthetase ACSM2B, mitochondrial
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: ACSM2B
      Uniprot ID: Q68CK6 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Tubulin--tyrosine ligase
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: TTL
      Uniprot ID: Q8NG68 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Pyruvate kinase
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: Not Available
      Uniprot ID: Q16715 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Pyruvate kinase
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: Not Available
      Uniprot ID: Q16716 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Pyruvate kinase
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: PKM2
      Uniprot ID: Q504U3 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Pyruvate kinase
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: PKM2
      Uniprot ID: Q8WUW7 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E member 1
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNE1
      Uniprot ID: P15382 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 2
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNQ2
      Uniprot ID: O43526 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNA1
      Uniprot ID: Q09470 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 3
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNQ3
      Uniprot ID: O43525 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E member 2
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNE2
      Uniprot ID: Q9Y6J6 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 2
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCND2
      Uniprot ID: Q9NZV8 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 3
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCND3
      Uniprot ID: Q9UK17 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 5
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNQ5
      Uniprot ID: Q9NR82 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 4
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNA4
      Uniprot ID: P22459 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA