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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:10:06 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01206
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAcetyl-CoA
DescriptionThe main function of coenzyme A is to carry acyl groups (such as the acetyl group) or thioesters. Acetyl-CoA is an important molecule itself. It is the precursor to HMG CoA, which is a vital component in cholesterol and ketone synthesis. (wikipedia). acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Ac-CoA
  2. Ac-Coenzyme A
  3. Ac-S-CoA
  4. Ac-S-Coenzyme A
  5. Acetyl coenzyme-A
  6. Acetyl-CoA
  7. Acetyl-Coenzyme A
  8. Acetyl-S-CoA
  9. Acetyl-S-Coenzyme A
  10. Acetylcoenzyme-A
  11. S-Acetate CoA
  12. S-Acetate Coenzyme A
  13. S-Acetyl coenzyme A
Chemical FormulaC23H38N7O17P3S
Average Molecular Weight809.571
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight809.125773051
IUPAC Name{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2-({[({[(3R)-3-[(2-{[2-(acetylsulfanyl)ethyl]carbamoyl}ethyl)carbamoyl]-3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropoxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)(hydroxy)phosphoryl]oxy}methyl)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-4-hydroxyoxolan-3-yl]oxy}phosphonic acid
Traditional Name[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2-[({[(3R)-3-[(2-{[2-(acetylsulfanyl)ethyl]carbamoyl}ethyl)carbamoyl]-3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl]oxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)methyl]-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-4-hydroxyoxolan-3-yl]oxyphosphonic acid
CAS Registry Number72-89-9
SMILES
CC(=O)SCCNC(=O)CCNC(=O)[C@H](O)C(C)(C)COP(O)(=O)OP(O)(=O)OC[C@H]1O[C@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H]1OP(O)(O)=O)N1C=NC2=C1N=CN=C2N
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C23H38N7O17P3S/c1-12(31)51-7-6-25-14(32)4-5-26-21(35)18(34)23(2,3)9-44-50(41,42)47-49(39,40)43-8-13-17(46-48(36,37)38)16(33)22(45-13)30-11-29-15-19(24)27-10-28-20(15)30/h10-11,13,16-18,22,33-34H,4-9H2,1-3H3,(H,25,32)(H,26,35)(H,39,40)(H,41,42)(H2,24,27,28)(H2,36,37,38)/t13-,16-,17-,18+,22-/m1/s1
InChI KeyZSLZBFCDCINBPY-ZSJPKINUSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassLipids
ClassFatty Acid Esters
Sub ClassAcyl CoAs
Other Descriptors
  • Aromatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
  • acyl-CoA(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1 Phosphoribosyl Imidazole
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Carboxamide Group
  • Carboxylic Thioester
  • Coenzyme A
  • Glycosyl Compound
  • Imidazole
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Monosaccharide Phosphate
  • N Glycosyl Compound
  • Organic Hypophosphite
  • Organic Phosphite
  • Organic Pyrophosphate
  • Oxolane
  • Pentose Monosaccharide
  • Phosphoric Acid Ester
  • Purine
  • Purine Ribonucleoside 3',5' Bisphosphate
  • Pyrimidine
  • Saccharide
  • Secondary Alcohol
  • Secondary Carboxylic Acid Amide
  • Thiocarboxylic Acid Ester
Direct ParentAcyl CoAs
Ontology
StatusExpected and Not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Component of Alanine and aspartate metabolism
  • Component of Aminosugars metabolism
  • Component of Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Component of Bile acid biosynthesis
  • Component of Butanoate metabolism
  • Component of Fatty acid metabolism
  • Component of Glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Component of Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Component of Propanoate metabolism
  • Component of Pyruvate metabolism
  • Component of Tetracycline biosynthesis
  • Component of Tryptophan metabolism
  • Component of beta-Alanine metabolism
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.3 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.58ALOGPS
logP-7ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.83ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count17ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count9ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area363.63ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count20ChemAxon
Refractivity172.21ChemAxon
Polarizability71.4ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Brain
  • Muscle
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Spleen
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Amino Sugar MetabolismSMP00045map00520
Beta Oxidation of Very Long Chain Fatty AcidsSMP00052map01040
Beta-Alanine MetabolismSMP00007map00410
Butyrate MetabolismSMP00073map00650
Citric Acid CycleSMP00057map00020
Ethanol DegradationSMP00449Not Available
Fatty Acid BiosynthesisSMP00456Not Available
Fatty acid MetabolismSMP00051map00071
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004map00260
Ketone Body MetabolismSMP00071map00072
Lysine DegradationSMP00037map00310
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Long Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsSMP00482Not Available
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Medium Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsSMP00481Not Available
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Short Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsSMP00480Not Available
Oxidation of Branched Chain Fatty AcidsSMP00030Not Available
Phytanic Acid Peroxisomal OxidationSMP00450Not Available
Propanoate MetabolismSMP00016map00640
Pyruvate MetabolismSMP00060map00620
Steroid BiosynthesisSMP00023map00100
Transfer of Acetyl Groups into MitochondriaSMP00466Not Available
Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine DegradationSMP00032map00280
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022491
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID392413
KEGG Compound IDC00024
BioCyc IDACETYL-COA
BiGG ID33558
Wikipedia LinkAcetyl-CoA
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01206
Metagene LinkHMDB01206
METLIN ID6082
PubChem Compound444493
PDB IDACO
ChEBI ID15351
References
Synthesis ReferenceTucek, S. The synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A and acetylcholine from citrate and acetate in the nerve endings of mammalian brain. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, General Subjects (1966), 117(1), 278-80.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Blank ML, Smith ZL, Fitzgerald V, Snyder F: The CoA-independent transacylase in PAF biosynthesis: tissue distribution and molecular species selectivity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 Feb 9;1254(3):295-301. Pubmed: 7857969
  2. Wysocki SJ, Wilkinson SP, Hahnel R, Wong CY, Panegyres PK: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria, combined with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Clin Chim Acta. 1976 Aug 2;70(3):399-406. Pubmed: 947633
  3. Al-Buheissi SZ, Patel HR, Meinl W, Hewer A, Bryan RL, Glatt H, Miller RA, Phillips DH: N-Acetyltransferase and sulfotransferase activity in human prostate: potential for carcinogen activation. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2006 Jun;16(6):391-9. Pubmed: 16708048
  4. Michno A, Skibowska A, Raszeja-Specht A, Cwikowska J, Szutowicz A: The role of adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase in the metabolism of acetyl coenzyme a and function of blood platelets in diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2004 Jan;53(1):66-72. Pubmed: 14681844
  5. Griffin MJ, Sul HS: Insulin regulation of fatty acid synthase gene transcription: roles of USF and SREBP-1c. IUBMB Life. 2004 Oct;56(10):595-600. Pubmed: 15814457
  6. Putman CT, Spriet LL, Hultman E, Dyck DJ, Heigenhauser GJ: Skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase activity during acetate infusion in humans. Am J Physiol. 1995 May;268(5 Pt 1):E1007-17. Pubmed: 7762627
  7. Szutowicz A, Tomaszewicz M, Jankowska A, Madziar B, Bielarczyk H: [Mechanisms of selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons to neurotoxic stimuli] Postepy Hig Med Dosw. 1999;53(2):263-75. Pubmed: 10355292
  8. Ingebretsen OC, Bakken AM, Farstad M: The content of coenzyme A, acetyl-CoA and long-chain acyl-CoA in human blood platelets. Clin Chim Acta. 1982 Dec 23;126(3):307-13. Pubmed: 7151284
  9. Michno A, Raszeja-Specht A, Jankowska-Kulawy A, Pawelczyk T, Szutowicz A: Effect of L-carnitine on acetyl-CoA content and activity of blood platelets in healthy and diabetic persons. Clin Chem. 2005 Sep;51(9):1673-82. Epub 2005 Jul 14. Pubmed: 16020499
  10. Constantin-Teodosiu D, Peirce NS, Fox J, Greenhaff PL: Muscle pyruvate availability can limit the flux, but not activation, of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex during submaximal exercise in humans. J Physiol. 2004 Dec 1;561(Pt 2):647-55. Epub 2004 Oct 7. Pubmed: 15579544
  11. Crystal HA, Davies P: Cortical substance P-like immunoreactivity in cases of Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. J Neurochem. 1982 Jun;38(6):1781-4. Pubmed: 6176686
  12. Evans MK, Savasi I, Heigenhauser GJ, Spriet LL: Effects of acetate infusion and hyperoxia on muscle substrate phosphorylation after onset of moderate exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Dec;281(6):E1144-50. Pubmed: 11701427
  13. Peters SJ: Regulation of PDH activity and isoform expression: diet and exercise. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 Dec;31(Pt 6):1274-80. Pubmed: 14641042
  14. Roe CR, Sweetman L, Roe DS, David F, Brunengraber H: Treatment of cardiomyopathy and rhabdomyolysis in long-chain fat oxidation disorders using an anaplerotic odd-chain triglyceride. J Clin Invest. 2002 Jul;110(2):259-69. Pubmed: 12122118
  15. Skibowska A, Raszeja-Specht A, Szutowicz A: Platelet function and acetyl-coenzyme A metabolism in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003 Sep;41(9):1136-43. Pubmed: 14598862
  16. Girard J: [Contribution of free fatty acids to impairment of insulin secretion and action. mechanism of beta-cell lipotoxicity] Med Sci (Paris). 2005 Dec;21 Spec No:19-25. Pubmed: 16598900
  17. Szutowicz A, Jankowska A, Tomaszewicz M: [Disturbances of glucose metabolism in epilepsy and other neurodegenerative diseases] Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2000;34 Suppl 8:59-66. Pubmed: 11780590
  18. Spriet LL, MacLean DA, Dyck DJ, Hultman E, Cederblad G, Graham TE: Caffeine ingestion and muscle metabolism during prolonged exercise in humans. Am J Physiol. 1992 Jun;262(6 Pt 1):E891-8. Pubmed: 1616022
  19. Constantin-Teodosiu D, Carlin JI, Cederblad G, Harris RC, Hultman E: Acetyl group accumulation and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in human muscle during incremental exercise. Acta Physiol Scand. 1991 Dec;143(4):367-72. Pubmed: 1815472
  20. Boden G, Jadali F, White J, Liang Y, Mozzoli M, Chen X, Coleman E, Smith C: Effects of fat on insulin-stimulated carbohydrate metabolism in normal men. J Clin Invest. 1991 Sep;88(3):960-6. Pubmed: 1885781

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 179 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in ketogenesis (ketone body formation). Terminal step in leucine catabolism.
Gene Name:
HMGCL
Uniprot ID:
P35914
Molecular weight:
34359.84
Reactions
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA → Acetyl-CoA + Acetoacetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in ATP citrate synthase activity
Specific function:
ATP citrate-lyase is the primary enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA in many tissues. Has a central role in de novo lipid synthesis. In nervous tissue it may be involved in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine.
Gene Name:
ACLY
Uniprot ID:
P53396
Molecular weight:
120838.27
Reactions
ADP + Phosphoric acid + Acetyl-CoA + Oxalacetic acid → Adenosine triphosphate + Citric acid + Coenzyme Adetails
Adenosine triphosphate + Citric acid + Coenzyme A → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Acetyl-CoA + Oxalacetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transcription cofactor activity
Specific function:
Functions as histone acetyltransferase and regulates transcription via chromatin remodeling. Acetylates all four core histones in nucleosomes. Histone acetylation gives an epigenetic tag for transcriptional activation. Mediates cAMP-gene regulation by binding specifically to phosphorylated CREB protein. Also functions as acetyltransferase for nonhistone targets. Acetylates 'Lys-131' of ALX1 and acts as its coactivator in the presence of CREBBP. Acetylates SIRT2 and is proposed to indirectly increase the transcriptional activity of TP53 through acetylation and subsequent attenuation of SIRT2 deacetylase function. Acetylates HDAC1 leading to its inactivation and modulation of transcription. Acts as a TFAP2A-mediated transcriptional coactivator in presence of CITED2. Plays a role as a coactivator of NEUROD1-dependent transcription of the secretin and p21 genes and controls terminal differentiation of cells in the intestinal epithelium. Promotes cardiac myocyte enlargement. Can also mediate transcriptional repression. Binds to and may be involved in the transforming capacity of the adenovirus E1A protein. In case of HIV-1 infection, it is recruited by the viral protein Tat. Regulates Tat's transactivating activity and may help inducing chromatin remodeling of proviral genes. Acetylates FOXO1 and enhances its transcriptional activity.
Gene Name:
EP300
Uniprot ID:
Q09472
Molecular weight:
264159.725
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHB
Uniprot ID:
P11177
Molecular weight:
39233.1
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACAT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BWD1
Molecular weight:
41350.5
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + Acetoacetyl-CoAdetails
Acetyl-CoA + Butyryl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxohexanoyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in transcription cofactor activity
Specific function:
Acetylates histones, giving a specific tag for transcriptional activation. Also acetylates non-histone proteins, like NCOA3 and FOXO1. Binds specifically to phosphorylated CREB and enhances its transcriptional activity toward cAMP-responsive genes. Acts as a coactivator of ALX1 in the presence of EP300.
Gene Name:
CREBBP
Uniprot ID:
Q92793
Molecular weight:
260991.825
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Enzyme which catalyzes the acetylation of polyamines. Substrate specificity: norspermidine > spermidine = spermine >> N(1)acetylspermine = putrescine.
Gene Name:
SAT2
Uniprot ID:
Q96F10
Molecular weight:
19154.905
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + an alkane-alpha,omega-diamine → Coenzyme A + an N-acetyldiaminedetails
Acetyl-CoA + Putrescine → Coenzyme A + N-Acetylputrescinedetails
General function:
Involved in malonyl-CoA decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA. In the fatty acid biosynthesis MCD selectively removes malonyl-CoA and thus assures that methyl-malonyl-CoA is the only chain elongating substrate for fatty acid synthase and that fatty acids with multiple methyl side chains are produced. In peroxisomes it may be involved in degrading intraperoxisomal malonyl-CoA, which is generated by the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of odd chain-length dicarboxylic fatty acids.
Gene Name:
MLYCD
Uniprot ID:
O95822
Molecular weight:
55002.94
Reactions
Malonyl-CoA → Acetyl-CoA + CO(2)details
Malonyl-CoA → Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity
Specific function:
ACC-beta may be involved in the provision of malonyl-CoA or in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation, rather than fatty acid biosynthesis. Carries out three functions: biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase.
Gene Name:
ACACB
Uniprot ID:
O00763
Molecular weight:
276538.575
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetyl-CoA + Carbonic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Malonyl-CoAdetails
Acetyl-CoA + Carboxybiotin-carboxyl-carrier protein → Malonyl-CoA + Holo-[carboxylase]details
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Pyruvate carboxylase catalyzes a 2-step reaction, involving the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the covalently attached biotin in the first step and the transfer of the carboxyl group to pyruvate in the second. Catalyzes in a tissue specific manner, the initial reactions of glucose (liver, kidney) and lipid (adipose tissue, liver, brain) synthesis from pyruvate.
Gene Name:
PC
Uniprot ID:
P11498
Molecular weight:
129632.565
General function:
Involved in acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Participates in the detoxification of a plethora of hydrazine and arylamine drugs. Catalyzes the N- or O-acetylation of various arylamine and heterocyclic amine substrates and is able to bioactivate several known carcinogens.
Gene Name:
NAT1
Uniprot ID:
P18440
Molecular weight:
33898.445
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + an arylamine → Coenzyme A + an N-acetylarylaminedetails
2,4-Diamino-6-nitrotoluene + Acetyl-CoA → 4-Acetamido-2-amino-6-nitrotoluene + Coenzyme Adetails
Acetyl-CoA + Isoniazid → Coenzyme A + Acetylisoniaziddetails
Acetyl-CoA + Acetylhydrazine → Coenzyme A + N,N'-Diacetylhydrazinedetails
General function:
Involved in acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Participates in the detoxification of a plethora of hydrazine and arylamine drugs. Catalyzes the N- or O-acetylation of various arylamine and heterocyclic amine substrates and is able to bioactivate several known carcinogens.
Gene Name:
NAT2
Uniprot ID:
P11245
Molecular weight:
33570.245
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + an arylamine → Coenzyme A + an N-acetylarylaminedetails
2,4-Diamino-6-nitrotoluene + Acetyl-CoA → 4-Acetamido-2-amino-6-nitrotoluene + Coenzyme Adetails
Acetyl-CoA + Isoniazid → Coenzyme A + Acetylisoniaziddetails
Acetyl-CoA + Acetylhydrazine → Coenzyme A + N,N'-Diacetylhydrazinedetails
General function:
Involved in 5-aminolevulinate synthase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALAS1
Uniprot ID:
P13196
Molecular weight:
70580.325
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Essential for RNA polymerase III to make a number of small nuclear and cytoplasmic RNAs, including 5S RNA, tRNA, and adenovirus-associated (VA) RNA of both cellular and viral origin. Has histone acetyltransferase activity (HAT) with unique specificity for free and nucleosomal H3. May cooperate with GTF3C5 in facilitating the recruitment of TFIIIB and RNA polymerase through direct interactions with BRF1, POLR3C and POLR3F. May be localized close to the A box.
Gene Name:
GTF3C4
Uniprot ID:
Q9UKN8
Molecular weight:
91981.635
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes acetyl-CoA to acetate and CoA.
Gene Name:
ACOT12
Uniprot ID:
Q8WYK0
Molecular weight:
62033.46
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Water → Coenzyme A + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh) from acetyl CoA and choline at cholinergic synapses.
Gene Name:
CHAT
Uniprot ID:
P28329
Molecular weight:
70425.285
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Choline → Coenzyme A + Acetylcholine details
General function:
Involved in transcription coactivator activity
Specific function:
Nuclear receptor coactivator that directly binds nuclear receptors and stimulates the transcriptional activities in a hormone-dependent fashion. Plays a central role in creating a multisubunit coactivator complex, which probably acts via remodeling of chromatin. Involved in the coactivation of different nuclear receptors, such as for steroids (GR and ER), retinoids (RARs and RXRs), thyroid hormone (TRs), vitamin D3 (VDR) and prostanoids (PPARs). Displays histone acetyltransferase activity. Also involved in the coactivation of the NF-kappa-B pathway via its interaction with the NFKB1 subunit. Interacts with PSMB9.
Gene Name:
NCOA3
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6Q9
Molecular weight:
154399.59
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Functions as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) to promote transcriptional activation. Has significant histone acetyltransferase activity with core histones (H3 and H4), and also with nucleosome core particles. Inhibits cell-cycle progression and counteracts the mitogenic activity of the adenoviral oncoprotein E1A. In case of HIV-1 infection, it is recruited by the viral protein Tat. Regulates Tat's transactivating activity and may help inducing chromatin remodeling of proviral genes.
Gene Name:
KAT2B
Uniprot ID:
Q92831
Molecular weight:
93012.295
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Carnitine acetylase is specific for short chain fatty acids. Carnitine acetylase seems to affect the flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. It may be involved as well in the transport of acetyl-CoA into mitochondria.
Gene Name:
CRAT
Uniprot ID:
P43155
Molecular weight:
70875.095
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + L-Carnitine → Coenzyme A + L-Acetylcarnitinedetails
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Enzyme which catalyzes the acetylation of polyamines. Substrate specificity: norspermidine = spermidine >> spermine > N(1)-acetylspermine > putrescine. This highly regulated enzyme allows a fine attenuation of the intracellular concentration of polyamines. Also involved in the regulation of polyamine transport out of cells. Acts on 1,3-diaminopropane, 1,5-diaminopentane, putrescine, spermidine (forming N(1)- and N(8)-acetylspermidine), spermine, N(1)-acetylspermidine and N(8)-acetylspermidine.
Gene Name:
SAT1
Uniprot ID:
P21673
Molecular weight:
20023.8
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + an alkane-alpha,omega-diamine → Coenzyme A + an N-acetyldiaminedetails
Acetyl-CoA + Putrescine → Coenzyme A + N-Acetylputrescinedetails
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Controls the night/day rhythm of melatonin production in the pineal gland. Catalyzes the N-acetylation of serotonin into N-acetylserotonin, the penultimate step in the synthesis of melatonin.
Gene Name:
AANAT
Uniprot ID:
Q16613
Molecular weight:
23343.8
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine → Coenzyme A + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylaminedetails
Acetyl-CoA + Serotonin → Coenzyme A + N-Acetylserotonindetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Abolishes BNIP3-mediated apoptosis and mitochondrial damage.
Gene Name:
ACAA2
Uniprot ID:
P42765
Molecular weight:
41923.82
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-oxoacyl-CoAdetails
Acyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxoacyl-CoAdetails
Succinyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxoadipyl-CoAdetails
Propionyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 2-Methylacetoacetyl-CoAdetails
Acetyl-CoA + Butyryl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxohexanoyl-CoAdetails
Octanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxodecanoyl-CoAdetails
Lauroyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxotetradecanoyl-CoAdetails
Tetradecanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxohexadecanoyl-CoAdetails
Decanoyl-CoA (n-C10:0CoA) + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxododecanoyl-CoAdetails
Hexanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxooctanoyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in chromatin binding
Specific function:
Has histone acetyltransferase activity, with a preference for histone H4.
Gene Name:
CDY1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6F8
Molecular weight:
60472.605
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
Fatty acid synthetase catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. This multifunctional protein has 7 catalytic activities and an acyl carrier protein.
Gene Name:
FASN
Uniprot ID:
P49327
Molecular weight:
273424.06
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + n malonyl-CoA + 2n NADPH → a long-chain fatty acid + (n+1) CoA + n CO(2) + 2n NADP(+)details
Acetyl-CoA + [acyl-carrier-protein] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]details
Acetyl-CoA + Acyl-carrier protein → Coenzyme A + Acetyl-[acyl-carrier protein]details
General function:
Involved in chromatin binding
Specific function:
Catalytic subunit of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex which is involved in transcriptional activation of select genes principally by acetylation of nucleosomal histones H4 and H2A. This modification may both alter nucleosome-DNA interactions and promote interaction of the modified histones with other proteins which positively regulate transcription. This complex may be required for the activation of transcriptional programs associated with oncogene and proto-oncogene mediated growth induction, tumor suppressor mediated growth arrest and replicative senescence, apoptosis, and DNA repair. NuA4 may also play a direct role in DNA repair when recruited to sites of DNA damage. Directly acetylates and activates ATM. In case of HIV-1 infection, interaction with the viral Tat protein leads to KAT5 polyubiquitination and targets it to degradation.
Gene Name:
KAT5
Uniprot ID:
Q92993
Molecular weight:
56291.915
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity
Specific function:
Activates acetate so that it can be used for lipid synthesis or for energy generation.
Gene Name:
ACSS2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NR19
Molecular weight:
78579.11
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoAdetails
Acetyl adenylate + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Acetyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Plays a major role in ketone body metabolism.
Gene Name:
ACAT1
Uniprot ID:
P24752
Molecular weight:
45199.2
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + Acetoacetyl-CoAdetails
Acetyl-CoA + Butyryl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxohexanoyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in transcription coactivator activity
Specific function:
Nuclear receptor coactivator that directly binds nuclear receptors and stimulates the transcriptional activities in a hormone-dependent fashion. Involved in the coactivation of different nuclear receptors, such as for steroids (PGR, GR and ER), retinoids (RXRs), thyroid hormone (TRs) and prostanoids (PPARs). Also involved in coactivation mediated by STAT3, STAT5A, STAT5B and STAT6 transcription factors. Displays histone acetyltransferase activity toward H3 and H4; the relevance of such activity remains however unclear. Plays a central role in creating multisubunit coactivator complexes that act via remodeling of chromatin, and possibly acts by participating in both chromatin remodeling and recruitment of general transcription factors. Required with NCOA2 to control energy balance between white and brown adipose tissues. Required for mediating steroid hormone response. Isoform 2 has a higher thyroid hormone-dependent transactivation activity than isoform 1 and isoform 3.
Gene Name:
NCOA1
Uniprot ID:
Q15788
Molecular weight:
156755.44
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme condenses acetyl-CoA with acetoacetyl-CoA to form HMG-CoA, which is the substrate for HMG-CoA reductase.
Gene Name:
HMGCS2
Uniprot ID:
P54868
Molecular weight:
52481.065
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Water + Acetoacetyl-CoA → 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + Coenzyme Adetails
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + Coenzyme A → Acetyl-CoA + Water + Acetoacetyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity
Specific function:
Important for maintaining normal body temperature during fasting and for energy homeostasis. Essential for energy expenditure under ketogenic conditions (By similarity). Converts acetate to acetyl-CoA so that it can be used for oxidation through the tricarboxylic cycle to produce ATP and CO(2).
Gene Name:
ACSS1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NUB1
Molecular weight:
74625.88
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoAdetails
Acetyl adenylate + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Acetyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups, acyl groups converted into alkyl on transfer
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CS
Uniprot ID:
O75390
Molecular weight:
51712.025
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Water + Oxalacetic acid → Citric acid + Coenzyme Adetails
Citric acid + Coenzyme A → Acetyl-CoA + Water + Oxalacetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in chromatin binding
Specific function:
May have histone acetyltransferase activity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CDY2A
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6F7
Molecular weight:
60523.72
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACAA1
Uniprot ID:
P09110
Molecular weight:
34664.46
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-oxoacyl-CoAdetails
Succinyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxoadipyl-CoAdetails
Propionyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 2-Methylacetoacetyl-CoAdetails
Acetyl-CoA + Butyryl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxohexanoyl-CoAdetails
Octanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxodecanoyl-CoAdetails
Lauroyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxotetradecanoyl-CoAdetails
Tetradecanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxohexadecanoyl-CoAdetails
Decanoyl-CoA (n-C10:0CoA) + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxododecanoyl-CoAdetails
Hexanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxooctanoyl-CoAdetails
OPC6-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxo-OPC8-CoAdetails
OPC4-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxo-OPC6-CoAdetails
(+)-7-Isojasmonic acid CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxo-OPC4-CoAdetails
Cervonyl coenzyme A + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + (6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z,18Z,21Z)-3-Oxotetracosahexa-6,9,12,15,18,21-enoyl-CoAdetails
Docosa-4,7,10,13,16-pentaenoyl CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + (6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z,18Z)-3-Oxotetracosapenta-6,9,12,15,18-enoyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHA1
Uniprot ID:
P08559
Molecular weight:
43295.255
General function:
Involved in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction in the biogenesis of long-chain fatty acids. Carries out three functions: biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase.
Gene Name:
ACACA
Uniprot ID:
Q13085
Molecular weight:
269997.01
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetyl-CoA + Carbonic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Malonyl-CoAdetails
Acetyl-CoA + Carboxybiotin-carboxyl-carrier protein → Malonyl-CoA + Holo-[carboxylase]details
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HADHB
Uniprot ID:
P55084
Molecular weight:
51293.955
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-oxoacyl-CoAdetails
Acyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxoacyl-CoAdetails
Succinyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxoadipyl-CoAdetails
Propionyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 2-Methylacetoacetyl-CoAdetails
Acetyl-CoA + Butyryl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxohexanoyl-CoAdetails
Octanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxodecanoyl-CoAdetails
Lauroyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxotetradecanoyl-CoAdetails
Tetradecanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxohexadecanoyl-CoAdetails
Decanoyl-CoA (n-C10:0CoA) + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxododecanoyl-CoAdetails
Hexanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxooctanoyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in glycine C-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GCAT
Uniprot ID:
O75600
Molecular weight:
47973.79
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Glycine → Coenzyme A + L-2-Amino-3-oxobutanoic aciddetails
Acetyl-CoA + Glycine → Coenzyme A + L-2-Amino-3-oxobutanoic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHA2
Uniprot ID:
P29803
Molecular weight:
42932.855
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Plays a role in valine and pyrimidine metabolism. Binds fatty acyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
ALDH6A1
Uniprot ID:
Q02252
Molecular weight:
57839.31
Reactions
Malonic semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD(P)(+) → Acetyl-CoA + CO(2) + NAD(P)Hdetails
Malonic semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD → Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Malonic semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NADP → Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GNPNAT1
Uniprot ID:
Q96EK6
Molecular weight:
20748.965
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Glucosamine 6-phosphate → Coenzyme A + N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine 6-Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme condenses acetyl-CoA with acetoacetyl-CoA to form HMG-CoA, which is the substrate for HMG-CoA reductase.
Gene Name:
HMGCS1
Uniprot ID:
Q01581
Molecular weight:
57293.105
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Water + Acetoacetyl-CoA → 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + Coenzyme Adetails
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + Coenzyme A → Acetyl-CoA + Water + Acetoacetyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Lipoamide dehydrogenase is a component of the glycine cleavage system as well as of the alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes. Involved in the hyperactivation of spermatazoa during capacitation and in the spermatazoal acrosome reaction.
Gene Name:
DLD
Uniprot ID:
P09622
Molecular weight:
54176.91
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
DLAT
Uniprot ID:
P10515
Molecular weight:
68996.03
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + enzyme N(6)-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine → Coenzyme A + enzyme N(6)-(S-acetyldihydrolipoyl)lysinedetails
Acetyl-CoA + Enzyme N6-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine → Coenzyme A + [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysinedetails
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACADL
Uniprot ID:
P28330
Molecular weight:
47655.275
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACADS
Uniprot ID:
P16219
Molecular weight:
44296.705
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme is specific for acyl chain lengths of 4 to 16.
Gene Name:
ACADM
Uniprot ID:
P11310
Molecular weight:
46587.98
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the desaturation of acyl-CoAs to 2-trans-enoyl-CoAs. Isoform 1 shows highest activity against medium-chain fatty acyl-CoAs and activity decreases with increasing chain length. Isoform 2 is active against a much broader range of substrates and shows activity towards very long-chain acyl-CoAs. Isoform 2 is twice as active as isoform 1 against 16-hydroxy-palmitoyl-CoA and is 25% more active against 1,16-hexadecanodioyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
ACOX1
Uniprot ID:
Q15067
Molecular weight:
70135.205
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Oxidizes the CoA esters of the bile acid intermediates di- and tri-hydroxycholestanoic acids.
Gene Name:
ACOX2
Uniprot ID:
Q99424
Molecular weight:
76826.14
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IVD
Uniprot ID:
P26440
Molecular weight:
43055.325
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-CH group of donors
Specific function:
Oxidizes the CoA-esters of 2-methyl-branched fatty acids (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACOX3
Uniprot ID:
O15254
Molecular weight:
69574.075

Transporters

General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Involved in translocation of long-chain fatty acids (LFCA) across the plasma membrane. The LFCA import appears to be hormone-regulated in a tissue-specific manner. In adipocytes, but not myocytes, insulin induces a rapid translocation of FATP1 from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane, paralleled by increased LFCA uptake. May act directly as a bona fide transporter, or alternatively, in a cytoplasmic or membrane- associated multimeric protein complex to trap and draw fatty acids towards accumulation. Plays a pivotal role in regulating available LFCA substrates from exogenous sources in tissues undergoing high levels of beta-oxidation or triglyceride synthesis. May be involved in regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Has acyl-CoA ligase activity for long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acids
Gene Name:
SLC27A1
Uniprot ID:
Q6PCB7
Molecular weight:
71107.5

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 179 proteins in total.