You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-05-29 19:31:04 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01276
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameN1-Acetylspermidine
DescriptionN1-Acetylspermidine is a polyamine. In many organisms, polyamines originate from L-ornithine and methionine. Ornithine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.17), a key enzyme in polyamine metabolism, decarboxylates L-ornithine to yield putrescine which is then converted to higher polyamines spermidine and spermine by successive addition of aminopropyl groups derived from decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine. Aliphatic polyamines occur ubiquitously in organisms and have important functions in the stabilization of cell membranes, biosynthesis of informing molecules, cell growth and differentiation, as well as adaptation to osmotic, ionic, pH and thermal stress. These cationic substances are implicated in multiple functions, therefore it is not surprising that intracellular levels of polyamines are regulated by different mechanisms. The inhibition of polyamine metabolism has important pharmacological and therapeutic implications for the control of physiological processes, reproduction, cancer and parasitic diseases. Recent reports have suggested the idea that parasites with an high turnover of Ornithine Decarboxilase (ODC) are resistant to Difluoromethyl ornithine (DFMO, the irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) because they always contain a fraction of newly synthesized and active enzyme, therefore not DFMO inhibited, sufficient to produce small amounts of putrescine rapidly converted into spermidine, which can support protozoan proliferation. DFMO has proved to be curative in trypanosomiasis, coccidiosis, and certain other protozoan infections. (PMID: 15490259 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 1-N-Acetylspermidine
  2. An N-acetylspermidine
  3. N(1)-Acetylspermidine
  4. N-(3-((4-Aminobutyl)amino)propyl)-Acetamide
  5. N-(3-((4-Aminobutyl)amino)propyl)acetamide
  6. N-Acetylspermidine
  7. N1-Acetylspermidine
Chemical FormulaC9H21N3O
Average Molecular Weight187.2825
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight187.168462309
IUPAC NameN-{3-[(4-aminobutyl)amino]propyl}acetamide
Traditional IUPAC NameN(1)-acetylspermidine
CAS Registry Number14278-49-0
SMILES
CC(=O)NCCCNCCCCN
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H21N3O/c1-9(13)12-8-4-7-11-6-3-2-5-10/h11H,2-8,10H2,1H3,(H,12,13)
InChI KeyMQTAVJHICJWXBR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids and Derivatives
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassCarboxylic Acid Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Organic Compounds
  • acetylspermidine(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Polyamine
  • Primary Aliphatic Amine (Alkylamine)
  • Secondary Aliphatic Amine (Dialkylamine)
Direct ParentSecondary Carboxylic Acid Amides
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.72 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.47ALOGPS
logP-1.3ChemAxon
logS-1.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)16.53ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.67ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area67.15ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity54.41ChemAxon
Polarizability23.11ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.007 +/- 0.002 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.39 (0.12-0.72) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.199 +/- 0.142 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNot Available details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0045 +/- 0.005 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.38 +/- 0.033 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0056 +/- 0.0027 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleBreast cancer details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothLeukemia details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.03 +/- 0.693 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothLeukemia details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0011 +/- 0.003 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleBreast cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.9 +/- 0.35 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothPancreatic cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Perillyl alcohol administration for cancer treatment
  1. Byun JA, Lee SH, Jung BH, Choi MH, Moon MH, Chung BC: Analysis of polyamines as carbamoyl derivatives in urine and serum by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Biomed Chromatogr. 2008 Jan;22(1):73-80. Pubmed: 17668437
Thyroid cancer
  1. Loser C, Folsch UR, Paprotny C, Creutzfeldt W: Polyamine concentrations in pancreatic tissue, serum, and urine of patients with pancreatic cancer. Pancreas. 1990 Mar;5(2):119-27. Pubmed: 2315288
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022530
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID482
KEGG Compound IDC00612
BioCyc IDCPD-568
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01276
Metagene LinkHMDB01276
METLIN ID3323
PubChem Compound496
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17927
References
Synthesis ReferenceLurdes M; Almeida S; Grehn L; Ragnarsson U Facile synthesis of monoacetylated spermidines, illustrating selective deacetylation and application of a common precursor. Acta chemica Scandinavica (Copenhagen, Denmark : 1989) (1989), 43(10), 990-4.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Hrushesky WJ, Merdink J, Abdel-Monem MM: Circadian rhythmicity of polyamine urinary excretion. Cancer Res. 1983 Aug;43(8):3944-7. Pubmed: 6861156
  2. Seiler N, Graham A, Bartholeyns J: Enhanced urinary excretion of N1-acetylspermidine and the presence of tumors. Cancer Res. 1981 Apr;41(4):1572-3. Pubmed: 6897929
  3. Abdel-Monem MM, Merdink JL, Theologides A: Urinary excretion of monoacetyl polyamines in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cancer Res. 1982 May;42(5):2097-8. Pubmed: 7066912
  4. Smith RG, Bartos D, Bartos F, Grettie DP, Frick W, Campbell RA, Daves GD Jr: 1-N-Acetylspermidine: occurrence in normal human serum. Biomed Mass Spectrom. 1978 Sep;5(9):515-7. Pubmed: 708851
  5. Ruggeri P, Lagana G, Bellocco E, Fabiano C, Leonaldi R, Forino D: Polyamines biosynthesis and oxidation in free-living amoebae. Amino Acids. 2004 Dec;27(3-4):367-72. Epub 2004 Oct 15. Pubmed: 15490259

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Enzyme which catalyzes the acetylation of polyamines. Substrate specificity: norspermidine > spermidine = spermine >> N(1)acetylspermine = putrescine.
Gene Name:
SAT2
Uniprot ID:
Q96F10
Molecular weight:
19154.905
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Enzyme which catalyzes the acetylation of polyamines. Substrate specificity: norspermidine = spermidine >> spermine > N(1)-acetylspermine > putrescine. This highly regulated enzyme allows a fine attenuation of the intracellular concentration of polyamines. Also involved in the regulation of polyamine transport out of cells. Acts on 1,3-diaminopropane, 1,5-diaminopentane, putrescine, spermidine (forming N(1)- and N(8)-acetylspermidine), spermine, N(1)-acetylspermidine and N(8)-acetylspermidine.
Gene Name:
SAT1
Uniprot ID:
P21673
Molecular weight:
20023.8
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Flavoenzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of N(1)-acetylspermine to spermidine and is thus involved in the polyamine back-conversion. Can also oxidize N(1)-acetylspermidine to putrescine. Substrate specificity: N(1)-acetylspermine = N(1)-acetylspermidine > N(1),N(12)-diacylspermine >> spermine. Does not oxidize spermidine. Plays an important role in the regulation of polyamine intracellular concentration and has the potential to act as a determinant of cellular sensitivity to the antitumor polyamine analogs.
Gene Name:
PAOX
Uniprot ID:
Q6QHF9
Molecular weight:
55512.64
Reactions
N1-Acetylspermidine + Oxygen + Water → Putrescine + Acetamidopropanal + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
N1,N12-Diacetylspermine + Oxygen + Water → N1-Acetylspermidine + 3-Acetamidobutanal + Hydrogen peroxidedetails