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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-08-16 13:22:34 UTC
Update Date2013-02-08 18:20:51 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01333
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameManganese
DescriptionManganese is an essential trace nutrient in all forms of life. Physiologically, it. exists as an ion in the body. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Manganese
Chemical FormulaMn
Average Molecular Weight54.938045
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight54.938049636
IUPAC Namemanganese(2+) ion
Traditional IUPAC Namemanganese(II)
CAS Registry Number7439-96-5
SMILES
[Mn++]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/Mn/q+2
InChI KeyWAEMQWOKJMHJLA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Metal Compounds
ClassHomogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • a cation(Cyc)
  • divalent metal cation(ChEBI)
  • manganese cation(ChEBI)
  • monoatomic dication(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentHomogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Food
  • Toxin/Pollutant
Biofunction
  • Enzyme co-factor
  • Essential minerals
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point1244 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.16ChemAxon
physiological charge2ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count0ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area0ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity0ChemAxon
polarizability1.78ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Basal Ganglia
  • Brain
  • Central Nervous System
  • Hair
  • Liver
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.18858(0.18020-0.19659) uMNot AvailableBothNormal
    • Report on Human B...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.17292(0.16382-0.18202) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Report on Human B...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.012 +/- 0.0044 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.01 (0.007 - 0.019) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0218 +/- 0.0309 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.149 +/- 0.177 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.021 (0.015 - 0.027) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00058 (0.00023-0.00101) umol/mmol creatinineNot AvailableBothNormal
    • Report on Human B...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00043 (0.00029-0.00056) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Report on Human B...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.013 (0.002-0.051) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.011 (0.0-0.023) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.15 +/- .072 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMultiple sclerosis details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.012 +/- 0.0044 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothParkinson's disease details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.011 +/- 0 .004 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0346 +/- 0.0182 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedcontrol details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0400 +/- 0.0273 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedamyotrophic lateral sclerosis details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0400 +/- 0.0255 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedamyotrophic lateral sclerosis (classic) details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0419 +/- 0.0291 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (bulbar onset) details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0328 +/- 0.0164 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedAlzheimer's disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0218 +/- 0.00546 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedAlzheimer's disease (early-onset) details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0382 +/- 0.0182 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedAlzheimer's disease (late-onset) details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0546 +/- 0.0382 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedParkinson's disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0146 +/- 0.0146 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified14.6 +/- 13.7 uMElderly (>65 years old)Not SpecifiedAlzheimer's disease details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Molina JA, Jimenez-Jimenez FJ, Aguilar MV, Meseguer I, Mateos-Vega CJ, Gonzalez-Munoz MJ, de Bustos F, Porta J, Orti-Pareja M, Zurdo M, Barrios E, Martinez-Para MC: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of transition metals in patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Neural Transm. 1998;105(4-5):479-88. Pubmed: 9720975
  2. Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. Pubmed: 16244393
Multiple sclerosis
  1. Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. Pubmed: 16244395
Parkinson's disease
  1. Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. Pubmed: 16244392
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003636
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID25916
KEGG Compound IDC19610
BioCyc IDMN%2b3
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkManganese
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01333
Metagene LinkHMDB01333
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound27854
PDB IDMN
ChEBI ID29035
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Ikeda S, Sera Y, Yoshida M, Ohshiro H, Uchino S, Oka Y, Lee KJ, Kotera A: Manganese deposits in patients with biliary atresia after hepatic porto-enterostomy. J Pediatr Surg. 2000 Mar;35(3):450-3. Pubmed: 10726687
  2. Greger JL: Nutrition versus toxicology of manganese in humans: evaluation of potential biomarkers. Neurotoxicology. 1999 Apr-Jun;20(2-3):205-12. Pubmed: 10385884
  3. Lander F, Kristiansen J, Lauritsen JM: Manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen and scrap recycling workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1999 Nov;72(8):546-50. Pubmed: 10592008
  4. Mizoguchi N, Nishimura Y, Ono H, Sakura N: Manganese elevations in blood of children with congenital portosystemic shunts. Eur J Pediatr. 2001 Apr;160(4):247-50. Pubmed: 11317649
  5. Woolf A, Wright R, Amarasiriwardena C, Bellinger D: A child with chronic manganese exposure from drinking water. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Jun;110(6):613-6. Pubmed: 12055054
  6. Ikeda S, Yamaguchi Y, Sera Y, Ohshiro H, Uchino S, Yamashita Y, Ogawa M: Manganese deposition in the globus pallidus in patients with biliary atresia. Transplantation. 2000 Jun 15;69(11):2339-43. Pubmed: 10868637
  7. Wardle CA, Forbes A, Roberts NB, Jawhari AV, Shenkin A: Hypermanganesemia in long-term intravenous nutrition and chronic liver disease. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1999 Nov-Dec;23(6):350-5. Pubmed: 10574484
  8. Mergler D, Baldwin M, Belanger S, Larribe F, Beuter A, Bowler R, Panisset M, Edwards R, de Geoffroy A, Sassine MP, Hudnell K: Manganese neurotoxicity, a continuum of dysfunction: results from a community based study. Neurotoxicology. 1999 Apr-Jun;20(2-3):327-42. Pubmed: 10385894
  9. Butterworth RF: Hepatic encephalopathy. Alcohol Res Health. 2003;27(3):240-6. Pubmed: 15535452
  10. Herynek V, Babis M, Trunecka P, Filip K, Vymazal J, Dezortova M, Hajek M: Chronic liver disease: relaxometry in the brain after liver transplantation. MAGMA. 2001 Mar;12(1):10-5. Pubmed: 11255087
  11. Miranda M, Caballero L: [Chronic hepatic encephalopathy: the role of high serum manganese levels and its relation with basal ganglia lesions in nuclear magnetic resonance of the brain. Clinical case] Rev Med Chil. 2001 Sep;129(9):1051-5. Pubmed: 11725469
  12. Barceloux DG: Manganese. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1999;37(2):293-307. Pubmed: 10382563
  13. Bader M, Dietz MC, Ihrig A, Triebig G: Biomonitoring of manganese in blood, urine and axillary hair following low-dose exposure during the manufacture of dry cell batteries. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1999 Nov;72(8):521-7. Pubmed: 10592004
  14. Kao HJ, Chen WH, Liu JS: Rapid progression of parkinsonism associated with an increase of blood manganese. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 1999 May;15(5):297-301. Pubmed: 10375873
  15. Melo TM, Larsen C, White LR, Aasly J, Sjobakk TE, Flaten TP, Sonnewald U, Syversen T: Manganese, copper, and zinc in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with multiple sclerosis. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2003 Summer;93(1-3):1-8. Pubmed: 12835484
  16. Lees-Haley PR, Rohling ML, Langhinrichsen-Rohling J: A meta-analysis of the neuropsychological effects of occupational exposure to manganese. Clin Neuropsychol. 2006 Feb;20(1):90-107. Pubmed: 16393922
  17. Sadek AH, Rauch R, Schulz PE: Parkinsonism due to manganism in a welder. Int J Toxicol. 2003 Sep-Oct;22(5):393-401. Pubmed: 14555414
  18. Wang X, Li GJ, Zheng W: Upregulation of DMT1 expression in choroidal epithelia of the blood-CSF barrier following manganese exposure in vitro. Brain Res. 2006 Jun 30;1097(1):1-10. Epub 2006 May 26. Pubmed: 16729984
  19. Takeda A: Manganese action in brain function. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2003 Jan;41(1):79-87. Pubmed: 12505649
  20. Baldwin M, Mergler D, Larribe F, Belanger S, Tardif R, Bilodeau L, Hudnell K: Bioindicator and exposure data for a population based study of manganese. Neurotoxicology. 1999 Apr-Jun;20(2-3):343-53. Pubmed: 10385895

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 194 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity
Specific function:
ACC-beta may be involved in the provision of malonyl-CoA or in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation, rather than fatty acid biosynthesis. Carries out three functions: biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase.
Gene Name:
ACACB
Uniprot ID:
O00763
Molecular weight:
276538.575
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Pyruvate carboxylase catalyzes a 2-step reaction, involving the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the covalently attached biotin in the first step and the transfer of the carboxyl group to pyruvate in the second. Catalyzes in a tissue specific manner, the initial reactions of glucose (liver, kidney) and lipid (adipose tissue, liver, brain) synthesis from pyruvate.
Gene Name:
PC
Uniprot ID:
P11498
Molecular weight:
129632.565
General function:
Involved in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction in the biogenesis of long-chain fatty acids. Carries out three functions: biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase.
Gene Name:
ACACA
Uniprot ID:
Q13085
Molecular weight:
269997.01
General function:
Involved in arginase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ARG1
Uniprot ID:
P05089
Molecular weight:
34734.655
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific function:
Responsible for the synthesis of complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides in many glycoproteins as well as the carbohydrate moieties of glycolipids. Can produce lactose.
Gene Name:
B4GALT2
Uniprot ID:
O60909
Molecular weight:
41971.815
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific function:
The Golgi complex form catalyzes the production of lactose in the lactating mammary gland and could also be responsible for the synthesis of complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides in many glycoproteins as well as the carbohydrate moieties of glycolipids. The cell surface form functions as a recognition molecule during a variety of cell to cell and cell to matrix interactions, as those occurring during development and egg fertilization, by binding to specific oligosaccharide ligands on opposing cells or in the extracellular matrix.
Gene Name:
B4GALT1
Uniprot ID:
P15291
Molecular weight:
43919.895
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of some glycolipid via the addition of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) in alpha-1,3-linkage to some substrate. Glycolipids probably serve for adherence of some pathogens
Gene Name:
GBGT1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N5D6
Molecular weight:
40126.9
General function:
Involved in proteolysis
Specific function:
Broad specificity aminopeptidase. Plays a role in the final digestion of peptides generated from hydrolysis of proteins by gastric and pancreatic proteases. May play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease. May be involved in the metabolism of regulatory peptides of diverse cell types, responsible for the processing of peptide hormones, such as angiotensin III and IV, neuropeptides, and chemokines. Found to cleave antigen peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules of presenting cells and to degrade neurotransmitters at synaptic junctions. Is also implicated as a regulator of IL-8 bioavailability in the endometrium, and therefore may contribute to the regulation of angiogenesis. Is used as a marker for acute myeloid leukemia and plays a role in tumor invasion. In case of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) infection, serves as receptor for HCoV-229E spike glycoprotein. Mediates as well human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection.
Gene Name:
ANPEP
Uniprot ID:
P15144
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes. May be involved in maintaining basal levels of the cyclic nucleotide and/or in the cAMP regulation of germ cell development.
Gene Name:
PDE8A
Uniprot ID:
O60658
Molecular weight:
86047.88
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Cleaves A-5'-PPP-5'A to yield AMP and ADP. Possible tumor suppressor for specific tissues.
Gene Name:
FHIT
Uniprot ID:
P49789
Molecular weight:
16858.11
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cGMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name:
PDE9A
Uniprot ID:
O76083
Molecular weight:
61708.5
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name:
PDE4D
Uniprot ID:
Q08499
Molecular weight:
91114.1
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes ADP-ribose (ADPR) to AMP and ribose 5'-phosphate.
Gene Name:
NUDT9
Uniprot ID:
Q9BW91
Molecular weight:
35448.725
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Plays a role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides. This phosphodiesterase catalyzes the specific hydrolysis of cGMP to 5'-GMP.
Gene Name:
PDE5A
Uniprot ID:
O76074
Molecular weight:
99984.14
General function:
Involved in phosphotransferase activity, for other substituted phosphate groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) as well as PtdIns:inositol exchange reaction. May thus act to reduce an excessive cellular PtdIns content. The exchange activity is due to the reverse reaction of PtdIns synthase and is dependent on CMP, which is tightly bound to the enzyme.
Gene Name:
CDIPT
Uniprot ID:
O14735
Molecular weight:
23538.47
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ME1
Uniprot ID:
P48163
Molecular weight:
64149.075
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ME3
Uniprot ID:
Q16798
Molecular weight:
67067.875
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ME2
Uniprot ID:
P23368
Molecular weight:
53585.73
General function:
Involved in aminopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Presumably involved in the processing and regular turnover of intracellular proteins. Catalyzes the removal of unsubstituted N-terminal amino acids from various peptides.
Gene Name:
LAP3
Uniprot ID:
P28838
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the rate-limiting step in the metabolic pathway that produces glucose from lactate and other precursors derived from the citric acid cycle (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PCK2
Uniprot ID:
Q16822
Molecular weight:
47563.34
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Plays a role in intermediary metabolism and energy production. It may tightly associate or interact with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
Gene Name:
IDH2
Uniprot ID:
P48735
Molecular weight:
50908.915
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IDH3B
Uniprot ID:
O43837
Molecular weight:
42183.39
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IDH1
Uniprot ID:
O75874
Molecular weight:
46659.005
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IDH3A
Uniprot ID:
P50213
Molecular weight:
39591.365
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IDH3G
Uniprot ID:
P51553
Molecular weight:
42793.97
General function:
Involved in galactosylgalactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Glycosaminoglycans biosynthesis. Involved in forming the linkage tetrasaccharide present in heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate. Transfers a glucuronic acid moiety from the uridine diphosphate-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) to the common linkage region trisaccharide Gal-beta-1,3-Gal-beta-1,4-Xyl covalently bound to a Ser residue at the glycosaminylglycan attachment site of proteoglycans. Can also play a role in the biosynthesis of l2/HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope on glycoproteins. Shows strict specificity for Gal-beta-1,3-Gal-beta-1,4-Xyl, exhibiting negligible incorporation into other galactoside substrates including Galbeta1-3Gal beta1-O-benzyl, Galbeta1-4GlcNAc and Galbeta1-4Glc.
Gene Name:
B3GAT3
Uniprot ID:
O94766
Molecular weight:
37121.52
General function:
Involved in galactosylgalactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the biosynthesis of L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope on both glycolipids and glycoproteins (By similarity).
Gene Name:
B3GAT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPZ5
Molecular weight:
36918.42
General function:
Involved in galactosylgalactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the biosynthesis of L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope on glycoproteins. Can also play a role in glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis. Substrates include asialo-orosomucoid (ASOR), asialo-fetuin, and asialo-neural cell adhesion molecule. Requires sphingomyelin for activity: stearoyl-sphingomyelin was the most effective, followed by palmitoyl-sphingomyelin and lignoceroyl-sphingomyelin. Activity was demonstrated only for sphingomyelin with a saturated fatty acid and not for that with an unsaturated fatty acid, regardless of the length of the acyl group (By similarity).
Gene Name:
B3GAT1
Uniprot ID:
Q9P2W7
Molecular weight:
38255.675
General function:
Involved in mannosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Transfers mannosyl residues to the hydroxyl group of serine or threonine residues. Coexpression of both POMT1 and POMT2 is necessary for enzyme activity, expression of either POMT1 or POMT2 alone is insufficient.
Gene Name:
POMT1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6A1
Molecular weight:
82566.18
General function:
Involved in mannosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Transfers mannosyl residues to the hydroxyl group of serine or threonine residues. Coexpression of both POMT1 and POMT2 is necessary for enzyme activity, expression of either POMT1 or POMT2 alone is insufficient.
Gene Name:
POMT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UKY4
Molecular weight:
84213.155
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Repair polymerase. Involved in base excision repair (BER) responsible for repair of lesions that give rise to abasic (AP) sites in DNA. Has both DNA polymerase and terminal transferase activities. Has a 5'-deoxyribose-5-phosphate lyase (dRP lyase) activity.
Gene Name:
POLL
Uniprot ID:
Q9UGP5
Molecular weight:
63481.66
General function:
Involved in damaged DNA binding
Specific function:
DNA polymerase specifically involved in DNA repair. Plays an important role in translesion synthesis, where the normal high fidelity DNA polymerases cannot proceed and DNA synthesis stalls. Plays an important role in the repair of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers. Depending on the context, it inserts the correct base, but causes frequent base transitions and transversions. May play a role in hypermutation at immunoglobulin genes. Forms a Schiff base with 5'-deoxyribose phosphate at abasic sites, but does not have lyase activity. Targets POLI to replication foci.
Gene Name:
POLH
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y253
Molecular weight:
78412.77
General function:
Involved in damaged DNA binding
Specific function:
DNA polymerase specifically involved in DNA repair. Plays an important role in translesion synthesis, where the normal high-fidelity DNA polymerases cannot proceed and DNA synthesis stalls. Depending on the context, it inserts the correct base, but causes frequent base transitions, transversions and frameshifts. Lacks 3'-5' proofreading exonuclease activity. Forms a Schiff base with 5'-deoxyribose phosphate at abasic sites, but does not have lyase activity.
Gene Name:
POLK
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBT6
Molecular weight:
98807.815
General function:
Involved in polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransfera
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. Displays the same enzyme activity toward Muc1, Muc4.1, and EA2 than GALNT1. Does not appear to be involved in glycosylation of erythropoietin.
Gene Name:
GALNT11
Uniprot ID:
Q8NCW6
Molecular weight:
68918.365
General function:
Involved in polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransfera
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. Has a highest activity toward Muc7, EA2 and Muc2, with a lowest activity than GALNT2. Glycosylates 'Thr-57' of SELPLG.
Gene Name:
GALNT4
Uniprot ID:
Q8N4A0
Molecular weight:
45701.465
General function:
Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. Has activity toward HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120, EA2, Muc2 and Muc5. Probably glycosylates fibronectin in vivo. Glycosylates FGF23. Plays a central role in phosphate homeostasis.
Gene Name:
GALNT3
Uniprot ID:
Q14435
Molecular weight:
72609.79
General function:
Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis
Specific function:
Probably catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GALNT8
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY28
Molecular weight:
72850.77
General function:
Involved in polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransfera
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. Although it displays a much weaker activity toward all substrates tested compared to GALNT2, it is able to transfer up to seven GalNAc residues to the Muc5AC peptide, suggesting that it can fill vicinal Thr/Ser residues in cooperation with other GALNT proteins. Prefers Muc1a as substrate.
Gene Name:
GALNTL2
Uniprot ID:
Q8N3T1
Molecular weight:
73062.79
General function:
Involved in polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransfera
Specific function:
May catalyze the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GALNTL1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N428
Molecular weight:
63073.595
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. Has activity toward Muc5Ac and EA2 peptide substrates.
Gene Name:
GALNT10
Uniprot ID:
Q86SR1
Molecular weight:
68991.22
General function:
Involved in polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransfera
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. Has a much stronger activity than GALNT1 to transfer GalNAc to mucin peptides, such as Muc5Ac and Muc7. Able to glycosylate SDC3. May be responsible for the synthesis of Tn antigen in neuronal cells.
Gene Name:
GALNT13
Uniprot ID:
Q8IUC8
Molecular weight:
64050.095
General function:
Involved in polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransfera
Specific function:
May catalyze the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor (By similarity).
Gene Name:
WBSCR17
Uniprot ID:
Q6IS24
Molecular weight:
67750.455
General function:
Involved in polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransfera
Specific function:
May catalyze the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GALNTL4
Uniprot ID:
Q6P9A2
Molecular weight:
69559.95
General function:
Involved in polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransfera
Specific function:
Glycopeptide transferase involved in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, which catalyzes the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to an already glycosylated peptide. In contrast to other proteins of the family, it does not act as a peptide transferase that transfers GalNAc onto serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor, but instead requires the prior addition of a GalNAc on a peptide before adding additional GalNAc moieties. Some peptide transferase activity is however not excluded, considering that its appropriate peptide substrate may remain unidentified
Gene Name:
GALNT7
Uniprot ID:
Q86SF2
Molecular weight:
75388.6
General function:
Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. May participate in synthesis of oncofetal fibronectin. Has activity toward Muc1a, Muc2, EA2 and fibronectin peptides.
Gene Name:
GALNT6
Uniprot ID:
Q8NCL4
Molecular weight:
71158.055
General function:
Involved in polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransfera
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. Displays activity toward mucin-derived peptide substrates such as Muc2, Muc5AC, Muc7, and Muc13 (-58). May be involved in O-glycosylation in kidney.
Gene Name:
GALNT14
Uniprot ID:
Q96FL9
Molecular weight:
64288.56
General function:
Involved in manganese ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. Has a broad spectrum of substrates for peptides such as EA2, Muc5AC, Muc1a, Muc1b. Probably involved in O-linked glycosylation of the immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) hinge region.
Gene Name:
GALNT2
Uniprot ID:
Q10471
Molecular weight:
64732.35
General function:
Involved in polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransfera
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. Has activity toward non-glycosylated peptides such as Muc5AC, Muc1a and EA2, and no detectable activity with Muc2 and Muc7. Displays enzymatic activity toward the Gal-NAc-Muc5AC glycopeptide, but no detectable activity to mono-GalNAc-glycosylated Muc1a, Muc2, Muc7 and EA2. May play an important role in the initial step of mucin-type oligosaccharide biosynthesis in digestive organs.
Gene Name:
GALNT12
Uniprot ID:
Q8IXK2
Molecular weight:
66937.79
General function:
Involved in manganese ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. Has a broad spectrum of substrates for peptides such as EA2, Muc5AC, Muc1a, Muc1b and Muc7.
Gene Name:
GALNT1
Uniprot ID:
Q10472
Molecular weight:
64218.52
General function:
Involved in polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransfera
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. Has activity toward EA2 peptide substrate, but has a weak activity toward Muc2 or Muc1b substrates (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GALNT5
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z7M9
Molecular weight:
106265.345

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 194 proteins in total.