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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-08-16 13:22:34 UTC
Update Date2017-12-21 19:59:48 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001333
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01333
Metabolite Identification
Common NameManganese
DescriptionManganese is an essential trace nutrient in all forms of life. Physiologically, it. exists as an ion in the body. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
MANGANESE (II) ionChEBI
Manganese(II)ChEBI
Manganese, ion (MN2+)ChEBI
Manganous ionChEBI
MN(II)ChEBI
MN(2+)ChEBI
MN2+ChEBI
Chemical FormulaMn
Average Molecular Weight54.938
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight54.938049636
IUPAC Namemanganese(2+) ion
Traditional Namemanganese(2+) ion
CAS Registry Number7439-96-5
SMILES
[Mn++]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/Mn/q+2
InChI KeyWAEMQWOKJMHJLA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as homogeneous transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassInorganic compounds
ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
Sub ClassHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Direct ParentHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous transition metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

  Health condition:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Biochemical pathway:

Disposition

Biological Location:

  Biofluid and excreta:

  Organ and components:

  Tissue and substructures:

Source:

Route of exposure:

  Parenteral:

  Enteral:

Role

Industrial application:

  Pharmaceutical industry:

Indirect biological role:

Environmental role:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point1244 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.16ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-6f3891a406ae3fe4f883View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-6f3891a406ae3fe4f883View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-6f3891a406ae3fe4f883View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-9000000000-c3110d268939143a5f80View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-9000000000-c3110d268939143a5f80View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0udi-9000000000-c3110d268939143a5f80View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Basal Ganglia
  • Brain
  • Central Nervous System
  • Hair
  • Liver
Pathways
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiencyPw000525Pw000525 greyscalePw000525 simpleNot Available
Alanine MetabolismPw000001Pw000001 greyscalePw000001 simpleMap00250
Arginine and Proline MetabolismPw000010Pw000010 greyscalePw000010 simpleMap00330
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)Pw000084Pw000084 greyscalePw000084 simpleNot Available
ArgininemiaPw000183Pw000183 greyscalePw000183 simpleNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0070 - 0.0190 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.18858(0.18020-0.19659) uMNot AvailableBothNormal
    • Report on Human B...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.17292(0.16382-0.18202) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Report on Human B...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.012 +/- 0.0044 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.01 (0.007 - 0.019) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0218 +/- 0.0309 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.149 +/- 0.177 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.021 (0.015 - 0.027) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.292 +/- 0.18 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0535 +/- 0.0513 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0411 +/- 0.0346 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0579 +/- 0.0368 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0619 +/- 0.0431 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified36.223 +/- 37.133 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified25.483 +/- 30.762 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.109 +/- 0.0546 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Natheer H. Al-Raw...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00058 (0.00023-0.00101) umol/mmol creatinineNot AvailableBothNormal
    • Report on Human B...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00043 (0.00029-0.00056) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Report on Human B...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.013 (0.002-0.051) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.011 (0.0-0.023) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.15 +/- .072 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMultiple sclerosis details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.012 +/- 0.0044 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothParkinson's disease details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.011 +/- 0 .004 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0346 +/- 0.0182 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedcontrol details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0400 +/- 0.0273 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedamyotrophic lateral sclerosis details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0400 +/- 0.0255 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedamyotrophic lateral sclerosis (classic) details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0419 +/- 0.0291 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (bulbar onset) details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0328 +/- 0.0164 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedAlzheimer's disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0218 +/- 0.00546 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedAlzheimer's disease (early-onset) details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0382 +/- 0.0182 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedAlzheimer's disease (late-onset) details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0546 +/- 0.0382 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedParkinson's disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0146 +/- 0.0146 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified14.6 +/- 13.7 uMElderly (>65 years old)Not SpecifiedAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.910 +/- 0.546 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedOral squamous cell carcinoma
    • Natheer H. Al-Raw...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.0921 +/- 0.546 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Oral squamous cell carcinoma
    • Natheer H. Al-Raw...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.456 +/- 0.546 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Oral squamous cell carcinoma
    • Natheer H. Al-Raw...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Molina JA, Jimenez-Jimenez FJ, Aguilar MV, Meseguer I, Mateos-Vega CJ, Gonzalez-Munoz MJ, de Bustos F, Porta J, Orti-Pareja M, Zurdo M, Barrios E, Martinez-Para MC: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of transition metals in patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 1998;105(4-5):479-88. [PubMed:9720975 ]
  2. Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. [PubMed:16244393 ]
Multiple sclerosis
  1. Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. [PubMed:16244395 ]
Parkinson's disease
  1. Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. [PubMed:16244392 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB06757
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003636
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID25916
KEGG Compound IDC19610
BioCyc IDMN%2b3
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkManganese
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound27854
PDB IDMN
ChEBI ID29035
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Ikeda S, Sera Y, Yoshida M, Ohshiro H, Uchino S, Oka Y, Lee KJ, Kotera A: Manganese deposits in patients with biliary atresia after hepatic porto-enterostomy. J Pediatr Surg. 2000 Mar;35(3):450-3. [PubMed:10726687 ]
  2. Greger JL: Nutrition versus toxicology of manganese in humans: evaluation of potential biomarkers. Neurotoxicology. 1999 Apr-Jun;20(2-3):205-12. [PubMed:10385884 ]
  3. Lander F, Kristiansen J, Lauritsen JM: Manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen and scrap recycling workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1999 Nov;72(8):546-50. [PubMed:10592008 ]
  4. Mizoguchi N, Nishimura Y, Ono H, Sakura N: Manganese elevations in blood of children with congenital portosystemic shunts. Eur J Pediatr. 2001 Apr;160(4):247-50. [PubMed:11317649 ]
  5. Woolf A, Wright R, Amarasiriwardena C, Bellinger D: A child with chronic manganese exposure from drinking water. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Jun;110(6):613-6. [PubMed:12055054 ]
  6. Ikeda S, Yamaguchi Y, Sera Y, Ohshiro H, Uchino S, Yamashita Y, Ogawa M: Manganese deposition in the globus pallidus in patients with biliary atresia. Transplantation. 2000 Jun 15;69(11):2339-43. [PubMed:10868637 ]
  7. Wardle CA, Forbes A, Roberts NB, Jawhari AV, Shenkin A: Hypermanganesemia in long-term intravenous nutrition and chronic liver disease. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1999 Nov-Dec;23(6):350-5. [PubMed:10574484 ]
  8. Mergler D, Baldwin M, Belanger S, Larribe F, Beuter A, Bowler R, Panisset M, Edwards R, de Geoffroy A, Sassine MP, Hudnell K: Manganese neurotoxicity, a continuum of dysfunction: results from a community based study. Neurotoxicology. 1999 Apr-Jun;20(2-3):327-42. [PubMed:10385894 ]
  9. Butterworth RF: Hepatic encephalopathy. Alcohol Res Health. 2003;27(3):240-6. [PubMed:15535452 ]
  10. Herynek V, Babis M, Trunecka P, Filip K, Vymazal J, Dezortova M, Hajek M: Chronic liver disease: relaxometry in the brain after liver transplantation. MAGMA. 2001 Mar;12(1):10-5. [PubMed:11255087 ]
  11. Miranda M, Caballero L: [Chronic hepatic encephalopathy: the role of high serum manganese levels and its relation with basal ganglia lesions in nuclear magnetic resonance of the brain. Clinical case]. Rev Med Chil. 2001 Sep;129(9):1051-5. [PubMed:11725469 ]
  12. Barceloux DG: Manganese. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1999;37(2):293-307. [PubMed:10382563 ]
  13. Bader M, Dietz MC, Ihrig A, Triebig G: Biomonitoring of manganese in blood, urine and axillary hair following low-dose exposure during the manufacture of dry cell batteries. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1999 Nov;72(8):521-7. [PubMed:10592004 ]
  14. Kao HJ, Chen WH, Liu JS: Rapid progression of parkinsonism associated with an increase of blood manganese. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 1999 May;15(5):297-301. [PubMed:10375873 ]
  15. Melo TM, Larsen C, White LR, Aasly J, Sjobakk TE, Flaten TP, Sonnewald U, Syversen T: Manganese, copper, and zinc in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with multiple sclerosis. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2003 Summer;93(1-3):1-8. [PubMed:12835484 ]
  16. Lees-Haley PR, Rohling ML, Langhinrichsen-Rohling J: A meta-analysis of the neuropsychological effects of occupational exposure to manganese. Clin Neuropsychol. 2006 Feb;20(1):90-107. [PubMed:16393922 ]
  17. Sadek AH, Rauch R, Schulz PE: Parkinsonism due to manganism in a welder. Int J Toxicol. 2003 Sep-Oct;22(5):393-401. [PubMed:14555414 ]
  18. Wang X, Li GJ, Zheng W: Upregulation of DMT1 expression in choroidal epithelia of the blood-CSF barrier following manganese exposure in vitro. Brain Res. 2006 Jun 30;1097(1):1-10. Epub 2006 May 26. [PubMed:16729984 ]
  19. Takeda A: Manganese action in brain function. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2003 Jan;41(1):79-87. [PubMed:12505649 ]
  20. Baldwin M, Mergler D, Larribe F, Belanger S, Tardif R, Bilodeau L, Hudnell K: Bioindicator and exposure data for a population based study of manganese. Neurotoxicology. 1999 Apr-Jun;20(2-3):343-53. [PubMed:10385895 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 194 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity
Specific function:
ACC-beta may be involved in the provision of malonyl-CoA or in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation, rather than fatty acid biosynthesis. Carries out three functions: biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase.
Gene Name:
ACACB
Uniprot ID:
O00763
Molecular weight:
276538.575
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Pyruvate carboxylase catalyzes a 2-step reaction, involving the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the covalently attached biotin in the first step and the transfer of the carboxyl group to pyruvate in the second. Catalyzes in a tissue specific manner, the initial reactions of glucose (liver, kidney) and lipid (adipose tissue, liver, brain) synthesis from pyruvate.
Gene Name:
PC
Uniprot ID:
P11498
Molecular weight:
129632.565
General function:
Involved in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction in the biogenesis of long-chain fatty acids. Carries out three functions: biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase.
Gene Name:
ACACA
Uniprot ID:
Q13085
Molecular weight:
269997.01
General function:
Involved in arginase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ARG1
Uniprot ID:
P05089
Molecular weight:
34734.655
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific function:
Responsible for the synthesis of complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides in many glycoproteins as well as the carbohydrate moieties of glycolipids. Can produce lactose.
Gene Name:
B4GALT2
Uniprot ID:
O60909
Molecular weight:
41971.815
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific function:
The Golgi complex form catalyzes the production of lactose in the lactating mammary gland and could also be responsible for the synthesis of complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides in many glycoproteins as well as the carbohydrate moieties of glycolipids. The cell surface form functions as a recognition molecule during a variety of cell to cell and cell to matrix interactions, as those occurring during development and egg fertilization, by binding to specific oligosaccharide ligands on opposing cells or in the extracellular matrix.
Gene Name:
B4GALT1
Uniprot ID:
P15291
Molecular weight:
43919.895
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of some glycolipid via the addition of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) in alpha-1,3-linkage to some substrate. Glycolipids probably serve for adherence of some pathogens
Gene Name:
GBGT1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N5D6
Molecular weight:
40126.9
General function:
Involved in proteolysis
Specific function:
Broad specificity aminopeptidase. Plays a role in the final digestion of peptides generated from hydrolysis of proteins by gastric and pancreatic proteases. May play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease. May be involved in the metabolism of regulatory peptides of diverse cell types, responsible for the processing of peptide hormones, such as angiotensin III and IV, neuropeptides, and chemokines. Found to cleave antigen peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules of presenting cells and to degrade neurotransmitters at synaptic junctions. Is also implicated as a regulator of IL-8 bioavailability in the endometrium, and therefore may contribute to the regulation of angiogenesis. Is used as a marker for acute myeloid leukemia and plays a role in tumor invasion. In case of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) infection, serves as receptor for HCoV-229E spike glycoprotein. Mediates as well human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection.
Gene Name:
ANPEP
Uniprot ID:
P15144
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes. May be involved in maintaining basal levels of the cyclic nucleotide and/or in the cAMP regulation of germ cell development.
Gene Name:
PDE8A
Uniprot ID:
O60658
Molecular weight:
86047.88
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Cleaves A-5'-PPP-5'A to yield AMP and ADP. Possible tumor suppressor for specific tissues.
Gene Name:
FHIT
Uniprot ID:
P49789
Molecular weight:
16858.11

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 194 proteins in total.