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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-03-02 21:26:39 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01517
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAICAR
DescriptionAICAR also known as ZMP is an analog of AMP that is capable of stimulating AMP-dependent protein kinase activity(AMPK). AICAR is an intermediate in the generation of inosine monophosphate. AICAR is being clinically used to treat and protect against cardiac ischemic injury. AICAR can enter cardiac cells to inhibit adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase. It enhances the rate of nucleotide re-synthesis increasing adenosine generation from adenosine monophosphate only during conditions of myocardial ischemia. AICAR increases glucose uptake by inducing translocation of GLUT4 and/or by activating the p38 MAPK pathway.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-(5'-Phosphoribosyl)-5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamideChEBI
5'-phospho-Ribosyl-5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamideChEBI
5'-Phosphoribosyl-5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamideChEBI
5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-Ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamideChEBI
5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotideChEBI
5-Phosphoribosyl-4-carbamoyl-5-aminoimidazoleChEBI
Acadesine 5'-monophosphateChEBI
AICA-RibonucleotideChEBI
Acadesine 5'-monophosphoric acidGenerator
5'-P-Ribosyl-5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamideHMDB
5'-Phosphoribosyl-5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamideHMDB
5-amino-4-Imidazolecarboxamide ribotideHMDB
AICA RibonucleotideHMDB
Aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotideHMDB
Z-NucleotideHMDB
4-Carboxy-5-aminoimidazole ribotideMeSH
5-amino-1-beta-D-Ribofuranosylimidazole-4-carboxamide monophosphateMeSH
5-amino-4-Imidazolecarboxamide ribofuranoside 5'-monophosphateMeSH
AICA Ribonucleotide, (D-ribofuranosyl)-isomerMeSH
AICAriboside 5'-monophosphateMeSH
CAIRMeSH
ZMPMeSH
Chemical FormulaC9H15N4O8P
Average Molecular Weight338.2112
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight338.062749988
IUPAC Name{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(5-amino-4-carbamoyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}phosphonic acid
Traditional Nameaica ribonucleotide
CAS Registry Number3031-94-5
SMILES
NC(=O)C1=C(N)N(C=N1)[C@@H]1O[C@H](COP(O)(O)=O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H15N4O8P/c10-7-4(8(11)16)12-2-13(7)9-6(15)5(14)3(21-9)1-20-22(17,18)19/h2-3,5-6,9,14-15H,1,10H2,(H2,11,16)(H2,17,18,19)/t3-,5-,6-,9-/m1/s1
InChI KeyNOTGFIUVDGNKRI-UUOKFMHZSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as 1-ribosyl-imidazolecarboxamides. These are organic compounds containing the imidazole ring linked to a ribose ring through a 1-2 bond.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
Sub ClassImidazole ribonucleosides and ribonucleotides
Direct Parent1-ribosyl-imidazolecarboxamides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 1-ribosyl-imidazolecarboxamide
  • Pentose-5-phosphate
  • Pentose phosphate
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • Pentose monosaccharide
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • 2-heteroaryl carboxamide
  • Imidazole-4-carbonyl group
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Monosaccharide
  • Aminoimidazole
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Azole
  • Imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Oxolane
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Primary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • 1,2-diol
  • Carboxamide group
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Oxacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.79 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.2ALOGPS
logP-4.8ChemAxon
logS-2.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.22ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count9ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area203.38 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity69.14 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability28.57 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-0009000000-7425edce1492dba01a40View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-1019000000-4ca07d05181423b32ed1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-004j-9300000000-5c28ca5957750fa338e3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-004i-9200000000-70e563a806a4c3a55e97View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-004i-9100000000-74be45171db0b5560214View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-004r-9104000000-230fd9fc88d41766b56eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-000i-0119000000-9504e432c77e845f195dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-056r-1921000000-b59f42e588be20adfd16View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-03di-2900000000-4725adb433c2ef4f7e01View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-03di-4900000000-731f94a980a3ea830720View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-03di-5900000000-e2c302b537e2a87761caView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-03di-2900000000-f0dad518d8c8a1fa40e2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-0914000000-84c17cba09b2fb11b4d1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-01t9-1900000000-ebd6a0aeccf60882a9c4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-056r-7900000000-674e1cf6f4488a373690View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004r-9617000000-715abdd95d031de269f0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-9400000000-f3a4c70c454a0da6eb32View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-3019a28f446b6ae4ee1fView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Saliva
Tissue Location
  • Skeletal Muscle
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)SMP00535Not Available
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencySMP00144Not Available
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencySMP00167Not Available
AICA-RibosiduriaSMP00168Not Available
Azathioprine PathwaySMP00427Not Available
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeSMP00365Not Available
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)SMP00364Not Available
Mercaptopurine PathwaySMP00428Not Available
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeSMP00536Not Available
Molybdenum Cofactor DeficiencySMP00203Not Available
Myoadenylate deaminase deficiencySMP00537Not Available
Purine MetabolismSMP00050map00230
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencySMP00210Not Available
Thioguanine PathwaySMP00430Not Available
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)SMP00220Not Available
Xanthinuria type ISMP00512Not Available
Xanthinuria type IISMP00513Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.441 +/- 0.133 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.504 +/- 0.126 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.548 +/- 0.153 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01700
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB001213
KNApSAcK IDC00007383
Chemspider ID58620
KEGG Compound IDC04677
BioCyc IDAICAR
BiGG ID44312
Wikipedia LinkAICA ribonucleotide
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01517
Metagene LinkHMDB01517
METLIN ID6294
PubChem Compound65110
PDB IDAMZ
ChEBI ID18406
References
Synthesis ReferenceSchmitt, Laurent; Caperelli, Carol A. Enantiospecific synthesis of carbocyclic aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (C-AICAR), succinoaminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (C-SAICAR), and a new intermediate for SAICAR analogs. Nucleosides & Nucleotides (1995), 14(9 & 10), 1929-45.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Jakobsen SN, Hardie DG, Morrice N, Tornqvist HE: 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates IRS-1 on Ser-789 in mouse C2C12 myotubes in response to 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside. J Biol Chem. 2001 Dec 14;276(50):46912-6. Epub 2001 Oct 11. [PubMed:11598104 ]
  2. Koistinen HA, Galuska D, Chibalin AV, Yang J, Zierath JR, Holman GD, Wallberg-Henriksson H: 5-amino-imidazole carboxamide riboside increases glucose transport and cell-surface GLUT4 content in skeletal muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2003 May;52(5):1066-72. [PubMed:12716734 ]
  3. Koistinen HA, Chibalin AV, Zierath JR: Aberrant p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling in skeletal muscle from Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 2003 Oct;46(10):1324-8. Epub 2003 Aug 23. [PubMed:12937895 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes a salvage reaction resulting in the formation of AMP, that is energically less costly than de novo synthesis.
Gene Name:
APRT
Uniprot ID:
P07741
Molecular weight:
19607.535
Reactions
AICAR + Pyrophosphate → 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADSL
Uniprot ID:
P30566
Molecular weight:
54888.735
Reactions
SAICAR → Fumaric acid + AICARdetails
SAICAR → Fumaric acid + AICARdetails
General function:
Involved in IMP cyclohydrolase activity
Specific function:
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes 2 steps in purine biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
ATIC
Uniprot ID:
P31939
Molecular weight:
64615.255
Reactions
10-Formyltetrahydrofolate + AICAR → Tetrahydrofolic acid + Phosphoribosyl formamidocarboxamidedetails
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]