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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-02-08 11:18:35 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:04:59 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01846
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB14264
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTetrahydrofolic acid
DescriptionTetrahydrofolate is a soluble coenzyme (vitamin B9) that is synthesized de novo by plants and microorganisms, and absorbed from the diet by animals. It is composed of three distinct parts: a pterin ring, a p-ABA (p-aminobenzoic acid) and a polyglutamate chain with a number of residues varying between 1 and 8. Only the tetra-reduced form of the molecule serves as a coenzyme for C1 transfer reactions. In biological systems, the C1-units exist under various oxidation states and the different tetrahydrofolate derivatives constitute a family of related molecules named indistinctly under the generic term folate. (PMID 16042593 ). Folate is important for cells and tissues that rapidly divide. Cancer cells divide rapidly, and drugs that interfere with folate metabolism are used to treat cancer. Methotrexate is a drug often used to treat cancer because it inhibits the production of the active form, tetrahydrofolate. Unfortunately, methotrexate can be toxic, producing side effects such as inflammation in the digestive tract that make it difficult to eat normally. -- Wikipedia; Signs of folic acid deficiency are often subtle. Diarrhea, loss of appetite, and weight loss can occur. Additional signs are weakness, sore tongue, headaches, heart palpitations, irritability, and behavioral disorders. Women with folate deficiency who become pregnant are more likely to give birth to low birth weight and premature infants, and infants with neural tube defects. In adults, anemia is a sign of advanced folate deficiency. In infants and children, folate deficiency can slow growth rate. Some of these symptoms can also result from a variety of medical conditions other than folate deficiency. It is important to have a physician evaluate these symptoms so that appropriate medical care can be given. -- Wikipedia; Folinic acid is a form of folate that can help 'rescue' or reverse the toxic effects of methotrexate. Folinic acid is not the same as folic acid. Folic acid supplements have little established role in cancer chemotherapy. There have been cases of severe adverse effects of accidental substitution of folic acid for folinic acid in patients receiving methotrexate cancer chemotherapy. It is important for anyone receiving methotrexate to follow medical advice on the use of folic or folinic acid supplements. -- Wikipedia. Low concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, or vitamin B6 may increase the level of homocysteine, an amino acid normally found in blood. There is evidence that an elevated homocysteine level is an independent risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The evidence suggests that high levels of homocysteine may damage coronary arteries or make it easier for blood clotting cells called platelets to clump together and form a clot. However, there is currently no evidence available to suggest that lowering homocysteine with vitamins will reduce your risk of heart disease. Clinical intervention trials are needed to determine whether supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B12 or vitamin B6 can lower your risk of developing coronary heart disease. -- Wikipedia.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(6S)-TetrahydrofolateHMDB
(6S)-Tetrahydrofolic acidHMDB
5,6,7,8-TetrahydrofolateHMDB
5,6,7,8-Tetrahydrofolic acidHMDB
Tetra-H-folateHMDB
TetrahydrafolateHMDB
TetrahydrofolateHMDB
Tetrahydropteroyl mono-L-glutamateHMDB
TetrahydropteroylglutamateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC19H23N7O6
Average Molecular Weight445.4292
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight445.170981503
IUPAC Name2-{[4-({[(6S)-2-amino-4-oxo-1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydropteridin-6-yl]methyl}amino)phenyl]formamido}pentanedioic acid
Traditional Name2-{[4-({[(6S)-2-amino-4-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1H-pteridin-6-yl]methyl}amino)phenyl]formamido}pentanedioic acid
CAS Registry Number135-16-0
SMILES
NC1=NC(=O)C2=C(NC[C@H](CNC3=CC=C(C=C3)C(=O)NC(CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O)N2)N1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C19H23N7O6/c20-19-25-15-14(17(30)26-19)23-11(8-22-15)7-21-10-3-1-9(2-4-10)16(29)24-12(18(31)32)5-6-13(27)28/h1-4,11-12,21,23H,5-8H2,(H,24,29)(H,27,28)(H,31,32)(H4,20,22,25,26,30)/t11-,12?/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=MSTNYGQPCMXVAQ-PXYINDEMSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tetrahydrofolic acids. These are heterocyclic compounds based on the 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteroic acid skeleton conjugated with at least one L-glutamic acid unit.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPteridines and derivatives
Sub ClassPterins and derivatives
Direct ParentTetrahydrofolic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Tetrahydrofolic acid
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • Hippuric acid
  • Hippuric acid or derivatives
  • Aminobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • N-substituted-alpha-amino acid
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • Benzamide
  • Aminobenzamide
  • Phenylalkylamine
  • Substituted aniline
  • Benzoyl
  • Secondary aliphatic/aromatic amine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Aniline
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyrimidine
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Secondary amine
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Cyanoamino acid metabolism
  • Component of Folate biosynthesis
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Component of Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Component of Methane metabolism
  • Component of Pyrimidine metabolism
  • DNA component
  • Dietary supplement
  • Enzyme co-factor
  • Micronutrient
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point250 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.269 g/LNot Available
LogP-2.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.27 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.96ALOGPS
logP-2.8ChemAxon
logS-3.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.51ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)3.58ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count12ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count8ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area207.27 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity121.39 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability43.38 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Erythrocyte
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Myelin
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Testes
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00721Not Available
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)SMP00535Not Available
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencySMP00144Not Available
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencySMP00167Not Available
AICA-RibosiduriaSMP00168Not Available
Ammonia RecyclingSMP00009map00910
Azathioprine PathwaySMP00427Not Available
Betaine MetabolismSMP00123map00260
Cystathionine Beta-Synthase DeficiencySMP00177Not Available
Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (DHPD)SMP00179Not Available
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00242Not Available
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00484Not Available
Folate malabsorption, hereditarySMP00724Not Available
Folate MetabolismSMP00053map00670
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004map00260
Glycine N-methyltransferase DeficiencySMP00222Not Available
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeSMP00365Not Available
Histidine MetabolismSMP00044map00340
HistidinemiaSMP00191Not Available
Homocystinuria-megaloblastic anemia due to defect in cobalamin metabolism, cblG complementation typeSMP00570Not Available
Hyperglycinemia, non-ketoticSMP00485Not Available
HypermethioninemiaSMP00341Not Available
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)SMP00364Not Available
Mercaptopurine PathwaySMP00428Not Available
Methionine Adenosyltransferase DeficiencySMP00221Not Available
Methionine MetabolismSMP00033map00270
Methotrexate PathwaySMP00432Not Available
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)SMP00543Not Available
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)SMP00340Not Available
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeSMP00536Not Available
Molybdenum Cofactor DeficiencySMP00203Not Available
Myoadenylate deaminase deficiencySMP00537Not Available
Non Ketotic HyperglycinemiaSMP00223Not Available
Pterine BiosynthesisSMP00005map00790
Purine MetabolismSMP00050map00230
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencySMP00210Not Available
S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) Hydrolase DeficiencySMP00214Not Available
sarcosine oncometabolite pathway SMP02313Not Available
SarcosinemiaSMP00244Not Available
Thioguanine PathwaySMP00430Not Available
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)SMP00220Not Available
Xanthinuria type ISMP00512Not Available
Xanthinuria type IISMP00513Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0025 +/- 0.0044 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00116
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00116
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00116
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022705
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID82572
KEGG Compound IDC00101
BioCyc IDTHF
BiGG ID33856
Wikipedia LinkTetrahydrofolic_acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01846
Metagene LinkHMDB01846
METLIN ID714
PubChem Compound91443
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID20506
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Dietrich M, Brown CJ, Block G: The effect of folate fortification of cereal-grain products on blood folate status, dietary folate intake, and dietary folate sources among adult non-supplement users in the United States. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Aug;24(4):266-74. [16093404 ]
  2. Pufulete M, Al-Ghnaniem R, Khushal A, Appleby P, Harris N, Gout S, Emery PW, Sanders TA: Effect of folic acid supplementation on genomic DNA methylation in patients with colorectal adenoma. Gut. 2005 May;54(5):648-53. [15831910 ]
  3. Stuerenburg HJ, Ganzer S, Arlt S, Muller-Thomsen T: The influence of smoking on plasma folate and lipoproteins in Alzheimer disease, mild cognitive impairment and depression. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2005 Jun;26(3):261-3. [15990733 ]
  4. Tchantchou F: Homocysteine increase folate oxidative brain homocysteine metabolism and various consequences of folate deficiency. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006 Aug;9(4):421-7. [16917151 ]
  5. Garbis SD, Melse-Boonstra A, West CE, van Breemen RB: Determination of folates in human plasma using hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2001 Nov 15;73(22):5358-64. [11816560 ]
  6. Kamen BA, Smith AK: A review of folate receptor alpha cycling and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate accumulation with an emphasis on cell models in vitro. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2004 Apr 29;56(8):1085-97. [15094208 ]
  7. Ahmed F, Khan MR, Akhtaruzzaman M, Karim R, Marks GC, Banu CP, Nahar B, Williams G: Efficacy of twice-weekly multiple micronutrient supplementation for improving the hemoglobin and micronutrient status of anemic adolescent schoolgirls in Bangladesh. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Oct;82(4):829-35. [16210713 ]
  8. Zhu WY, Alliegro MA, Melera PW: The rate of folate receptor alpha (FR alpha) synthesis in folate depleted CHL cells is regulated by a translational mechanism sensitive to media folate levels, while stable overexpression of its mRNA is mediated by gene amplification and an increase in transcript half-life. J Cell Biochem. 2001 Mar 26;81(2):205-19. [11241661 ]
  9. Pemetrexed: new drug. Pleural mesothelioma: a first encouraging trial. Prescrire Int. 2005 Dec;14(80):212-4. [16400741 ]
  10. Asrar FM, O'Connor DL: Bacterially synthesized folate and supplemental folic acid are absorbed across the large intestine of piglets. J Nutr Biochem. 2005 Oct;16(10):587-93. [16081276 ]
  11. Pieniazek D, Kubalska J, Pronicka E, Stecko E: Disturbances in histidine metabolism in children with speech abnormalities. Acta Anthropogenet. 1985;9(1-3):117-21. [2887178 ]
  12. Ozer B, Serin E, Gumurdulu Y, Kayaselcuk F, Anarat R, Gur G, Kul K, Guclu M, Boyacioglu S: Helicobacter pylori eradication lowers serum homocysteine level in patients without gastric atrophy. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 May 14;11(18):2764-7. [15884118 ]
  13. Greenwald P, Milner JA, Anderson DE, McDonald SS: Micronutrients in cancer chemoprevention. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2002;21(3-4):217-30. [12549762 ]
  14. Siega-Riz AM, Savitz DA, Zeisel SH, Thorp JM, Herring A: Second trimester folate status and preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Dec;191(6):1851-7. [15592264 ]
  15. Taber LD, O'Brien P, Bowsher RR, Sportsman JR: Competitive particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay for measuring 5,10-dideaza-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid (lometrexol) in serum. Clin Chem. 1991 Feb;37(2):254-60. [1993335 ]
  16. Mattson MP: Gene-diet interactions in brain aging and neurodegenerative disorders. Ann Intern Med. 2003 Sep 2;139(5 Pt 2):441-4. [12965973 ]
  17. Baggott JE, Johanning GL, Branham KE, Prince CW, Morgan SL, Eto I, Vaughn WH: Cofactor role for 10-formyldihydrofolic acid. Biochem J. 1995 Jun 15;308 ( Pt 3):1031-6. [8948466 ]
  18. Makino Y, Nagano M, Tamura K, Kawarabayashi T: Pregnancy complicated with pure red cell aplasia: a case report. J Perinat Med. 2003;31(6):530-4. [14711112 ]
  19. Pljesa S: [Possible complications of erythropoietin therapy in patients with chronic renal failure] Med Pregl. 2004 May-Jun;57(5-6):254-7. [15503795 ]
  20. Wang S, Low PS: Folate-mediated targeting of antineoplastic drugs, imaging agents, and nucleic acids to cancer cells. J Control Release. 1998 Apr 30;53(1-3):39-48. [9741912 ]
  21. Hankey GJ, Eikelboom JW, Loh K, Tang M, Pizzi J, Thom J, Yi Q: Sustained homocysteine-lowering effect over time of folic acid-based multivitamin therapy in stroke patients despite increasing folate status in the population. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2005;19(2):110-6. Epub 2004 Dec 17. [15608435 ]
  22. Ramaekers VT, Rothenberg SP, Sequeira JM, Opladen T, Blau N, Quadros EV, Selhub J: Autoantibodies to folate receptors in the cerebral folate deficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2005 May 12;352(19):1985-91. [15888699 ]
  23. Verwei M, Arkbage K, Mocking H, Havenaar R, Groten J: The binding of folic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to folate-binding proteins during gastric passage differs in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model. J Nutr. 2004 Jan;134(1):31-7. [14704289 ]
  24. Mattson MP: Will caloric restriction and folate protect against AD and PD? Neurology. 2003 Feb 25;60(4):690-5. [12601113 ]
  25. Omura Y: Excessive use of Steroid Hormone & beneficial effects of True St. 36 acupuncture on malignant brain tumors--part I; how to estimate non-invasively presence of excess dose of Steroid Hormone in patients, baseball players & other professional athletes from its toxic effects on heart & pancreas, as well as persistent or recurrent infection--part II. Acupunct Electrother Res. 2005;30(1-2):57-102. [16231633 ]
  26. Paulionis L, Kane SL, Meckling KA: Vitamin status and cognitive function in a long-term care population. BMC Geriatr. 2005 Dec 13;5:16. [16351716 ]
  27. Lu S, Chen GL, Ren C, Kwabi-Addo B, Epner DE: Methionine restriction selectively targets thymidylate synthase in prostate cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003 Sep 1;66(5):791-800. [12948860 ]
  28. Durga J, van Boxtel MP, Schouten EG, Bots ML, Kok FJ, Verhoef P: Folate and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C-->T mutation correlate with cognitive performance. Neurobiol Aging. 2006 Feb;27(2):334-43. Epub 2005 Feb 24. [16399216 ]
  29. Smith DE, Kok RM, Teerlink T, Jakobs C, Smulders YM: Quantitative determination of erythrocyte folate vitamer distribution by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44(4):450-9. [16599840 ]
  30. Wolters M, Strohle A, Hahn A: [Age-associated changes in the metabolism of vitamin B(12) and folic acid: prevalence, aetiopathogenesis and pathophysiological consequences] Z Gerontol Geriatr. 2004 Apr;37(2):109-35. [15103481 ]
  31. Sahr T, Ravanel S, Rebeille F: Tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis and distribution in higher plants. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005 Aug;33(Pt 4):758-62. [16042593 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in cobalamin binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyl-cobalamin to homocysteine, yielding enzyme-bound cob(I)alamin and methionine. Subsequently, remethylates the cofactor using methyltetrahydrofolate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MTR
Uniprot ID:
Q99707
Molecular weight:
140525.91
Reactions
5-Methyltetrahydrofolic acid + Homocysteine → Tetrahydrofolic acid + L-Methioninedetails
General function:
Involved in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (NADPH) activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine.
Gene Name:
MTHFR
Uniprot ID:
P42898
Molecular weight:
74595.895
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GART
Uniprot ID:
P22102
Molecular weight:
107766.295
Reactions
10-Formyltetrahydrofolate + Glycineamideribotide → Tetrahydrofolic acid + N(2)-formyl-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamidedetails
10-Formyltetrahydrofolate + Glycineamideribotide → Tetrahydrofolic acid + 5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycinamidedetails
Glycineamideribotide + 5,10-Methenyltetrahydrofolic acid + Water → 5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycinamide + Tetrahydrofolic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Folate-dependent enzyme, that displays both transferase and deaminase activity. Serves to channel one-carbon units from formiminoglutamate to the folate pool. Binds and promotes bundling of vimentin filaments originating from the Golgi (By similarity).
Gene Name:
FTCD
Uniprot ID:
O95954
Molecular weight:
58925.93
Reactions
5-Formiminotetrahydrofolic acid + L-Glutamic acid → Tetrahydrofolic acid + Formiminoglutamic aciddetails
N5-Formyl-THF + L-Glutamic acid → Tetrahydrofolic acid + N-Formyl-L-glutamic aciddetails
5-Formiminotetrahydrofolic acid + L-Glutamic acid → Tetrahydrofolic acid + Formiminoglutamic aciddetails
N5-Formyl-THF + L-Glutamic acid → Tetrahydrofolic acid + N-Formyl-L-glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in aminomethyltransferase activity
Specific function:
The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine.
Gene Name:
AMT
Uniprot ID:
P48728
Molecular weight:
43945.65
Reactions
[Protein]-S(8)-aminomethyldihydrolipoyllysine + Tetrahydrofolic acid → [protein]-dihydrolipoyllysine + 5,10-Methylene-THF + Ammoniadetails
Glycine + Tetrahydrofolic acid + NAD → 5,10-Methylene-THF + Ammonia + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
S-Aminomethyldihydrolipoylprotein + Tetrahydrofolic acid → Dihydrolipoylprotein + 5,10-Methylene-THF + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Involved in dihydrofolate reductase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Catalyzes an essential reaction for de novo glycine and purine synthesis, and for DNA precursor synthesis. Binds its own mRNA and that of DHFRL1.
Gene Name:
DHFR
Uniprot ID:
P00374
Molecular weight:
21452.61
Reactions
Tetrahydrofolic acid + NADP → Dihydrofolic acid + NADPHdetails
Tetrahydrofolic acid + NAD → Dihydrofolic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Tetrahydrofolic acid + NAD → Folic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Tetrahydrofolic acid + NADP → Dihydrofolic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Tetrahydrofolic acid + NADP → Folic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Required to prevent uracil accumulation in mtDNA. Interconversion of serine and glycine. Associates with mitochondrial DNA.
Gene Name:
SHMT2
Uniprot ID:
P34897
Molecular weight:
54862.125
Reactions
5,10-Methylene-THF + Glycine + Water → Tetrahydrofolic acid + L-Serinedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Interconversion of serine and glycine.
Gene Name:
SHMT1
Uniprot ID:
P34896
Molecular weight:
53082.18
Reactions
5,10-Methylene-THF + Glycine + Water → Tetrahydrofolic acid + L-Serinedetails
General function:
Involved in tetrahydrofolylpolyglutamate synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes conversion of folates to polyglutamate derivatives allowing concentration of folate compounds in the cell and the intracellular retention of these cofactors, which are important substrates for most of the folate-dependent enzymes that are involved in one-carbon transfer reactions involved in purine, pyrimidine and amino acid synthesis. Unsubstitued reduced folates are the preferred substrates. Metabolizes methotrexate (MTX) to polyglutamates.
Gene Name:
FPGS
Uniprot ID:
Q05932
Molecular weight:
59173.37
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Tetrahydrofolic acid + L-Glutamic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](2)details
General function:
Involved in IMP cyclohydrolase activity
Specific function:
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes 2 steps in purine biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
ATIC
Uniprot ID:
P31939
Molecular weight:
64615.255
Reactions
10-Formyltetrahydrofolate + AICAR → Tetrahydrofolic acid + Phosphoribosyl formamidocarboxamidedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MTHFD2
Uniprot ID:
P13995
Molecular weight:
37894.775
General function:
Involved in formate-tetrahydrofolate ligase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MTHFD1
Uniprot ID:
P11586
Molecular weight:
101530.36
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Formic acid + Tetrahydrofolic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + 10-Formyltetrahydrofolatedetails
General function:
Involved in formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH1L1
Uniprot ID:
O75891
Molecular weight:
99752.535
Reactions
10-Formyltetrahydrofolate + NADP + Water → Tetrahydrofolic acid + CO(2) + NADPHdetails
10-Formyltetrahydrofolate + NADP + Water → Tetrahydrofolic acid + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in glycine catabolic process
Specific function:
The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine. The H protein shuttles the methylamine group of glycine from the P protein to the T protein.
Gene Name:
GCSH
Uniprot ID:
P23434
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Glycine + Tetrahydrofolic acid + NAD → 5,10-Methylene-THF + Ammonia + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the polyglutamate sidechains of pteroylpolyglutamates. Progressively removes gamma-glutamyl residues from pteroylpoly-gamma-glutamate to yield pteroyl-alpha-glutamate (folic acid) and free glutamate. May play an important role in the bioavailability of dietary pteroylpolyglutamates and in the metabolism of pteroylpolyglutamates and antifolates.
Gene Name:
GGH
Uniprot ID:
Q92820
Molecular weight:
35964.045
Reactions
Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](2) + → Tetrahydrofolic acid + details
General function:
Involved in formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH1L2
Uniprot ID:
Q3SY69
Molecular weight:
101744.98
Reactions
10-Formyltetrahydrofolate + NADP + Water → Tetrahydrofolic acid + CO(2) + NADPHdetails
10-Formyltetrahydrofolate + NADP + Water → Tetrahydrofolic acid + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in dihydrofolate reductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
DYR
Uniprot ID:
B0YJ76
Molecular weight:
21452.6
General function:
Involved in methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Formylates methionyl-tRNA in mitochondria. A single tRNA(Met) gene gives rise to both an initiator and an elongator species via an unknown mechanism (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MTFMT
Uniprot ID:
Q96DP5
Molecular weight:
43831.73
Reactions
10-Formyltetrahydrofolate + L-methionyl-tRNA(fMet) → Tetrahydrofolic acid + N-formylmethionyl-tRNA(fMet)details
L-Methionyl-tRNA + 10-Formyltetrahydrofolate → Tetrahydrofolic acid + N-Formylmethionyl-tRNAdetails
General function:
Involved in formate-tetrahydrofolate ligase activity
Specific function:
May provide the missing metabolic reaction required to link the mitochondria and the cytoplasm in the mammalian model of one-carbon folate metabolism in embryonic an transformed cells complementing thus the enzymatic activities of MTHFD2 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MTHFD1L
Uniprot ID:
Q6UB35
Molecular weight:
105888.19
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Formic acid + Tetrahydrofolic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + 10-Formyltetrahydrofolatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MTHFD2
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z650
Molecular weight:
26849.1
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Required to prevent uracil accumulation in mtDNA. Binds its own mRNA and that of DHFR.
Gene Name:
DHFRL1
Uniprot ID:
Q86XF0
Molecular weight:
21619.88
Reactions
Tetrahydrofolic acid + NADP → Dihydrofolic acid + NADPHdetails
Tetrahydrofolic acid + NAD → Dihydrofolic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Tetrahydrofolic acid + NAD → Folic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Tetrahydrofolic acid + NADP → Dihydrofolic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Tetrahydrofolic acid + NADP → Folic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
N5-glutamine methyltransferase responsible for the methylation of the GGQ triplet of the mitochondrial translation release factor MTRF1L.
Gene Name:
HEMK1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5R4
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Serotonin + 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic acid → 5-Methoxytryptamine + Tetrahydrofolic aciddetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Probable methyltransferase (By similarity).
Gene Name:
METTL2B
Uniprot ID:
Q6P1Q9
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Serotonin + 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic acid → 5-Methoxytryptamine + Tetrahydrofolic aciddetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Probable methyltransferase (By similarity).
Gene Name:
METTL6
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCB7
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Serotonin + 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic acid → 5-Methoxytryptamine + Tetrahydrofolic aciddetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Methyltransferase that may act on DNA.
Gene Name:
WBSCR22
Uniprot ID:
O43709
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Serotonin + 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic acid → 5-Methoxytryptamine + Tetrahydrofolic aciddetails