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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-10-16 12:27:59 UTC
Update Date2013-05-15 21:21:53 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB05007
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB14779
Metabolite Identification
Common NameSimvastatin
DescriptionSimvastatin is a hypolipidemic drug belonging to the class of pharmaceuticals called 'statins'. It is used to control hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) and to prevent cardiovascular disease. Simvastatin is a synthetic derivate of a fermentation product of Aspergillus terreus; Simvastatin is a powerful lipid-lowering drug that can decrease low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels by up to 50 percent. It is used in doses of 5 mg up to 80 mg. Higher doses (160 mg) have been found to be too toxic, while giving only minimal benefit in terms of lipid lowering. There is no real effect on HDL and triglyceride levels. Simvastatin (INN) is a hypolipidemic drug belonging to the class of pharmaceuticals called 'statins'. It is used to control hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) and to prevent cardiovascular disease. Simvastatin is a synthetic derivate of a fermentation product of Aspergillus terreus; The drug is the form of an inactive lactone that is hydrolized after ingestion to produce the active agent. It is a white, nonhygroscopic, crystalline powder that is practically insoluble in water, and freely soluble in chloroform, methanol and ethanol; Ezetimibe/simvastatin is a combination product to lower lipids and marketed as Vytorin.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. (+)-Simvastatin
  2. Cholestat
  3. Denan
  4. Eucor
  5. Kolestevan
  6. Lipex
  7. Lipinorm
  8. Liponorm
  9. Lipovas
  10. Lodales
  11. Modutrol
  12. Nor-Vastina
  13. Pepstatin
  14. Rechol
  15. Simcor
  16. Simovil
  17. Simvastatin
  18. Simvastatin lactone
  19. Simvotin
  20. Sinvacor
  21. Sinvascor
  22. Sivastin
  23. Statin
  24. Synvinolin
  25. Valemia
  26. Velostatin
  27. Zocor
  28. Zocord
Chemical FormulaC25H38O5
Average Molecular Weight418.5662
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight418.271924326
IUPAC Name(1S,3R,7S,8S,8aR)-8-{2-[(2R,4R)-4-hydroxy-6-oxooxan-2-yl]ethyl}-3,7-dimethyl-1,2,3,7,8,8a-hexahydronaphthalen-1-yl 2,2-dimethylbutanoate
Traditional IUPAC Namesimvastatin
CAS Registry Number79902-63-9
SMILES
[H][C@]12[C@H](C[C@@H](C)C=C1C=C[C@H](C)[C@@H]2CC[C@@H]1C[C@@H](O)CC(=O)O1)OC(=O)C(C)(C)CC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C25H38O5/c1-6-25(4,5)24(28)30-21-12-15(2)11-17-8-7-16(3)20(23(17)21)10-9-19-13-18(26)14-22(27)29-19/h7-8,11,15-16,18-21,23,26H,6,9-10,12-14H2,1-5H3/t15-,16-,18+,19+,20-,21-,23-/m0/s1
InChI KeyRYMZZMVNJRMUDD-HGQWONQESA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassLipids
ClassFatty Acid Esters
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
  • a small molecule(Cyc)
Substituents
  • Carboxylic Acid Ester
  • Cyclohexene
  • Dicarboxylic Acid Derivative
  • Lactone
  • Oxane
  • Secondary Alcohol
Direct ParentFatty Acid Esters
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Anticholesteremic Agents
  • Antilipemic Agents
  • Cell signalling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point135 - 138 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.22e-02 g/LNot Available
LogP4.68HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility0.012 g/LALOGPS
logP4.51ALOGPS
logP4.46ChemAxon
logS-4.5ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)14.91ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)-2.8ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count3ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count1ChemAxon
polar surface area72.83ChemAxon
rotatable bond count7ChemAxon
refractivity117.68ChemAxon
polarizability47.81ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue Location
  • Muscle
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.044 +/- 0.011 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00641
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023580
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID49179
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkSimvastatin
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB05007
Metagene LinkHMDB05007
METLIN ID2443
PubChem Compound54454
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID9150
References
Synthesis ReferenceWillard, Alvin K.; Smith, Robert L.; Hoffman, William F. 6(R)-[2-(8-acyloxy-2-methyl-6-methyl (or hydrogen)-polyhydro-1-naphthyl)ethyl]-4(R)-hydroxy-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-ones, the hydroxy acid forms of these pyranones, salts and esters thereof, and a pharmaceutical antihypercholesterolemic composition containing them. Eur. Pat. Appl. (1981), 54 pp. CODEN: EPXXDW EP 33538 19810812 CAN 95:219968 AN 1981:619968
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Mahboobi SK, Shohat EZ, Jellinek SP, Rose M: Systemic infections can decrease the threshold of statin-induced muscle injury. South Med J. 2006 Apr;99(4):403-4. Pubmed: 16634254
  2. Antons KA, Williams CD, Baker SK, Phillips PS: Clinical perspectives of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis. Am J Med. 2006 May;119(5):400-9. Pubmed: 16651050
  3. Tsivgoulis G, Spengos K, Karandreas N, Panas M, Kladi A, Manta P: Presymptomatic neuromuscular disorders disclosed following statin treatment. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Jul 24;166(14):1519-24. Pubmed: 16864763
  4. Finsterer J, Zuntner G: Rhabdomyolysis from Simvastatin triggered by infection and muscle exertion. South Med J. 2005 Aug;98(8):827-9. Pubmed: 16144183
  5. Soininen K, Niemi M, Kilkki E, Strandberg T, Kivisto KT: Muscle symptoms associated with statins: a series of twenty patients. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006 Jan;98(1):51-4. Pubmed: 16433891
  6. Davidson MH, Maccubbin D, Stepanavage M, Strony J, Musliner T: Striated muscle safety of ezetimibe/simvastatin (Vytorin). Am J Cardiol. 2006 Jan 15;97(2):223-8. Epub 2005 Nov 21. Pubmed: 16442367
  7. Hellinger FJ, Encinosa WE: Inappropriate drug combinations among privately insured patients with HIV disease. Med Care. 2005 Sep;43(9 Suppl):III53-62. Pubmed: 16116309
  8. Wolozin B, Wang SW, Li NC, Lee A, Lee TA, Kazis LE: Simvastatin is associated with a reduced incidence of dementia and Parkinson's disease. BMC Med. 2007 Jul 19;5:20. Pubmed: 17640385

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH) activity
Specific function:
Transmembrane glycoprotein that is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis as well as in the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids that are essential for normal cell function including ubiquinone and geranylgeranyl proteins.
Gene Name:
HMGCR
Uniprot ID:
P04035
Molecular weight:
97475.155
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
General function:
Involved in receptor signaling protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific function:
On ligand binding, forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type I receptors which autophosphorylate, then bind and activate SMAD transcriptional regulators. Receptor for activin. May be involved for left-right pattern formation during embryogenesis
Gene Name:
ACVR1
Uniprot ID:
Q04771
Molecular weight:
57152.4
General function:
Involved in MAP kinase activity
Specific function:
Involved in both the initiation and regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells by phosphorylating a number of transcription factors such as ELK-1. Phosphorylates EIF4EBP1; required for initiation of translation. Phosphorylates microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2). Phosphorylates SPZ1. Phosphorylates heat shock factor protein 4 (HSF4)
Gene Name:
MAPK3
Uniprot ID:
P27361
Molecular weight:
43135.2
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
General function:
Involved in GTP binding
Specific function:
Isoform B has an accelerated GEF-independent GDP/GTP exchange and an impaired GTP hydrolysis, which is restored partially by GTPase-activating proteins. It is able to bind to the GTPase-binding domain of PAK but not full-length PAK in a GTP- dependent manner, suggesting that the insertion does not completely abolish effector interaction
Gene Name:
RAC1
Uniprot ID:
P63000
Molecular weight:
21449.9
General function:
Involved in serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific function:
This inhibitor acts as 'bait' for tissue plasminogen activator, urokinase, and protein C. Its rapid interaction with TPA may function as a major control point in the regulation of fibrinolysis
Gene Name:
SERPINE1
Uniprot ID:
P05121
Molecular weight:
45059.7
General function:
Involved in chemokine activity
Specific function:
Chemotactic factor that attracts monocytes and basophils but not neutrophils or eosinophils. Augments monocyte anti-tumor activity. Has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by monocytic infiltrates, like psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis or atherosclerosis. May be involved in the recruitment of monocytes into the arterial wall during the disease process of atherosclerosis
Gene Name:
CCL2
Uniprot ID:
P13500
Molecular weight:
11024.9
General function:
Involved in GTP binding
Specific function:
Regulates a signal transduction pathway linking plasma membrane receptors to the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. Serves as a target for the yopT cysteine peptidase from Yersinia pestis, vector of the plague, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which causes gastrointestinal disorders. May be an activator of PLCE1. Activated by ARHGEF2, which promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP
Gene Name:
RHOA
Uniprot ID:
P61586
Molecular weight:
21767.9
General function:
Involved in tumor necrosis factor receptor binding
Specific function:
Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation
Gene Name:
TNF
Uniprot ID:
P01375
Molecular weight:
25644.1
General function:
Involved in cytokine activity
Specific function:
Produced by lymphocytes activated by specific antigens or mitogens. IFN-gamma, in addition to having antiviral activity, has important immunoregulatory functions. It is a potent activator of macrophages, it has antiproliferative effects on transformed cells and it can potentiate the antiviral and antitumor effects of the type I interferons
Gene Name:
IFNG
Uniprot ID:
P01579
Molecular weight:
19348.2
General function:
Involved in receptor activity
Specific function:
Integrin alpha-L/beta-2 is a receptor for ICAM1, ICAM2, ICAM3 and ICAM4. Integrins alpha-M/beta-2 and alpha-X/beta-2 are receptors for the iC3b fragment of the third complement component and for fibrinogen. Integrin alpha-X/beta-2 recognizes the sequence G-P-R in fibrinogen alpha-chain. Integrin alpha-M/beta-2 recognizes P1 and P2 peptides of fibrinogen gamma chain. Integrin alpha-M/beta-2 is also a receptor for factor X. Integrin alpha- D/beta-2 is a receptor for ICAM3 and VCAM1
Gene Name:
ITGB2
Uniprot ID:
P05107
Molecular weight:
84781.1
General function:
Involved in cytokine activity
Specific function:
Cytokine with a wide variety of biological functions. It is a potent inducer of the acute phase response. Plays an essential role in the final differentiation of B-cells into Ig- secreting cells Involved in lymphocyte and monocyte differentiation. It induces myeloma and plasmacytoma growth and induces nerve cells differentiation Acts on B-cells, T-cells, hepatocytes, hematopoeitic progenitor cells and cells of the CNS. Also acts as a myokine. It is discharged into the bloodstream after muscle contraction and acts to increase the breakdown of fats and to improve insulin resistance
Gene Name:
IL6
Uniprot ID:
P05231
Molecular weight:
23718.0
General function:
Involved in cell-cell adhesion
Specific function:
ICAM proteins are ligands for the leukocyte adhesion protein LFA-1 (integrin alpha-L/beta-2). During leukocyte trans- endothelial migration, ICAM1 engagement promotes the assembly of endothelial apical cups through SGEF and RHOG activation. In case of rhinovirus infection acts as a cellular receptor for the virus
Gene Name:
ICAM1
Uniprot ID:
P05362
Molecular weight:
57824.8
General function:
Involved in metalloendopeptidase activity
Specific function:
May play an essential role in local proteolysis of the extracellular matrix and in leukocyte migration. Could play a role in bone osteoclastic resorption. Cleaves KiSS1 at a Gly-|-Leu bond. Cleaves type IV and type V collagen into large C-terminal three quarter fragments and shorter N-terminal one quarter fragments. Degrades fibronectin but not laminin or Pz-peptide
Gene Name:
MMP9
Uniprot ID:
P14780
Molecular weight:
78457.5
General function:
Involved in growth factor activity
Specific function:
Growth factor active in angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and endothelial cell growth. Induces endothelial cell proliferation, promotes cell migration, inhibits apoptosis and induces permeabilization of blood vessels. Binds to the FLT1/VEGFR1 and KDR/VEGFR2 receptors, heparan sulfate and heparin. NRP1/Neuropilin-1 binds isoforms VEGF-165 and VEGF-145. Isoform VEGF165B binds to KDR but does not activate downstream signaling pathways, does not activate angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth
Gene Name:
VEGFA
Uniprot ID:
P15692
Molecular weight:
27042.2
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl- 2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety. Receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to promoter elements of target genes. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the acyl-CoA oxidase gene
Gene Name:
PPARA
Uniprot ID:
Q07869
Molecular weight:
52224.6
General function:
Involved in growth factor activity
Specific function:
Induces cartilage and bone formation
Gene Name:
BMP2
Uniprot ID:
P12643
Molecular weight:
44701.5
General function:
Involved in cytokine activity
Specific function:
IL-8 is a chemotactic factor that attracts neutrophils, basophils, and T-cells, but not monocytes. It is also involved in neutrophil activation. It is released from several cell types in response to an inflammatory stimulus. IL-8(6-77) has a 5-10-fold higher activity on neutrophil activation, IL-8(5-77) has increased activity on neutrophil activation and IL-8(7-77) has a higher affinity to receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 as compared to IL-8(1-77), respectively
Gene Name:
IL8
Uniprot ID:
P10145
Molecular weight:
11098.0
General function:
Involved in metalloendopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Can degrade fibronectin, laminin, gelatins of type I, III, IV, and V; collagens III, IV, X, and IX, and cartilage proteoglycans. Activates procollagenase
Gene Name:
MMP3
Uniprot ID:
P08254
Molecular weight:
53976.8
General function:
Involved in serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific function:
Angiotensin 1-7 is a ligand for the G-protein coupled receptor MAS1. Has vasodilator and antidiuretic effects. Has an antithrombotic effect that involves MAS1-mediated release of nitric oxide from platelets
Gene Name:
AGT
Uniprot ID:
P01019
Molecular weight:
53153.7
General function:
Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis
Specific function:
Involved in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion interactions that are required for normal development. May participate in the linkage between muscle fiber and basement membrane. May play a role in endochondral ossification of bone and branching morphogenesis of lung. Binds heparin
Gene Name:
COL13A1
Uniprot ID:
Q5TAT6
Molecular weight:
69949.7
General function:
Involved in receptor activity
Specific function:
Receptor for TNFSF5/CD40LG
Gene Name:
CD40
Uniprot ID:
P25942
Molecular weight:
30618.8
General function:
Involved in tumor necrosis factor receptor binding
Specific function:
Cytokine that binds to LTBR/TNFRSF3. May play a specific role in immune response regulation. Provides the membrane anchor for the attachment of the heterotrimeric complex to the cell surface. Isoform 2 is probably non-functional
Gene Name:
LTB
Uniprot ID:
Q06643
Molecular weight:
25389.8