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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2007-01-22 21:47:08 UTC
Update Date2016-05-13 21:47:13 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB05794
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameQuercetin
DescriptionQuercetin is a flavonoid widely distributed in many plants and fruits including red grapes, citrus fruit, tomato, broccoli and other leafy green vegetables, and a number of berries, including raspberries and cranberries. Quercetin itself (aglycone quercetin), as opposed to quercetin glycosides, is not a normal dietary component. Quercitin glycosides are converted to phenolic acids as they pass through the gastrointestinal tract. Quercetin has neither been confirmed scientifically as a specific therapeutic for any condition nor been approved by any regulatory agency. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not approved any health claims for quercetin. Nevertheless, the interest in dietary flavonoids has grown after the publication of several epidemiological studies showing an inverse correlation between dietary consumption of flavonols and flavones and reduced incidence and mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer. In recent years, a large amount of experimental and some clinical data have accumulated regarding the effects of flavonoids on the endothelium under physiological and pathological conditions. The meta-analysis of seven prospective cohort studies concluded that the individuals in the top third of dietary flavonol intake are associated with a reduced risk of mortality from coronary heart disease as compared with those in the bottom third, after adjustment for known risk factors and other dietary components. A limited number of intervention studies with flavonoids and flavonoid containing foods and extracts has been performed in several pathological conditions. (PMID: 17015250 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-oneChEBI
3,3',4',5,7-PentahydroxyflavoneChEBI
3,5,7,3',4'-PentahydroxyflavoneChEBI
SophoretinChEBI
XanthaurineChEBI
2-(3,4-Dihydroxy-phenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-chromen-4-oneHMDB
3',4',5,7-Tetrahydroxyflavan-3-olHMDB
3',4',5,7-Tetrahydroxyflavon-3-olHMDB
3,4',5,5',7-Pentahydroxy-flavoneHMDB
3,5,7-Trihydroxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-ONHMDB
Flavin meletinHMDB
MeletinHMDB
Quercetin dihydrateHMDB
QuercetolHMDB
QuertinHMDB
Chemical FormulaC15H10O7
Average Molecular Weight302.2357
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight302.042652674
IUPAC Name2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one
Traditional Namequercetin
CAS Registry Number117-39-5
SMILES
OC1=CC(O)=C2C(OC(=C(O)C2=O)C2=CC(O)=C(O)C=C2)=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C15H10O7/c16-7-4-10(19)12-11(5-7)22-15(14(21)13(12)20)6-1-2-8(17)9(18)3-6/h1-5,16-19,21H
InChI KeyInChIKey=REFJWTPEDVJJIY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as flavonols. These are compounds that contain a flavone (2-phenyl-1-benzopyran-4-one) backbone carrying a hydroxyl group at the 3-position.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassFlavonoids
Sub ClassFlavones
Direct ParentFlavonols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 3-hydroxyflavone
  • Hydroxyflavonoid
  • 7-hydroxyflavonoid
  • 5-hydroxyflavonoid
  • 4'-hydroxyflavonoid
  • 3-hydroxyflavonoid
  • 3'-hydroxyflavonoid
  • Chromone
  • 1-benzopyran
  • Benzopyran
  • Resorcinol
  • 1,2-diphenol
  • Pyranone
  • Phenol
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyran
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Polyol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Food
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point316 - 318 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.06 mg/mL at 16 °CNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.26 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.81ALOGPS
logP2.16ChemAxon
logS-3.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.44ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area127.45 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity76.86 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability28.54 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-0bt9-2611390000-f8e98c928a7ed82acda4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0udi-0009000000-d4689b76f41c73487399View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0udi-0967000000-613e61ec0c69ed0ee630View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0uy0-5910000000-ee816015eec26c8621b1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 5V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0009000000-ec1cab852ed9f9f78fa4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0udi-1907000000-6f36df2733dadae380c2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0309000000-976a99c106ceca16d73bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0pi0-1900000000-b2e286366d41e47dd8fcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0209000000-e891863ec110aeb660b0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0940000000-aa52db00c1defe3ccf75View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0219000000-5ef285c4b6bfd220b8b1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0219000000-547c83bb70e7da007d6cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0udi-1907000000-a59602c09f66e9656068View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITTOF (LCMS-IT-TOF) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0009000000-4416f39adf6c9b919bfaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITTOF (LCMS-IT-TOF) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0019000000-eb14ec62fc2fb2f1da88View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITTOF (LCMS-IT-TOF) , Negativesplash10-0ufr-0910000000-0730bca525c17aac75c5View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.03 +/- 0.015 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.06 +/- 0.03 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.02666 +/- 0.01333 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 291
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 291
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 291
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 291
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0065 +/- 0.013 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 291
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 291
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 291
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 291
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 291
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 291
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 291
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 291
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0037 +/- 0.0016 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNon-insulin dependent diabetic patients details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.057 +/- 0.017 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothDiabetes mellitus type 2 details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound ID291
Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID291
FoodDB IDFDB011904
KNApSAcK IDC00004631
Chemspider ID4444051
KEGG Compound IDC00389
BioCyc IDCPD-520
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkQuercetin
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB05794
Metagene LinkHMDB05794
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5280343
PDB IDQUE
ChEBI ID16243
References
Synthesis ReferenceKrewson, Charles F. Colloidal flavonols. (1953), US 2637725 19530505 CAN 47:42700 AN 1953:42700
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Perez-Vizcaino F, Duarte J, Andriantsitohaina R: Endothelial function and cardiovascular disease: effects of quercetin and wine polyphenols. Free Radic Res. 2006 Oct;40(10):1054-65. [17015250 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
NAD-dependent protein deacetylase that links transcriptional regulation directly to intracellular energetics and participates in the coordination of several separated cellular functions such as cell cycle, response to DNA damage, metobolism, apoptosis and autophagy. Can modulate chromatin function through deacetylation of histones and can promote alterations in the methylation of histones and DNA, leading to transcriptional repression. Deacetylates a broad range of transcription factors and coregulators, thereby regulating target gene expression positively and negatively. Serves as a sensor of the cytosolic ratio of NAD(+)/NADH which is altered by glucose deprivation and metabolic changes associated with caloric restriction. Is essential in skeletal muscle cell differentiation and in response to low nutrients mediates the inhibitory effect on skeletal myoblast differentiation which also involves 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). Component of the eNoSC (energy-dependent nucleolar silencing) complex, a complex that mediates silencing of rDNA in response to intracellular energy status and acts by recruiting histone-modifying enzymes. The eNoSC complex is able to sense the energy status of cell: upon glucose starvation, elevation of NAD(+)/NADP(+) ratio activates SIRT1, leading to histone H3 deacetylation followed by dimethylation of H3 at 'Lys-9' (H3K9me2) by SUV39H1 and the formation of silent chromatin in the rDNA locus. Deacetylates 'Lys-266' of SUV39H1, leading to its activation. Inhibits skeletal muscle differentiation by deacetylating PCAF and MYOD1. Deacetylates H2A and 'Lys-26' of HIST1H1E. Deacetylates 'Lys-16' of histone H4 (in vitro). Involved in NR0B2/SHP corepression function through chromatin remodeling: Recruited to LRH1 target gene promoters by NR0B2/SHP thereby stimulating histone H3 and H4 deacetylation leading to transcriptional repression. Proposed to contribute to genomic integrity via positive regulation of telomere length; however, reports on localization to pericentromeric heterochromatin are conflicting. Proposed to play a role in constitutive heterochromatin (CH) formation and/or maintenance through regulation of the available pool of nuclear SUV39H1. Upon oxidative/metabolic stress decreases SUV39H1 degradation by inhibiting SUV39H1 polyubiquitination by MDM2. This increase in SUV39H1 levels enhances SUV39H1 turnover in CH, which in turn seems to accelerate renewal of the heterochromatin which correlates with greater genomic integrity during stress response. Deacetylates 'Lys-382' of p53/TP53 and impairs its ability to induce transcription-dependent proapoptotic program and modulate cell senescence. Deacetylates TAF1B and thereby represses rDNA transcription by the RNA polymerase I. Deacetylates MYC, promotes the association of MYC with MAX and decreases MYC stability leading to compromised transformational capability. Deacetylates FOXO3 in response to oxidative stress thereby increasing its ability to induce cell cycle arrest and resistance to oxidative stress but inhibiting FOXO3-mediated induction of apoptosis transcriptional activity; also leading to FOXO3 ubiquitination and protesomal degradation. Appears to have a similar effect on MLLT7/FOXO4 in regulation of transcriptional activity and apoptosis. Deacetylates DNMT1; thereby impairs DNMT1 methyltransferase-independent transcription repressor activity, modulates DNMT1 cell cycle regulatory function and DNMT1-mediated gene silencing. Deacetylates RELA/NF-kappa-B p65 thereby inhibiting its transactivating potential and augments apoptosis in response to TNF-alpha. Deacetylates HIF1A, KAT5/TIP60, RB1 and HIC1. Deacetylates FOXO1 resulting in its nuclear retention and enhancement of its transcriptional activity leading to increased gluconeogenesis in liver. Inhibits E2F1 transcriptional activity and apoptotic function, possibly by deacetylation. Involved in HES1- and HEY2-mediated transcriptional repression. In cooperation with MYCN seems to be involved in transcriptional repression of DUSP6/MAPK3 leading to MYCN stabilization by phosphorylation at 'Ser-62'. Deacetylates MEF2D. Required for antagonist-mediated transcription suppression of AR-dependent genes which may be linked to local deacetylation of histone H3. Represses HNF1A-mediated transcription. Required for the repression of ESRRG by CREBZF. Modulates AP-1 transcription factor activity. Deacetylates NR1H3 AND NR1H2 and deacetylation of NR1H3 at 'Lys-434' positively regulates transcription of NR1H3:RXR target genes, promotes NR1H3 proteosomal degradation and results in cholesterol efflux; a promoter clearing mechanism after reach round of transcription is proposed. Involved in lipid metabolism. Implicated in regulation of adipogenesis and fat mobilization in white adipocytes by repression of PPARG which probably involves association with NCOR1 and SMRT/NCOR2. Deacetylates ACSS2 leading to its activation, and HMGCS1. Involved in liver and muscle metabolism. Through deacteylation and activation of PPARGC1A is required to activate fatty acid oxidation in skeletel muscle under low-glucose conditions and is involved in glucose homeostasis. Involved in regulation of PPARA and fatty acid beta-oxidation in liver. Involved in positive regulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells in response to glucose; the function seems to imply transcriptional repression of UCP2. Proposed to deacetylate IRS2 thereby facilitating its insuline-induced tyrosine phosphorylation. Deacetylates SREBF1 isoform SREBP-1C thereby decreasing its stability and transactivation in lipogenic gene expression. Involved in DNA damage response by repressing genes which are involved in DNA repair, such as XPC and TP73, deacetylating XRCC6/Ku70, and faciliting recruitment of additional factors to sites of damaged DNA, such as SIRT1-deacetylated NBN can recruit ATM to initiate DNA repair and SIRT1-deacetylated XPA interacts with RPA2. Also involved in DNA repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination and specifically single-strand annealing independently of XRCC6/Ku70 and NBN. Transcriptional suppression of XPC probably involves an E2F4:RBL2 suppressor complex and protein kinase B (AKT) signaling. Transcriptional suppression of TP73 probably involves E2F4 and PCAF. Deacetylates WRN thereby regulating its helicase and exonuclease activities and regulates WRN nuclear translocation in response to DNA damage. Deacetylates APEX1 at 'Lys-6' and 'Lys-7' and stimulates cellular AP endonuclease activity by promoting the association of APEX1 to XRCC1. Increases p53/TP53-mediated transcription-independent apoptosis by blocking nuclear translocation of cytoplasmic p53/TP53 and probably redirecting it to mitochondria. Deacetylates XRCC6/Ku70 at 'Lys-539' and 'Lys-542' causing it to sequester BAX away from mitochondria thereby inhibiting stress-induced apoptosis. Is involved in autophagy, presumably by deacetylating ATG5, ATG7 and MAP1LC3B/ATG8. Deacetylates AKT1 which leads to enhanced binding of AKT1 and PDK1 to PIP3 and promotes their activation. Proposed to play role in regulation of STK11/LBK1-dependent AMPK signaling pathways implicated in cellular senescence which seems to involve the regulation of the acetylation status of STK11/LBK1. Can deacetylate STK11/LBK1 and thereby increase its activity, cytoplasmic localization and association with STRAD; however, the relevance of such activity in normal cells is unclear. In endothelial cells is shown to inhibit STK11/LBK1 activity and to promote its degradation. Deacetylates SMAD7 at 'Lys-64' and 'Lys-70' thereby promoting its degradation. Deacetylates CIITA and augments its MHC class II transacivation and contributes to its stability. Deacteylates MECOM/EVI1. Isoform 2 is shown to deacetylate 'Lys-382' of p53/TP53, however with lower activity than isoform 1. In combination, the two isoforms exert an additive effect. Isoform 2 regulates p53/TP53 expression and cellular stress response and is in turn repressed by p53/TP53 presenting a SIRT1 isoform-dependent auto-regulatory loop. In case of HIV-1 infection, interacts with and deacetylates the viral Tat protein. The viral Tat protein inhibits SIRT1 deacetylation activity toward RELA/NF-kappa-B p65, thereby potentiates its transcriptional activity and SIRT1 is proposed to contribute to T-cell hyperactivation during infection. SirtT1 75 kDa fragment: catalytically inactive 75SirT1 may be involved in regulation of apoptosis. May be involved in protecting chondrocytes from apoptotic death by associating with cytochrome C and interfering with apoptosome assembly.
Gene Name:
SIRT1
Uniprot ID:
Q96EB6
Molecular weight:
50496.105
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Possible transcriptional coregulator. May contribute to the regulation of cellular processes via its interaction with BCL3. May be required for efficient terminal myeloid maturation of hematopoietic cells. May play a role in the regulation of cell migration. May promote apoptosis when overexpressed. Has quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase activity (in vitro).
Gene Name:
PIR
Uniprot ID:
O00625
Molecular weight:
32113.195
Reactions
Quercetin + Oxygen → 2-(3,4-Dihydroxybenzoyloxy)-4,6-dihydroxybenzoate + CO + Hydrogen Iondetails